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107. Unprevailing unavailing. In two passages, S. uses prevail in the sense of avail.
112. Impart. Probably S. meant the object of this verb to be love. He forgot his previous construction. For
113. School university. The University of Wittenberg was founded in 1502. Of course this is a necessary anachronism. 'At that great outburst of devotion to letters and philosophy which accompanied the Reformation, and both created and fostered into almost instant maturity the universities of Northern Europe, it was not only youths who thronged to drink and bathe in the streams of knowledge, but also men of mature age.' - STRACHEY.
114. Retrograde to our desire. Another piece of affectation for contrary to our wish.
115. Bend you (a reflective verb) be inclined.
124. Sits smiling to my heart sits close to my heart smiling. In grace whereof = and to grace or honor this (consent).
127. Rouse, full bumper. (The word is said to come from Danish, rós, a beaker.) In S.'s time the Danes were known as the most intemperate people in Europe. Bruit, report.
132. Canon, religious law. Self-slaughter, the pure English phrase for suicide.
134. Uses, customs.
137. Merely, in one of the Latin senses of mere, tirely.
140. Hyperion, the god of the sun, a name in Homer for Apollo, the god of poetry, music, medicine, archery, and arts. Warburton says, ' By the Satyr is meant Pan; as by Hyperion, Apollo.'
141. Might not, could not. Beteem, permit. The only other place in S. where the word occurs is in Midsummer, I. i.
142. Visit. Note the omission of the to.
147. Or ere. Or is a doublet or by-form of ere. is therefore a tautological phrase, like an if.
149. Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, king of Lydia. She was proud of her twelve children, and insulted Latona, the mother of Apollo and Diana. Wherefore Apollo slew all her sons; and Diana all her daughters — save Chloris; and Niobe, smitten dumb with sorrow, was changed into a rock, from which tears flow forever.
150. Discourse of reason, the power of looking this way and that way, and at length choosing. (From Lat. dis, apart, and curro, I run.)
155. Left the flushing = ceased to produce redness.
158. Nor it cannot. In older English negatives supported and intensified each other. The annihilation of each other, as in Milton's Nor did they not perceive him, is in Latin usage, and has been imported into our language.
163. Change = exchange the name of friend.
163. Make you = are you doing? An old English phrase, like the German Was machen Sie?
180. Thrift, thrift. "What a blast of sarcasm,' says Coleridge, 'whistles through the consonants of this word.'
Baked meats. It was customary to have a great feast at a funeral.
182. Dearest foe. The word dear, in S., has a wide range of meaning. Besides all its modern meanings, it is frequently used to designate that which touches the heart most closely, whether with pain or with pleasure, with love or with hatred.
193. Season, control or moderate. Admiration, wonder. 194. Attent, attentive. Only twice found in S. May
Deliver = relate. 199. Dead. S. has also, The dead of darkness; the dead of night; the dreadful dead of dark midnight. — Vast,
used as a noun. Vast and waste are two forms of the same word (from Lat. vastus).
201. Cap-d-pé cap-à-pied, from head to foot. 205. Distilled, melted.
206. With = by. This was the old use of with. The modern meaning was represented by mid (the Germans still have mit). Act = action, operation.
217. Its head. The word its (the old neuter of he was hit; poss. his) was hardly paturalized in S.'s time. No instance is found in our version of the Bible, except in Leviticus xxv. 5: That which groweth of its own accord' (which was printed in the version of 1611, 'it own accord '); in all other places we find the correct form his. In the folio editions of S. the poss. it is found fourteen times; it's, nine times; and its, only once.
218. As = as if.
230. Beaver, from 0. Fr. bevere (from Lat. bibere), to drink. The movable front or visor of the helmet, which the wearer raises for the purpose of drinking.
235. Like = likely. S. has like enough; and most like..
237. Tell, count. This is the oldest meaning of the word. (Cf. count and recount.) Hence the words toll, teller, tale, etc.
242. Warrant, a monosyllable.
SCENE 3 * This scene must be regarded as one of Shakespeare's lyric movements in the play, and the skill with which it is interwoven with the dramatic parts is peculiarly an excellence with our poet. You experience the sensation of a pause without the sense of a stop.' - COLERIDGE.
3. Convoy, conveyance. Is assistant, is at hand, or ready. S. uses the verb assist in the sense of attend or be present at - - like Fr. assister.
6. Toy, a mere fancy, not a deep-rooted passion. In blood = in a high state of health and good spirits. In blood is a term of the chase.
7. Primy nature, nature in its first spring. The only instance of the word; but S. twice uses prime for spring.
9. Suppliance (with the accent on the second syllable), that which supplies or fills up for the time being.
11. Crescent, in the literal sense of the Latin word crescens, growing. We still have the phrase, crescent moon.
12. Thews, muscles and sinews. This temple, the body (see John ii. 21). The use of the word temple suggests the employment of the term service.
15. Cautel, deceit, falseness. Only twice used by S. But he has cautelous in Julius Cæsar, II. i. 129.
16. Will = intentions.
21. Health = prosperity. (Health is the noun from heal, a by-form of hail. Cogs.: hale, (w) hole, etc.)
23. Yielding, used in a passive sense.
30. Credent, believing. (Credulous is hardly the meaning.)
32. Rear, shot, danger all military terms. 34. Chariest, most careful or scrupulous. 36. Scapes, escapes; used in prose by Bacon and others. 37. Canker for canker worm. 38. Buttons ... disclosed, buds opened. 40. Blastments, blights. 43. Effect, import.
45. Ungracious = graceless. The un destroys the force of the ous.
49. Recks, attends to. Cogs.: Reckon; reckless.
Rede, advice. (H. Ger. Rath.) Fear me not. The me is here a dative, and the phrase is = Fear not for me.
51. Double. Laertes had already taken leave of his father.
57. Character, inscribe, engrave.
58. Unproportioned, disproportionate, disorderly, unsuitable to the occasion.
59. Vulgar too familiar, too easy in making friends or permitting approach. “Don't make yourself too cheap or common.'
60. And their adoption tried = having been tried. 61. Grapple, strongly bind.
62. Dull thy palm, make thy palm callous. With entertainment = by entertaining or receiving.
67. Censure, opinion. 69. Expressed in fancy,marked or singular in device. 75. Husbandry, economy. 79. Season, ripen or bring to maturity.
Professor Dowden remarks on the above speech, “The advice of Polonius is a cento of quotations from Lyly's Euphues. Its significance must be looked for less in the matter than in the sententious manner. Polonius has been wise with the little wisdom of worldly prudence. . . . In the shallow lore of life he has been learned. Of true wisdom he never had a gleam. And what S. wishes to signify in this speech is, that wisdom of Polonius's kind consists in a set of maxims; all such wisdom might be set down for the headlines of copy-books, that is to say, his wisdom is not the outflow of a rich or deep nature, but the little accumulated hoard of a long and superficial experience. That is what the sententious manner signifies. And very rightly S. has put into Polonius's mouth the noble lines:
6" To thine own self be true; And it must follow as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man."