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the Allies at the present monreut, even | his interest as he could have wished; I am supposing they should have forgot the fate afraid that there is not a single treaty in of the Duke of Brunswick, who, upon their existence, which might not be set aside on own principles, was driven out of France the same ground; and if such a principle because he meditated the conquest of that were once admitted, mankind, in the precountry? Are the Allies certain that none sent state of the world, need lay themselves of the feelings which at that time influenced out for no other occupation than that of inthem, now occupy their minds ? , Are not terminable war. Frauce then invaded Rusthe acquisitions which Sweden has obtained sia, because Ruşsia violated her engageat the expense of Denmark, a pledge that ment with France. In acting chus, France others of the confederation are to share a conformed to the laws of nations, and to the portion of the spoil? Time, perhaps, will admitted policy of European states. Buoshow whether we have been mistaken in naparte cannot be accused of burning Mosour conjectures. But in the meanwhile cow; he could not prevent that conflagracan it be believed that Buonaparte was so tion; the only thing he could do was to mad as to calculate upon retaining Moscow, punish those he found active in executing and of aquexing all the countries he had the decree which occasioned it. But such conquered in his progress to that capital, is the enmity some men bear towards him, to the French empire ? No man of com that even this act, which in any other somon sense, can believe this, without also vereign would have been extolled as an act admitting that it is the intention of the of inflexible justice, was condemned in him Emperor Alexander, to annex the German as an instance of savage barbarity. His States which he has overrun, to his own subsequent stay at Moscow was evidently dominions--nay, even France itself, should occasioned by an expectation, that the he be so fortunate as to succeed in planting Court of St. Petersburgh would renew her the Russian Eagle on the walls of Paris. alliance with France. When he saw there What then was the motive, whicle led remained no hopes of this, he resolved on Buonaparté to Moscow, and where are we withdrawing his army; but here, the hand to seek for ‘a, disclosure of his views of Heaven, which had done so much for When we wish to discover the intentions of him, and on more than one occasion, bad any Power, we always look for these to their enabled him to dictate a peace in the capipublic documeuts; at least this is the rule tal of his enemy, determined, at last, to which generally obtains, and we see no rea arrest his career, and to send him back to son why it should not be adopted as to France. his people, stript of his laurels. If they Now in the Exposé published by Buonaparıé had been indignant at Buonaparté for his previous to setting out on his expedition to failure in this expedition, now was the Russia, it was distinctly stated, that the time to show this. But, instead of blamonly cause of renewing hostilities against ing him, they applauded his conduct; for, Alexander, was his violation of the treaty in a few months after, we find him, by of Tilsit; and in all the subsequent decla- the prompt levies which were raised, again rations of Buonaparté, he insisted upon able to take the field, and obtaining new that infraction alone, which the Court of victories over the enemies of France. Every Russia never denied, or even attempted to thing, therefore, has hitherto demonstrated palliate. If the infringement of treaties the falsehood of the assertion, that Buona, then is recognised, in the laws of nations, as parté is unpopular among his subjects on a justifiable cause for going to war, why account of his disasters. Let us now ex. should Buonaparte be: abused for availing amine whether the charges of cowardice, himself of it?-Or why should his sub- of a foolish temerity, and of being actually jects wish to dethrone him, for pursuing ignorant of military tactics, which are so the saine line of policy pursued by other lavishly brought against him, ought, in monarchs ? 'There is nothing in the argu-justice, to be applied to Buonaparté. If sucment, that France had dictated terms, tocess is to be regarded as the criterion of Russia when Russia was prostrate at her valour, and the want of it a proof of cowfeet; because all the powers of Europe ardice, then is Buonaparıé to be held a have, at one period or another, acted in a coward, for he not only did not succeed in similar manner. If treaties, deliberately his views against the Allies, but he found and solemnly entered into, are not to be it necessary to abandon all the advantages. respected by the contracting parties, be he had obtained, and is now, in turn, cause one of them may afterwards find that obliged to defend his own territory, against some of the terms are not so favourable to the attempts of those he formerly invaded..
But if this rule be adopted in the case of would have been immortalized; and the Buonaparte, we cannot avoid applying it historian, in detailing the events of that to all other cases of a similar nature. What tremendous day, could not fail to record, shall we then say of the Dunkirk and the as a proof of the great talents of the man Helder retreats? or the famous Walcheren who was forced to yield only to 'superior expedition ? Are we to infer, from these numbers, that reason existed in his camp; disasters, that the commanding officers that at the moment victory hovered over were cowards ? Or in what light are we to his standard, the desertion of at least a consider the conduct of Marquis Welling-third of his troops, who instantly turned ton, when he found himself obliged to make their arms against him, was the real cause a precipitate retreat to Torras Vedras? of his quitting the field. This fact is too The news papers were - loud in extolling notorious to be denied : it was admitted in : this movement as a proof of his superior our government bulletin, which first an. skill. Nothing but the Fabian exploit was notinced the retreat of Buonaparté : it was : talked of: every one was louder than an- afterwards acknowledged, though with apother in sounding the praise of the Noble parent reluctance, in the dispatches reMarquis, for the generalship he displayed in ceived by government from Lord Cathcart, escaping from the clutches of Massena. But and Sir Charles Stewart; and it was fully how could the public be so stupid as to confirmed by the French bulletins, which, pronounce this circumstance a proof of mi upon that': occasion, were generally ads. litary skill and valour in our general, mitted to contain a faithful report of the when, at this day, they regard a similar extent of Buonaparte's disasters. It is true, retreat by another general, as evidence of every exertion has been made, by a servile cowardice ?. This nation were once dispos- and prostituted press, to obliterate the ima i ed to allow General Moreau : credit for his pression which this fact was calculated to : skill in managing retreats. Amidst all the produce on the minds of the people of this honours, however, which the sovereign country. Knowing well that it was suffof Europe are conferring upon his memory cient of ilself to protect the reputation of for inaking . common cause with them Napoleon, the editors of all our news« : against his own country, I do not see that papers carefully kept it out of view, while they can avoid detracting from his merit, if they dwelt with exultation on the profound 1 the rule by which they now determine dispositions, the extraordinary military cowardice is to be held inviolable. For talents, and the undaunted bravery of the my part, I admit of no such rule, and, Crown Prince of Sweden, who, it is now therefore, cannot subject myself to the gravely asserted, far surpasses his former inconsistency in which its supporters ne master in every quality essential to the cessarily involve themselves. I consider formation of a great man, and an able gethe character of Buonaparte for valour, too neral. But although this sort of deceplion well established before the battle of Leip- is attended every day with a success exceed, sic, to be overthrown by that event. Hading the most sanguine expectations of those he, instead of maintaining his ground, and engaged in practising it, we are not to suppose giving battle to his opponents, fled from that the people of France are ignorant of the field without firing a shot, I might then, the true cause of their reverses ; or that they perhaps, have subscribed to the charge; are so infatuated as to hate their sovereign but finding him, amidst the innumerable because he could not command victory when i difficulties with which he was surrounded it was impossible to command it, and be-pressed on all sides by troops superior to cause he could not avert calamities which his owu in numbers and discipline; and, no other human being could either foresee or struggling to counteract the defection of his prevent. But supposing Buonaparté had been Allies, whose forces constituted his chief fairly beaten by equal numbers, I cannot strength ; I cannot but admire that un- admit that even this would have afforded a daunted courage which led him to risk a 'just cause for his subjects: to revolt against battle in such trying circumstances, and him. Neither do I see how the man that that superior knowledge of military tactics thinks, differently can, consistent with his which he displayed in securing the retreat opinion, avoid censuring the inhabitants of of-so large a portion of his army, after Russia, of Austria, and of Prussia; for the fatal result to him of that memorable these people not only tolerated their sovebattle. u Had any other general than Buo- reigns after they had been repeatedly hum-:i naparté extricated himself in the manner bled by France, but even, in the midst of he did from: iso many perils, his name these disasters, evinced the greatest regards
and affection for them. Buonaparte is France, as what are every day promulgated that great monster, which the public jour- by the press of this country. It cannot be nals represent him to be, how could the surprising then if other nations entertain good people of Russia look upon Alexander more correct ideas as to the conduct and with indulgence, after being contaminated, policy of their rulers, than what are enteras he must have been, hy his frequent per cained by the majority of Englishmen. sonal interviews with the “ Corsican" Nor will it appear any way extraordinary, during one of which, the sovereign of all if, in opposition to what has been so often the Russias actually embraced the vile asserted here, the rest of the people of Eucaitiff?" Or how could the Emperor Fran- rope should concur with me in believing, cis justify himself to his subjects, for sacri- that the sabjects of Buonaparıé neither hate ficing his beloved daughter, by giving her him, nor desire a change of sovereigns. in marriage to the most unprincipled tyrant that ever disgraced human nature?" The devotion of the Prussians to the succes.
OFFICIAL PAPERS. sor of the great Frederick; to that monarch, whose numerous and well disciplined armies
FRENCH PAPERS. were so recently and so often defeated by
Paris, Dec. 27. the French, is so great, we are told, that
IMPERIAL DEGREES. they actually adors him; so much so, in Palace of the Thuilleries, Dec. 96, 1813. deed, that, like another celebrated person Napoleon, Emperor of the French, King age whose name is so famous in modern of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of anuals, it was with difficulty this beloved the Rhine; Mediator of the Swiss Confedemonarch escaped suffocation when he en-ration, &c. We have decreed and do detered his capital, such was the eagerness of cree as follows:
-Art. I. There shall be the ladies to embrace him. These patriotic sent Senators, or Counsellors of State, into females were, no doubt, prevented from the military divisions, in quality of our demonstrating, in this way, their loyalty to Commissioners Extraordinary: they shall so good a king; but so high was their cu- be accompanied by maitres des requetes, or thusiasm, se determined were they to sup- auditors.um. IIOur Extraordinary Comport his cause, in spite of all hisi misfor- missioners are charged with accelerating, tunes, that we are positively assured, upon 1. The levies of the conseription? 21. Ther the authority of the Spanish minister, resi- clothing, equipment, andi armning of the dent at Berlin, "every Prussian female bas troops." 31. The completing of the providelivered up her jewels and trinkets to the sioning of fortresses. 4. The levy of horses treasury to support the war.". If the peo- required for the service of the army. 5. ple of Russia, of Austria, and of Prussia, The lovy and organization of the National could shew' so much indulgencezi andi 80 Guards. couforubably to our deerees. Our much attachment to their governments, as said Extraorditrary Commissioners shall be we see they have done, notwithstanding all authorized to extend the dispositions of the their reverses is it reasonable to: suppose said decrees to towns and places which are that the French nation, for whom: Buona nd comprehended in them.--III. Those parté fought so many battles; gained so of our said: Extraordinary Commissioners many splendid victories, and who conferred who shall be sent into countries threatened upon them a Constitution which is the envy by the enemy, shalborder levies en masse, even of his.enemies? Can it; I say, be sup- and all other wieasures wliatever, necessary pobedy that they will not suceout him in histbi the defence of the country, and comdistress, and submit to every sacrifice which manded by the duty of opposing the proa grateful, a braveji and a high minded gress of the enemy. Besides, special inpeople ought to make, to enable him to ne istructions shall be given thent, according to cover his fallen fortunes? It is impossible the particular situation of the departments but what they must ; unless, indeed, we can to which they belong. IV. Our Extrabelieve they are prepared themselves leb sub- ordinary Commissioners' are authorized to mit, and to look with indifference upon order all measures of higher policej » which thie submission of all Europe, to a worse circumstances, and the maintenance of pubi despotism than that which the revolution of ulc order, may demand:
-wV. They are France so effectually annihilated on the likewise orderedi to form military coinmise truth is there is not a people in this quar- sions, and summon before them, or before ter of the globe among whom such gtoss the special courts, all persons accused of and barbarbus notions prevail" respecting favouring the enemy, of being in communi
cation with him, or of attempting the pub- made the most serious examination of the lic tranquillity.-VI. They shail be au- official papers submitted to their inspection thorized to issue proclamations, and pass by the orders of his Majesty the Emperor, decrees. The said decrees shall be obliga and communicated by the Duke of Vicenza. tory upon all citizens. The judicial autho-Negociations for peace have comrities, civil and military, shall be bound to menced ; you ought to be acquainted with conform themselves to them, and cause their progress. Your judgment must not them to be executed.VII. Our Extra- be prejudiced. A bare enumeration of ordinary Commissioners shall correspond facts, by guiding your opinion, must prewith our Ministers upon the objects relative pare that of France. When the Austo each service.VIII. They shall enjoy trian Cabinet had laid aside the character in their respective capacities, the honours of a mediator; when every thing gave room allowed them by our regulations.—IX. to judge that the Congress at Prague was Our Ministers are charged with the execu- ready to be dissolved, the Emperor detertion of the present decree, which shall be mined to make a last effort for the pacifica. inserted in the bulletin of the laws.
tion of the Continent. --The Duke of (Signed] NAPOLEON, Bassano wrote to Prince Metternich. He By the Emperor,
proposed to neutralize a point on the fronThe Minister Secretary of State,
tiers, and there to resume the negociations (Signed). The Duke of BASSANO. of Prague, even during the continuance of
hostilities. Unhappily these overtures had Palace of the Thuilleries, Dec, 16, 1813.
The time when this pacific Napoleon, Emperor of the French, King step was taken, is important. It was on of Italy, Protector of the Rhenish Confede- the 16th of August last. The remembrance ration, Mediator of the Swiss Confedera- of the days of Lutten and Bautzen was re« tion, &c.
In consequence of our Decree cent. This wish against the prolongation of this day, we have named and name for of the war may then be said to be in some our extraordinary Commissioners.--[Here degrée contemporary with the date of two follow the names.]
victories. The efforts of the French Ca
binet were in vain; peace became more CONSERVATIVE SENATE.
remote ; hostilities began again ; events as Sitting of Monday, Dec. 27, 1813. sumed another face. The soldiers of the His Serene Highness the Prince Arch-German Princes, but now our allies, shewChancellor of the Empire President.- ed more than once, while fighting under In the name of the Special Committee ap our banners, a fidelity but too dubious : all pointed in the Sitting of the 22d of this at once they ceased to dissemble, and joinmonth, the Senator Count de Fontanes, ed our enemies.-----Froin that momerit one of its Members, obtained permission the combinations of a campaign, so gloriously to speak, and made to the Assembly the begun could not have the expected success. following report:
The Emperor perceived that it was time to “ My Lord, Senalors -The first duty order the French to evacuate Germany. He of the Senate towards the Monarch and the returned with them fighting at almost every people is truth. The extraordinary si- step; and on the narrow route where so many tuation in which the country finds itself, open defections and silent treacheries, conrenders this duty still more obligatory fined his progress and his motions, new The Emperor himself invites all the great trophies marked his return. We followed bodies of the State to express their opinions him with some uneasiness in the midst of freely: a truly loyal idea ! The salu- so many obstacles, over which he alone tary developement of those monarchical in- could triumph. With joy we saw him restitutions, in which power centred in the turn to his frontiers, not with his accusa hands of one, is strengthened in the con tomed good fortune, but tiot without heron fidence of all; and which, giving to the ism and without glory. Having returned throne the guarantee of the national opinion, to his capital, he turned his eyes from gives to the people in their turn the con- those fields of battle where the world had sciousness of their dignity, the too just re- admired him for 15 years; he even detached ward of their sacrifces. - Such magna- his thoughts from the great designs which nimous intentions ought not to be deceived, he had conceived. I use his own expresa
Accordingly, the Committee named sions; he turned to his people, his heart in your Sitting of the 22d of December, opened itself, and we read in it our own whose organ I have the honour to be, has sentiments. He desired peace, and as soon
as the hope of a negociation seemed pos-y was not acknowledged till the 10th. sible, he hastened to seize it. The events in the interval a Gazette, now under the of the war led the Baron de St. Aignan to influence of the Allied Powers, published the head-quarters of the Allied Powers. to all Europe a declaration, which is said to be There he saw the Austrian Minister, Prince furnished with their authority. It would Metternich; and the Russian Minister, be melancholy to believe it. This deCount Nesselrode.--Both, in the name claration is of a nature unusual in the diploof their Courts, laid before him in a con- macy of Kings. It is no longer to Kings fidential conversation the bases of a gene- like themselves that they explain their ral pacification. The English Ambassa- grievances, and send their manifestoes. It dor, Lord Aberdeen, was present at this is to the people that they address them: conference. Observe this last fact, Sena- and from what motive do they adopt such a tors, it is important.Baron St. Aig- new method of proceeding? It is to se. nan, being desired to acquaint his Court: parate the cause of the people froin that of, with all he had heard, faithfully ac- their governors, though the interest of soquitted himself of this commission.---ciety has every where united them. —
Though France had a right to hope for other may not this example be fatal ? Should it proposals, the Emperor sacrificed every be given, especially, at this period, when thing to his sincere wish for peace. He people's minds, agitated by all the diseases caused the Duke of Bassano to write to of pride, are so averse to bending under Prince Metternich, that he admitted as the the authority which protects thein, while basis of negociation, the general principle it represses their audacity? And against contained in the confidential report of M. whom is this indirect attack aimed? Against de St." Aignan.' Prince Metternich, in a great man, who merited the gratitude of reply to the Duke of Bassano, seemed to all Kings; because, by re-establishing the think there was something vague in the ac-throne of France, he has closed up the ceptance (adhesion) given by France. crater of the volcano which threatened Then, to remove every difficulty, the Duke them all. -- It must not be dissembled, of Vicenza, after having taken the orders of that, in certain respects this extraordinary his Majesty, made known to the Cabinet of manifesto is in a moderate cone. This Austria, that his Majesty adhered to the proves, that the experience of the coalition general and summary basis communicated has gained perfection. It may be reby M. de St. Aignan. The Duke of Vi- membered, perhaps, that the Manifesto of cenza's letter is of the 2d of December; it the Duke of Brunswick irritated the pride was received on the 5th of the same of a great people. In fact, even those who month. Prince Metternich did not answer did not join in the opinions prevalent at till the 10th. These dates inust be care- that period, when they read this insulting fully observed; you will soon see that Manifesto, found themselves offended in they are not without importance. Just the national honour, Another language hopes of peace may be conceived on reading has therefore been assumed. Europe sathe answer of Prince Metternich to the dis- tigued, has more need of repose than of patch of the Duke of Vicenza; only at the passions. But if there be so much moend of his letter he announces, that before deration in the councils of our enemies, the negociations are opened, it is necessary wherefore, while they continually speak of to confer about them with the Allies. peace, do they still menace our frontiers, These Allies can be no other than the which they had promised to respect, when we English. Now their Ambassador was should have no other barrier than the Rhine? present at the conversation of which M. de If our enemies are so moderate, wly, St. Aignan had been witness. We do not have they violated the capitulation of Dresa desire to excite distrust; we relate. den? why have they not done justice to the We have carefully noted the date of the noble complaints of the General who comlast correspondence between the French and manded in that place? --If they are so the Austrian Cabinets; we have said that moderate, why have they not established the Duke of Vicenza's letter must have been the exchange of prisoners, conformably to received on the 5th, and that the receipt
(To be continued.)
Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent-Gardea.
LONDON: Printed by J. M'Creery, Black Horse-Court, Fleet-street.