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ORIGINAL CRITICISM. « Πά δ' άγεις με, Μωσα και την μέραλε

Πίσα τ'"Αλιδός τε κλεεινόν άλσος. Χρυσίω νύν βαλλε τεάς φαρέτρας

nI'NAAPON IM "Ος ρα χειμάρρος ποταμός τις ώσει, 'Εξ όρευς λάθροις έπί κας καταρρεί, Κύμασιν, κοίλαι δε τε ταλόθεν βρυ

"Kārti yagáscado" Britanniæ Gloria Navalis” runs in the fame strain

30

atin Ode, “ Aftronomize Laus," opens with a granthy, we had almost said, of inspiration:

" In lucis æternæ penetralibus
Jehovah præsens conspicitur Deus,
Terrasque cæleftesque tractus

Suftinet et moderatur auctor,
Insana primo qui maria halitu
Amavit, undis fæva tumentibus,
Noctisque commovit profunda

Imperium, omnigenamque molem
Turbavit. Exin, fic voluit, filent
Informium certamina seminum
Compôsta, nec discordia ultra

Triste cient elementa bellam." tical trifles that follow, the Latin version of Dr. Termit" is the most pleasing. Though they may e in it Bourne's happy manner, yet our readers le original must be familiar) will thank us for it into these pages : : cùm pagus filet atque oblivia spargens a, pervadit lumina fessa quies,

. per nemora, abrupti de vertice faxi, i ad effusas admodulatur aquas, re in montis, gelidaque sub umbra,

Garnett's Tour through the Highlands of Scotland. 47

Jam regit obliquo tramite Luna rotas :
Illa modo ibat ovans, radiis ornata serenis,

Inter fidereas conspicienda faces.
Perfice, quæ 'te iterum, nitidiffima, ducat ad ortus

Splendoresque novos, perfice læta viam.
Nos tamen, ah miseros, delectat gloria mundi,

Eheu et præcipites in sua damna rapit.
Undique Nox fuscis tellurem amplectitur alis,

Et circum tenebris rura sepulta jacent.
Non tamen, affiduus quanquam dolor ossa peredit,

Deploro veftras, rura nemusque vites,
Quippe novos flores et rore madentia prata,

Et Zephyri et tepidum mane cito referent.
Frigora nec doleo, ventosque, hyemisque procellas,

Naturæ in gremio femina tuta latent :
Ecquid erit tamen in gelido ver dulce fepulchro !

Ecqua eft congetto lux oritura rogo!" Why has Mr. Butler omitted the beautiful and heavenly fen. timents that close the poem? Does he think, with the heathen, that death is an eternal Deep ? -No; we hope and trust. Yet, at this trembling hour of infidelity, when the very doctrine of an eternal sleep is reviving amongst us, and seems in France to have almost superseded the comfortable hope of immortality; such an omission (in a professed Christian writer of one of our English Universities,) seems utterly unaccountable ; and, in the apprehension of some persons, may be regarded as a suspicious circumstance.

« The oration, delivered in the schools,” is a good specimen of classical Latinity. · The appendix contains as the Hymn of Cleanthes to Jupiter.” A note of Mosheim " on the Stoic Theology :” two

. Hymns" of St. Clement, and H. Stephens's " tagoopwinous ad Lectores novi Frederis."

. On the whole, this collection must leave on the public . mind an impression favourable to Mr. Butler, as a scholar and

a man of taste.

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pulos senior cæpit et antra queri. rmen erat, neque enim sentire pudebat, ietas esset pura, quid esset Homo. ras inter mediæque silentia noctis s mæstos sic, Philomela, modos ? la tua est, tua si qua eft causa doloris, purpureo vere redibit amans.' 0, tibi si pectus mortalia tangunt, funde melos, lugubre, chara comes : omes, cui non revocanda voluptas 0, me miserum ! ceu tua, præteriit! ntes cæli in regione remotâ

- Art. IX. Obfervations on a Tour through the Highlands and Part of the Western Isles of Scotland, &c. By Dr. Garnett.

- (Concluded from P. 382. Vol. V.) W e have found much less information, and a much

V greater paucity of useful remarks, in the second volume of this Tour than we found in the first. It affumes more the appearance of a journal, and the attention becomes wearied by incessant descriptions of mountain scenery and water-falls,

which,

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which, interesting as they may be to the spectator, admit no of that variety in defcription which is essential to the amuse ment of the reader. Some few paflages, however, we have marked for extraction, and, without farther remark, shall proceed to lay thein before our readers.

In the church-yard of the abbey of Dunkeld, there is the following curious epitaph on one Mary Scott, who was buried there in 1728.

“ Stop, passenger, until my life you read :
The living may get knowledge from the dead.
Five times five years unwedded was my life;
Five times five years I was a virtuous wife;
Ten times five years I wept a widow's woes;
Now tir'd of human scenes I here repose.
Betwixt my cradle and my grave were seen
Seven mighty kings of Scotland and a queen;
Full twice five years the Commonwealth I saw ;
Ten times the subjects rise against the law;
And, which is worse than any civil war,
A king arraign'd before the subjects' bar.
Swarms of sectarians, hot with hellish rage,
Cut off his royal head upon the stage.
Twice did I see old prelacy pullid down,
And twice the cloak did link beneath the gown.
I saw the Stewart race thruft out ; nay, more,
I saw our country fold for English ore ;
Our numerous nobles who have famous been,
Sunk to the lowly number of fixteen.

Such desolations in my days have been :

I have an end of all perfection feen.” The author's observations, respecting the mode which seems to obtain of clearing mofles in Scotland, appear to be judicious and deserving of attention.

" At the distance of about six miles from Stirling, we pased Blair Drummond, the seat of Mr. Drummond Home, and formerly the occasional residence of his father, the enlightened and patriotic Lord Kames. The grounds are very extensive, and have been ornamented with great taste. Near the porter's lodge is a large water wheel, nearly on the principle of the Persian wheel; it raises sixty hogsheads of water from the Teath in a minute, which is conveyed by a canal to the moss of Kincardine, in order to wash this moss off the ground into the Forth. The construction of this water wheel is very ingeni. ous; but 3 particular description of it will, I think, be unnecessary here, as a very full account, both of the machine, and the operations on the moss, is given in the Encyclopædia Britannica.”

** See Moss of Kincardine. There is likewise a full account of this whecl, and the operations carried on with respect to the moss, in the 2ift vol. of Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Account."

56 This

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ORIGINAL CRITICISM. h, interesting as they may be to the spectator, admit ng 1.1 variety in defeription which is essential to the amule : of the reader. Some few passages, however, we have

d for extraction, and, without farther remark, thai d to lay thein before our readers. the church-yard of the abbey of Dunkeld, there is the ving curious epitaph on one Mary Scott, who was buried in 1928.

“ Stop, passenger, until my life you read :
The living may get knowledge from the dead.
Five times five years unwedded was my life;
Five times five years I was a virtuous wife ;
Ten times five years I wept a widow's woes; .
Now sir’d of human scenes I here repose.
Betwixt my cradle and my grave were seen
Seven mighty kings of Scotland and a queen ;
Full twice five years the Commonwealth I saw;

Ten times the subjects rise against the law;
And, which is worse than any civil war,
A king arraign'd before the subjects' bar.
Swarms of sectarians, hot with hellish rage,
Cut off his royal head upon the stage.
Twice did I see old prelacy pull'd down,
And twice the cloak did link beneath the gown.
I liw the Stewart race thrust out ; nay, more,
I saw our country fold for English ore;
Dur numerous nobles who have famous been,
sink to the lowly number of fixteen.

Such defolations in my dars have been :
I have an end of all perfection feen.”

Garnett's Tour through the Highlands of Scotland. 49 os This moss originally covered near two hundred acres, threefourths of which belongs to the estate of Blair Drummond, and is in the upper parts from six to twelve feet deep, and, in the lower, about three. It reposės upon a bed of clay, and the great object of the late and present proprietor, was to wash or float the moss from the surface. of the clay, which has been done to a considerable extent, by convey. ing to the moss the waters of the Teath, in the way that. has been mentioned. This water conveys the moss into the Forth, absolutely blackening its streams with the rich vegetable mould thus carried off. To accomplish this end trenches are dug through the moss, into the clay, through which the waters fun; into these trenches the labourers throw the moss, which is carried away to the Forth. In this way. about 400 acres have been cleared and settled by a number of families of industrious highlanders.

“ This Herculean labour, for so it may be truly termed, might, in my opinion, have been spared, and such an immense quantity of richi vegetable earth, as well as the dung in the stable of Augeas, might have been turned to much better use than by sending a river through it, to wash it off the ground.

" It is now known, that the principal food of plants is carbon, of which this moss almost entirely consists, and though it is necessary that this carbon should become, in some degree, soluble, before it can be absorbed by the roots of plants, and converted into vegetable fibre, yet this folubility may be promoted by various processes, one of which is, by mixing it with gypsum, (fulphat of lime), which acts very. powerfully upon it, and converts it into moft excellent manure. The use of this substance is not much known in this country, but in Ger. many and France it is much used. It is not ploughed into the ground in like many other manures, but strewed upon the surface of grass land, which is to be taken into tillage, or intended for meadow, about the month of February ; it speedily converts the old grass into a putrid ftate, and thus renders the carbon foluble, so as to be easily taken up hy plants, and applied to their nourishment. The same substance, mixed with the surface of peat-moss, which has been formed by the successive decay of vegetable bodies, equally accelerates its putrefaca tion, and renders it fit for the nourishment of future végetables..

“ But as a considerable quantity of this substance would be difficult to procure in this neighbourhood, there is another earth, which may be easily obtained, and which answers the same purpose, this is lime; it quickly promotes tlie putrefaction of the vegetable matter with which it is mixed, and renders it fit for the nutriment of future veges tables. From the experiments, made by Mr. Smith,* of Swindriga muir, near Beith, in Ayrshire, it appears, that nothing more is necefsary than to drain the moss, and afterwards to mix its upper furface

* « A particular account of Mr. Smith's method of improving mofs has been lately published, in the form of a small pamphlet, entitled " An Account of the Improvement of Moss, &c. in a Letter to a Friend." NO. XXIII. VOL. VI,

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Chor's observations, respecting the mode which seems f clearing molles in Scotland, appear to be judicious ng of attention. distance of about six miles from Stirling, we passed Blair the feat of Mr. Drummond Home, and formerly the idence of his father, the enlightened and patriotic Lord e grounds are very extensive, and have been ornamented ite. Near the porter's lodge is a large water wheel,

principle of the Persian wheel; it raises fixty hogsheads - the Teath in a minute, which is conveyed by a canal

Kincardine, in order to wash this moss off the ground . The construction of this water wheel is very ingeniticular description of it will, I think, be unnecesary full account, both of the machine, and the operations given in the Encyclopædia Britannica.* is of Kincardine. There is likewise a full account of the operations carried on with respect to the mols, in Sir John Sinclair's Statiłtical Account."

of This

with a quantity of fresh lime : this not only consolidates the surface in a surprising manner, but will produce the first year an excellent crop of potatoes, which will be more than sufficient to defray the whole expence of draining, liming, &c. After this, it will produce a fuccesfion of plentiful crops of grain, for a number of years, without any diminution. Indeed it is evident, that such a soil must be almost inexhaustible ; for it consists entirely of carbon, the proper food of plants; and nothing more would be necessary than, perhaps, once in fix or seven years, to mix a quantity of lime, in order to accelerate the putrefaction, and consequent solution of the carbon; so that moss grounds, instead of being the most barren and unprofitable, might, by proper management, be made more fertile and productive than any other whatever. Vegetation is nothing but the conversion of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen into trees and plants, by means of vegetable organization and irritability, so that if vegetables be supplied in pro. per quantity with the soluble carbonaceous principle, and water, they will flourish so that the great business of agriculture may be resolved into two heads.

1. “ To supply the plants with proper food, or nutriment. · 2. • To supply that nutriment in proper quantity.

« The first is accomplished by the application of manures, the bases of which is carbon and water; the latter depends upon the soil in which the plants grow, being of such consistency as to transmit the nourishe ment in proper quantity.

« Such is the effect of lime in consolidating mofs, aided by drain. ing, that though, in Mr. Smith's experiments, before these operations, it would not bear a dog ; often after the second, and always after the third year, it can be ploughed and harrowed by horses, and the crops taken off by carts; whenr about half a dozen crops have been taken, the surface is converted into a fine rich dark mould, which naturally runs into sweet luxuriant grass, and though before the moss is thus improved, it would not let for a penny the acre, yet after it has been laid down in grass, it is worth twenty-five or thirty shillings. · 66 The consolidation is so great, that, at the end of five or six years, if it be laid down with grass, cattle may pasture without breaking or poaching it. As there is generally a superabundance of this vegetable earth in these mosses, part of it might be carried off, mixed with lime, and, after a proper time, thrown upon other grounds, on which it would operate as an excellent manure.

" The potatoes produced from moss lands are said to be more free from blemish than any other, and are always preferred for planting again, to those grown on other foils. In Ireland, where the cultivation of potatoes is well understood, they are generally planted in bogs or moffes."

A singular mode of catching pike, formerly in use on the Loch of Monteath, is thus described by the Doctor:

" This lake abounds with perch and pike, which last are very large. A curious method of catching this filh used to be practised.

On

ORIGINAL CRITICISM.
1 a quantity of fresh lime: this not only consolidates the furlar
Surprisirig manner, but will produce the first year an exceller

of potatoes, which will be more than sufficient to defray the I expence of draining, liming, &c. After this, it will produce? tion of plentiful crops of grain, for a number of years, without iminution. Indeed it is evident, that such a soil must be almok tuftible ; for it consists entirely of carbon, the proper food el ; and nothing more would be necessary than, perhaps, once in seven years, to mix a quantity of lime, in order to accelerar roaction, and confequent solution of the carbon; so that mos 5, instead of being the most barren and unprofitable, might, by management, be made more fertile and productive than ang hatever. Vegetation is nothing but the conversion of carbon, Tl, and oxygen into trees and plants, by means of vegetable ition and irritability, so that if vegetables be supplied in pro. rity with the soluble carbonaceous principle, and water, they! ith so that the great business of agriculture may be resolved

heads. To supply the plants with proper food, or nutriment. To supply that nutriment in proper quantity. firft is accomplished by the application of manures, the bases s carbon and water; the latter depends upon the soil in which grow, being of such consistency as to transmit the nourishe oper quantity. is the effect of lime in consolidating moss, aided by drain. ough, in Mr. Smith's experiments, before these operations, It bear a dog ; often after the second, and always after the

it can be ploughed and harrowed by horses, and the crops * carts; when about half a dozen crops have been taken, 3 converted into a fine rich dark mould, which naturally et luxuriant grass, and though before the moss is thus would not let for a penny the acre, yet after it has been grass, it is worth twenty-five or thirty shillings. folidation is so great, that, at the end of five or six years, own with grass, cattle may pasture without breaking or

As there is generally a superabundance of this vegetable mofles, part of it might be carried off, mixed with lime, per time, thrown upon other grounds, on which it would xcellent manure. os produced from moss lands are said to be more free from wy other, and are always preferred for planting again, on other loils. In Ireland, where the cultivation of I understood, they are generally planted in bogs or

Garnet's Tour through the Highlands of Scotland. 51 On the islands a number of geese were collected by the farmers, who occupied the surrounding banks of the lake. After baited lines of two or three feet in length had been tied to the legs of these geese; they were driven into the water. Steering naturally homeward in different directions, the bait was soon swallowed. A violent and often tedious struggle ensued; in which however the geese at length prevaila ed, though they were frequently much exhausted before they reached the shore: * This method of catching pike is now used, but there are fome old persons who remember to have seen it, and who were active promoters of this amusement."

The statement of the progressive improvement of the cono dition of the inhabitants of the parish of Campsic, and in other places, similarly circumstanced, is extremely interesting, and we should have been induced to extract it had not our citations beer already so copious. The reader will find it in P. 180, et seq. We shall now conclude our account of these volumes, of which we have enabled our readers to forın an adequate idea, by the author's brief remarks on the effect which the union produced upon Scotland.

« The spirit of commerce and enterprize which had already taken root, was most essentially benefited by the union of the two kingdoms; • an event from which we must certainly date the prosperity of the city. I have, indeed, heard it asserted, that the union was advantageous to England, but detrimental to Scotland. There can be but little doubt, however, that this political event was; at least, equally advantageous to North Britain as to her fouthern neighbour. Before this the fpe. culations of merchants had been much cramped; the ports to which alone they could trade lay all to the Eastward, and the necessary and dangerous circumnavigation of the island, proved a very considerable bar to the prosperity of their commerce. At the union, they had the liberty of a free commerce to America and the West Indies; and, taking advantage of this favourable circumstance, they began to prosecute a trade to Virginia and Maryland. When this American trade com. menced, the merchants here had no vessels of their own fit for it, they therefore employed English bottoms, and chartered vessels from White. haven; and other ports. The first vessel, the property of Glasgow, that crossed the Atlantic, failed from the Clyde in the year 1718. This trade soon became so thriving, that it excited the jealousy of the firit commercial towns in England.”

The brief account of George Buchanan, annexed to the fecond volume, is jejune and unsatisfactory. It breathes not the pure language of truth, but the impure incense of adulation, and the lame excuse attempted to be made for the grofs and

scandalous infidelities of the historian, who seems to have trans..ferred all his fi&tion from his poems to his history; and the

node of catching pike, formerly in use on the -ath, is rhus described by the Doctor: abounds with perch and pike, which last are very is method of catching this filh used to be practised.

On

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