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fying causes and effects, are to be dis and enamoured of delusion ; but, at any cussed, a considerable part of the time of rate, some of the most mischievous of these those, whose object is to make a stand on works may be met and counteracted; or, stre side of expiring freedom, more than to at the least, the public may be put upon secure any private advantage from their their guard with respect to them; while, labours, must necessarily be employed in on the other hand, such works, upon the combating that part of the press, which is subjects above mentioned, as appear likely incessantly labouring for the destruction of to produce beneficial effects, may be deall that ought to be deemed most valuable scribed and recommended. in civil society; that part of the press
To state precisely the mode of arrange(forming nineteen twentieths of the press ment, which will be given to the proposed in this kingdom), which is incessantly future contents of this work would be unemployed in habituating the minds of the necessary. The nature of the contents is people to all those notions, which have a alone material. But, it is necessary distendency to make them base as well as tinctly to state, that communications from foolish, and, in the end, to render this correspondents will not be wholly excluded; country what one of our poets has described for, it would be great presumption in any another to be: " A land of tyrants and a conductor' of a periodical work to suppose, “ den of slaves.” Nor, must the reader that no one is able to aid himn in the execusuppose, that it is here meant to speak of tion of any thing intended for the public the news paper part of the press only. good. Yet it is as necessary to lay down The remark and description applies, and, certain rules, as to the admission of such perhaps, with a smaller proportion of ex. communications. The first of these is, ception, to all those books and pamphlets, that their insertion, or rejection, must, in whether individual or periodical, which all cases, be understood to be left entirely treat of the subject of politics, or matters to the judgment and discretion of the perclosely connected with politics : as history, son to whom they are offered : and this for biography of public men, law, religion, two very obvious reasons ; first, because military and naval undertakings and esta- the very act of addressing them to him neblishments, political economy, and the cessarily supposes a submission to his judglike. To face, and to make head against, went ; and, second, because on him lies or, at least, to expose, this part of the all the responsibility, literary and legal, press, which, though a slower-motioned, for promulgating them to the world. And, is, perhaps, a more sure engine for per- that he may freely and impartially exercise manently blinding the eyes, debasing the his judgment, no communication should be minds and corrupting the hearts of the accompanied with the real name of the author, people, has always been a much-desired, Another rule is, that correspondents and may now be, in some degree, a prac- should, whatever may be their feelings, so far ticable object. It is not to be supposed, master them as to refrain from every thing that all the works of the above description that may, in any degree, leave a pretence can even be noticed in consequence of the for legal accusation. How many valuable additional space that will be obtained ; for, papers! What volumes of useful informby the aid of sources so powerful as those ation; of fine reasoning; of noble exertion to which they might here be traced, they in the cause of freedom and truth, have are forced out in such abundance as even to been committed to the flames, in order to overwhelm a public greedy of novelties get rid of the perilous temptation, because
it was impossible to separate the reasoning only necessary to add upon this head, that from the facts; because it was impossible no communication will be inserted, unless to separate public good from the personal addressed to Mr. Bacsuaws.ibé Publisher, danger of doing.it! In looking back upon the postage being paid. That is the reguthe destruction of these masses of useful lar channel. To make use of any other is labours, one is ready to Aing the pen from attended with great inconvenience. one for ever, and to shut one's eyes against The molives to this revival and extension every thing in the shape of letters. It is, of exertion have been truly stated at the however, obvious, that every correspondent out-se of this address. With motives, should constantly bear in mind, that a however, the public have little to do. It publication is not, in this country, less li- is the principles, the reasoning, the facts, bellous because it is true ;' and that libel is in which they are interested. The ques: a crime, punished with more severity than tion always ought to be: is this just; is the greater part of felonies. A third this true ; is this right? And not, whence rule, though of less conséquence, is, never contieš this? Who has' put it upon the theless, necessary to be observed by all paper? To eradicate the prejudices, which, correspondents,; namely ; to convey their by the means, principally, of a hireling sentiments and facts, fins a legible hand, press, have been so widely spread and so writing in an illegible' hand being much deeply implanted, is a task which it would about the same, as to the effect, as writing be madness to hope to accomplish; but, it in an incomprehensible style, or in a lan- is not too much to hope, that they may be guage which no one but the writet under. checked in their growth; that they may be stands. The first object of writing, as of impaired in their strength, and that their speaking, is to be understood: how blame natural fruit, slavery and misery, may be able, then, must be that negligence, or' diminished. At any rate, though the athow much worse than contemptible that tempt should wholly fail, he who makes it affectation, which produces, under the will have the satisfaction to know, that he naine of writing, an assemblage of marks, is one amongst those who have a right to which puzzle the heads and waste the time say, that they are free from all share in the of the persons to whom they are addressed, degradation of che country, while they are, and who generally avenge themselves by at worst, in no worse a state than their resótting to the use of the fames !
-It is neighbours.
SUMMARY OF POLITICS, This was the well-known witty and pithy EU LOGTOW ON GENERAL Moreau.
answer to an epitaph, promising a glorious One would have thought, that, if this per- resurrection to a notoriously wicked man; so had had any real friends, they would and, if the publication, on which I am have'used ah the influence they possessed to going to remark; contains a true account of ensüre the barying of his name in everlast-Moreau, a similar sentiment will apply to ing oblivion. But, the desire to find occa. his case. The bare fact of a man's losing sions' for invective against Napoleon, and to
his life in fighting in foreign ranks against blacken his character, seenis, with some she armies of his country; this bare fact; peisbas, to have got the upper hand, nor without any thing more, requires a great only of all considerations of moral obliga- deal 19 wipe away dishonour from the tion and of discretion; - but even of comcoon party; it being, upon the face of it, a crime
which has ever been looked upon as worthy sense. * Lie 'still, if you're wise!
of the most ignominious of deaths.• You're danto d, if you rise." Therefore, he, who undertook the vindica
tion. and even the culøgsum of Moreau, cated than these ; to you l'observe, that it ouglit:la' have beeii wedl prepared with in- is out of the adversary's own lips that I fallible materials. Whether this was the mean to draw his conviction : and, propose Jyol.che eulogist: m question, we are ceeding, as I do, upon ground so fair, to now going to see. -The publication be you I confidently appeal; to your reason fore me professes to be a Biographical Me- and your rectitude 1 appeal for a decision. moir of General Moreau, " by Paul -The first of the two objects of the “SVININE, charged (by the Emperor of Memoir, is, to elevate the character of
Russia) to accompany the General on Moreau, whose example it is thereby ob“ the continent." The author is a Rus- viously wished to induce other French gesian ; was an agent of Russia in the Ame- nerals to follow. To this point, therefore, rican States; and is now, as it appears we will, in the first place, direct our atfrom his own account, in the service of tention, taking Moreau up where we find Russia. The Memoir has been translated him at the out-set of the French Revolution. and published in England; and, it is said, He was, at that time, the Memoir says, that the author has met with a most liberal Provost of Jurisprudence al Rennes. He reward. The objects of the publication was not, therefore, a man to be deluded by are two: first, to vindicate and eulogize the revolutionists. He was not a man Moreau ; second, to blacken the character of either of an age or of a capacity to be Napoleon ; but, in lieu of having succeed surprised into any act of consequence of ed in these objects, the author of the Me- 'a public nature; and, to this we must'add, moir has stated facts, which sink the cha- that he was in an employment, which had racter of Moreau even lower, nay, a great been confided to him by the then King of deal lower than it before stood, and which, France. The grounds, however, upon at the same time, raise the character of which he became so active and so efficient Napoleon. In short, if what this Memoir a revolutionist, might be good, and the act says, be true ; for, I myself profess to praise-worthy; but, to justify his taking know nothing at all of the facts; if what such a part, we must take it for granted, this Memoir says be true, Moreau was that a very learned, very acute, and very one of the meanest and most perfidious of wise man for such the Memoir represents wrelches, and Napoleon is one of the most him), saw the old government of France magnanimous of men :-Now, reader, in so odious a light, that it became the if you should be one of those, whose sense bounden duty of even persons holding ofof moral rectitude, whose love of truth, are fices under that governmeni to array themnearly extinguished by long habitual fear selves in arms against it ; and, if such was and prejudice, and to whose reason an ap. the government of the Bourbons, what peal is inade almost in vain. If you should shall we say of Moreau, by and by, when be one of those, who are willing, and even we find him plotting to effect the restoration eager, to hug to their bosom traitors and of those same-Bourbons? --Looking forassassins in alliance against an open ene- ward to the proof of this latter fact, we my; if you be one of that description, now follow hiın in his career, as a repubtbrow down the paper and avoid the mor- lican general, till the time of his denounctification here approaching; but take aloug ing Pichegru to the Directory! But, bewith you the disgrace of having forfeited all fore we enter fully upon this important act claim to those qualities which distinguish of his life, we must stop to observe, that man from the beast, or, of having a mind he proceeded, with regular steps, in the too much corrupted to be able to endure service of all the different governments at the contemplation of truth.—Reader, Paris. That he served under the Gironyou whose mind is open to conviction ; you dists, under Robespierre, under Barrere and who seek for truth ; you who desire that his colleagues, and, upon po occasion sigjustice should prevail; you who are able to nified openly his disapprobation of any of understand, and ready to listen to, the voice the acts, eyen of that monster Robespierre. of reason ; to you I address myself upon We are told of his fine feelings; of his this occasion ; to you I observe, that the compassionate heart; of his noble and ansource of my facts is a work written for the gelic soul. But, still he served! Still he express purpose of vindicating and eulo-fought in support of Robespierre! We are gizing Moreau and of blackening Napoleon; even, quite to surfeiting, told of his loyalty. io you I observe, that I will not avail my- But, we find him serve, we find him upself of numerous other facts, making in fa- hold, those who cut off the head of the vour of my positions, and better authenti- king, in whose service he had been ; the
head of the queen'; and who' had, in some ( bating against the House of Bourbon and way or other, put the Dauphin to death. its Allies.But, a time was to come Moreau, the kind-bearted ; Moreau, the when his fidelity, public as well as private, compassionate, the fine-feeling, the loyal was to be put to the test. Pichegru; bis Moreau, continued to serve, to uphold, to old friend Pichegru, who had promoted maintain and increase the power, of those him, and who is represented as having been who had committed these acts. Now, his kind and constant friend; a time was to either these acts were just, or they were come, when the fate of Pichegru was to be most horrible murders... If they were in his hands. The facts, as related in just, what becomes of the character of the Memoir (for I will not go out of that), the Bourbons, and how unjust are all were these : From papers which Moreau had the charges, which,, on this score, have seized in the baggage of an Austrian Genebeen preferred against the Republican ru- ral, it appeared, " that an understanding lers ? And, if these acts were most horrible subsisted between Pichegru (who was murders, is the man to be eulogized, who still in the republican service), the Prince continued: voluntarily to serve those, by " of Condé, and the English minister whom these murders were committed ; and "Wickham. --This correspondence, which who thereby did his best to enable them" was in the cipher, had been very slowly and encourage them to commit fresh mur.
" made out, and
reau shewed the great-' ders? However, there was, it seems " est repugnance at communicating it to front the Memoir, one occasion when the “ the Directory. At length seeing the fine-feeling, the compassionate Moreau, did " strife between that body and the councils entertain the design of quitting the repub-settled, and guessing what would be the lican service, on account of the cruelties“ issue of it, the General felt thal he would practised by the government. But, what lose himself by his silence, without saving was this occasion? . Why, when his own " Pichegru, and being particularly pressed father had been put to death by the Jaco-s by his chef d'état Major, who announced bios of Brest.': Then he did, it seems, " to him that if he persisted in his silence, meditate, 'whal ? Emigralion ! ! That is to" he should be obliged lo reveal every thing, say, desertion from his army, and not any
" he wrote that letter with which he has design to avenge his. murdered father. never been reproached, unless because However, if the Memoir speaks truth, he “ the imperious' necessity to which he did feel; he did think of quitting the ser-| had yielded, was unknown.". And, vice. Admit this to: be true and give him what was this..66 imperious ne
necessity o's full credit for his feeling; but, then, it Why, that of -saving himself! Oh! the must be borne in mind, that, with all his inoble-minded man! Oh! the ",
'greal and Loyalty, the deaths of the king, queen, "good Moreau!" He denounces his friend dauphin, and the king's sister, all put to- and protector, who is sent off to Cayenne gether, did not produce any such effect in consequence of the denunciation; and the upon his mind. This fine-seeling, how- motive is, the " imperious" motive is, thie ever, even in the case of thie murider of his 'saving of himself. I remember, that, own father (for such it is called), was not in some verses, in the Anti-jacobin paper, of long duration. He appears to have very written chiefly by Messrs. Canning and soon forgotten it; and, we now find him, Frere, this act of Moreau was severely in 1794 and the following years, pushing lashed. Whether it would now be exon in that career of glory, as the Memoir pụnged, if a new edition were to be printcalls it, during which he gained so many ed, is more than I can say. -But, it is victories, and took so many towns; in the not his conduct towards Pichegru; that we service of Robespierre and the Directory. have here to comment on. It is on his conAnd, what was the molive which prevented duct towards the government, whom he him from emigrating?! What was the mo- was serving, that country whose bread he tive that retained him in the service of the was eating, and that: army whose ' blood murderers of his king, his queen, and his was flowing to gain him fame, and to gain own father? Why, we are told, " that bim those richies, of which we shall, by “ Pichegru observed to him that he was and by, find him, all of a sudden, poso not sure, that he would be well received: sessed.-If it be true, that there was " by the Austrians ;” and, therefore, he proof, discovered by Moreau of an underdid not emigrate; therefore he did not de- standing between fichegru, the Prince of sert; therefore he continued to serve Ro-. Condé, and the English minister Wickham, bespierre; therefore he persevered in com- there can be no doubt, that Pichegru was a
traitor to his own government and country, | his retorp to Paris, the Mempir says, that into whose service he had voluntarily en-Buonaparté, in placing in his hands a pair tered, in whose service he was still with of magnificent pistols, said," that he had his own will. Therefore it was the bounden wished to have engraved on them all his duty of Moreau lo denounce him. If he victories, but there could not be found failed to do that, he became a traitor him taom enough for them.” The Memois self. Well, he, at last, yields co the calls asserts, that Buonaparte was filled with of duty; but when, and why? When his secret jealousy,' at this time, of Moreau ; Chef d'état Major threatens 10 impeach and that he hated him for having acquired him, and from the fear of losing himself! more glory than himself!Reader, just And, this was a noble-minded man, was and candid reader, suppress your indigoahe! This discovered fine-feeling; a high tion. Such assertions become the author of sense of honour, and a contempt of per- such a work; such assertions become a Russonal safety! Taking this relation for true, sian, who was charged with the office of then, it appears, that Moreau, from mo- bringing Moreau into the ranks of the enetives of friendship and gralilude, would mies of France; but you, who can see no fain have screened ireason against his country, means that this man had of penetrating the and that he was, at last, induced to reveal heart of buonaparté, will impute this preit from a most daslardly, molive. Such a sent and this compliment to their only appaman is a proper object for the praises of reot and natural source, the greatness of this Russian author; but, I will yet hope, mind of the man, 10 defame whom is one that he will find few Englishmen so very of the principal objects of this Russian base and corrupt as to adopt his sentiments. writer. We are now approaching the
We are now io follow the eulogized events, which are made use of by the RusGeneral into scenes, where he comes in sian to blacken the character of Napoleon, close contact with Napoleon, and where, of and which I say, prove him to have acted, course, he will appear in a character more upon this occasion, at least, the part of the interesting to the world. The Memoir most magnanimous of men.But, we says, that Moreau lent Buonaparté his aid must first look, for a minule or two, at in putting down the Directory; but, it Moreau's pecuniary circumstances. The adds, that," some days," only some days, Memoir tells us, that, after peace had been after the 18 Brumaire, he saw that he had made with Austria (and it was soon after been mistaken, and feared, that he had made with England), he thought solely of concurred in giving a tyrant lo his country, living in retirement; and that, having Indeed! So soon! Oh! yes; for it was married a Miss Hullot, in praise of whose thought necessary that Moreau should, thus mental and personal endow dients much is early, begin so perceive what Buonaparté said, he settled on the estate of Gresbois, would turn out to be. But, notwithstand which he had bought of Barras. The ing his prognostic fears upon this head, Russian, who is so circumstantial upor away, he goes to take the command of the other points, does not tell us haw Barras army of the Danube and Rhine, and to came by Crosbois, what emigrant family it put the seal to his greal military reputation had been seized from, por. hpw Moreau % in a new campaign.". Was that all ? came by the money to buy it. The dealing Did
id he not go, too, to fight for the support with Barras does seem to call for some exof the First Consul ? Did he not go to planation; but we have it nol. We endeavour to add to his power? Did find him, as described in the Memoir, with le not go to serve him, to aid him, to a fine estate in the country, with a townobey him, who he feared would be the house in New York, living in the greatest tyraut of his country? Is it possible splendour of any man in the country, for all the arts of sophistry to find the courted and admired by men of all parties, means of justifying such conduct? Either and extremely liberal to the distressed. He what this Russian has asserted, in this must have been very sharp-sighted to find respect, is false; either Moreau thought any such in America. But, this is the dewell of the character and the designs scription of the Russian's Memoir, which of Buonaparté, or the former was one adds, that his fartune had been greatly diof the meanest and most unprincipled of minished by the expenses of the law-promen. We, after this, find him finishing ceedings carried on against him in France. his military career with the famous batule -Where got he this fortune From of Hohenlinden, which induced the Aus- his provest-ship before the revolution? usian government to que for peace. Upon Did bis condemned and executed fathes