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period; and earnestly do we wish that every candid Diffenter, every conscientious man, and every one desirous of change, in the hope of improving, would read and consider the arguments advanced in this short and most useful publication. The book is divided into thirteen sections, to which is prefixed the Call of the worthy and learned Editor, earnestly inviting all who love their country, and the Christian religion, to unite for its defence against the most dangerous and daring enemies that ever appeared against them.

The firft fečtion is on Church Unity by Bishop Sherlock, which he fays confifts in Unity of Faith in the essential articles of Religion, in Unity of Communion, and in Unity of Love and Charity. The excellent Bishop declares, that, in his conscience, he believes the Church of England to be the most Apoftolical Church in the world ; how then does it grieve him to hear it charged with unjust imputations, and to fee the furious zeal of many tu raze up the very foundations of it; what pain does it give him to see such a church rent and torn by fchifms, which give the greatest advantage to the common enemy of the Christian faith. In some of the following sections, which are written with all the force of eloquence and solid argument, we read, that feparation from this church is not neceffary, is unreasonable, is mischievous. The venerable names of Tillotson, Stillingfleet, Hooper, Claget, and Jeremy Taylor, give weight to these arguments. These men were distinguished for their sound learning and fincere piety, and did honour to the station to which they were advanced, and such, we trust, will ever be the ornaments of our Episcopal Bench. In the 8th fection are some miscellaneous passages from that valuable divine, Bishop Hall; he says, a Christian, in all his ways, must have three guides~Truth, Charity, and Wisdom. Truth to go before him, and Charity and Wisdom on either hand ; if any of the three be absent, he walks amiss. (In Mr. Daubeny's Guide we see the union of 'Truth, Charity, and Wisdom).

Bishop Hall also observes, that it is not necessary to follow the apostolical usages in things indifferent; it is not necessary to choose Ministers by lot; not necessary to christen in rivers ; not necessary for Ministers to depend upon arbitrary and uncertain maintenance. To this is added a note from the historian Robertson, who condemns the scanty and precarious subsistence that Ministers received from the benevolence of the people ; he says, to suffer the Ministers of an Ettablished Church to continue in this state of indigence and dependence was an indecency repugnant to the principles of religion and the maximns of sound policy. In another passage how earnestly does the good Bishop Hall pray for peace and unity; let me

beg,

iš fpirit, by in the church are selecho loves mowing

ORIGINAL CRITICISM. !; and earnestly do we with that every candid Diffenter, conscientious man, and every one desirous of change, in pe of improving, would read and consider the arguments ed in this short and most ureful publication. The book led into thirteen sections, to which is prefixed the Call worthy and learned Editor, earnestly inviting all who

ir country, and the Christian religion, to unite for its against the most dangerous and daring enemies that beared against them.

first rečtion is on Church Unity by Bishop Sherlock, e fays confifts in Unity of Faith in the essential articles ion, in Unity of Communion, and in Unity of Love rity. The excellent Bishop declares, that, in his conhe believes the Church of England to be the moft al Church in the world ; how then does it grieve him

charged with unjust imputations, and to fee the fu-
I of many tu raze up the very foundations of it; what

it give him to see such a church rent and torn by
hich give the greatest advantage to the common enemy
hristian faith. In some of the following sections,
2 written with all the force of eloquence and folid
, we read, that feparation from this church is not

King's Munimenta Antiqua.

33 beg, says he, for peace, as for life : by the love of God, by the graces of his spirit, by the blood of the son of God, be inclined to peace and love. - In the oth Section, teftimonies to the Liturgy of the Established Church are selected from Mr. , Wilberforce's Practical View. Every man, who loves morals, religion, or his country, must particularly notice the following paffage from Mr. Wilberforce-Let us, says he, be spared the painful task of tracing the fatal consequences of the extinction of religion among us: the very loss of our Church Establishment, though as, in all human institutions, some defects may be found in it, would, in itself, be attended with the most fatal consequences; the want of it would be in the highest degree injurious to the cause of Christianity: to what a degree might the principles of men decline, when our inestimable Liturgy should no longer remain in use; a Liturgy justly inestimable, which continually sets before us a faithful model of the Chriftian's belief, and practice, and language, affording an adyantage ground of great value to such as still adhere to the good old principles of the Church of England! Those, therefore, who use this Liturgy, out of the Church, should reflect on the force of that part of it in the Litany, in which we pray to be delivered from all false doctrine, heresy, and schism. How, indeed, can separating congregations offer this prayer, and yet not perceive they are acting in direct contradiction to the letter and spirit of it? And are they not under the same inconfiftency, when they pray for all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, when this service is used by Ministers not episcopally appointed? · In the roth Section, the very learned Chillingworth treats of the Apoftolical institution of Episcopacy. The three last Sections are from Tillotson, Stillingfeet, and Hooper; and the judicious Editor concludes with an address to his friends, brethren, and countrymen, expressed with dignified eloquence and energy, with the feelings of a true patriot and the zeal of . a Christian.

is unreasonable, is mischievous. The venerable names in, Stillingfleet, Hooper, Claget, and Jeremy Taylor, t to these arguments. These men were distinguished -und learning and sincere piety, and did honour to to which they were advanced, and such, we trust, € the ornaments of our Episcopal Bench. In the are some miscellaneous passages from that valuable op Hall; he says, a Christian, in all his ways, must uidisTruth, Charity, and Wisdom. Truth to : Em, and Charity and Wisdom on either hand; if rce be absent, he walks amiss. (In Mr. Daubeny's e the union of Truth, Charity, and Wisdom). all also observes, that it is not necessary to follow al usages in things indifferent; it is not necessary nisters by lot; not necessary to christen in rivers ; for Ministers to depend upon arbitrary and unenance. To this is added a note from the histon, who condemns the scanty and precarious subTinisters received from the benevolence of the ay's, to suffer the Ministers of an Established

tinue in this state of indigence and dependence ncy repugnant to the principles of religion and sound policy. In another passage how earnest. d Bilhop Hall pray for peace and unity; let me

begs

ART. VII. Munimenta Antiqua ; or Observations on Antient

Castles. Including remarks on the whole Progress of Architexture, Ecclefiaftical as well as Military, in Great Britain: and on the corresponding Changes in Manners, Laws, and Customs. Tending both to illustrate Modern History; and to elucidate many interesting Pasages in various Antient Clasic Authors. By Edward King, Esq. F. R. S. and A. S. Vol. I. Large Folio. Pp. 345. 31. 13s. 60. G. and W. Nicol. London. 1799. NO. XXIII. VOL. VI. - D :

THIS

THIS magnificent work, printed in the best types and on

1 the best paper, is the commencement of a design equally grand and expensive, diffusing itself over a vast variety of noiices, calling for a most extensive range of reading in the author, and certain to be very costly in the continuance to the purchaser. But the idea of it does honour to the expanded mind of the writer, as the execution thews his fearlessness of expence to his purse. And we wish him all the success in reputation, and repayments, that he richly merits for both. : “ The beginning of our narration, and which is contained in this volume," he tells us, in his preface, « relates solely to the earlieft periods in Britain ; before the invasion of the Romans. The days of primæval fimplicity, and rudeness; the days of Druidism, and of Patriarchal manners.” And here, with regard to such of the Druidi. cal structures as were, indeed, unquestionably Temples; I have care, fully avoided, as much as possible, the repeating, or interfering with what has been wsitten, so much at large, by Dr. Stukeley : leaving the curious ftill to draw their own conclusions from his learned disser. tations; though it cannot but be observed, that in the course of this work, conclusions, even on different grounds, have led me very much to agree with him. My object, it will be found, has been to add, if possible, by fair observations, new and additional light to the intereft. ing subject ;* by an investigation of circumstances, which had before escaped due notice. And in other points, with regard to Rowland [Rowlands] * Borlafe, and other able writers, to whom we are so much indebted, it will be found that I have, as much as possible, observed the fame rule. . The second volume, which has the plates already engraved, and is printing with all expedition, will relate to the works of the Ro. mans in this Illand, and the improvements introduced by them ; to such works of the Britons as were imitations of Phænician, and Syrian * architecture, with which they were made acquainted by the traffickers for tin ; and to such as were mere imitations of Roman architecture; and also to such as, in the more barbarous parts of the island, were only imitations of those imitations." This disposition is a vicious one, in our opinion; as the “ imitations of Phænician and Syrian architecture” among the Britons, “ with which they were made ac. quainted by the traffickers for tin” long before the Romans came, if they were ever made at all, ought to have been noticed under the or works of the Britons” in the first volume. * « The third volume, which is also ready for the press; will contain the history of what truly relates to the Saxon times.

" And the fourth, the History of the strenuous efforts of Norman genius ; and of the preparations which their sturdy, and violent endeavours were permitted to make for better times.

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* We keep the author's own punctuation. Rev.

† To add new and additional light to the subject," is not legitimate language. Rev."

! As

35

beginning of nents, that he had him all this

ORIGINAL CRITICISM. 'HIS magnificent work, printed in the best types and ex

the best paper, is the commencement of a design equally 1 and expensive, diffusing itself over a vast variety of na

calling for a most extensive range of reading in the r, and certain to be very costly in the continuance to the aser. But the idea of it does honour to the expanded of the writer, as the execution thews his fearlessness of ce to his purse. And we wish him all the success in re; in, and repayments, that he richly merits for both. he beginning of our narration, and which is contained in this " he tells us, in his preface, " relates solely to the earligh in Britain; before the invasion of the Romans. The days of I fimplicity, and rudeness; the days of Druidism, and of val manners.And here, with regard to such of the Druidi. ures as were, indeed, unquestionably Temples; I have care, ided, as much as possible, the repeating, or interfering with been written, so much at large, by Dr. Stukeley : leaving is still to draw their own conclusions from his learned disleri though it cannot but be observed, that in the course of this iclusions, even on different grounds, have led me very much rith him. My object, it will be found, has been to add, if · fair observations, new and additional light to the intereft. ; * by an investigation of circumftances, which had before notice. And in other points, with regard to Rowland 1 * Borlase, and other able writers, to whom we are for ted, it will be found that I have, as much as possible, i

King's Munimenta Antiqua. *As viewing the history of our country in this light, has opened a scene of wonder and delight ; and carrying (carries] with it a full conviction of truth, though mixed with much novelty of ideas, to the mind of the author; it may, perhaps, become no less striking and interesting to the minds of others.

“The world becomes, by this means, in the truest sense, the great and splendid theatre, on which are displayed the wonders of Divine wisdom and designation, bringing light out of darkness, and a fpiritual world of created beings to maturity. But these are scenes ; amidst which we must proceed with cautious steps,” by not dwelling upon the 6. deteftable offences of dark ages -- " " And the more interest. ing and safe pursuit, is to investigate, by means of scattered remains of ancient labour and architecture, and by means of scattered records, how, amidft the deepest errors, useful exertions have yet been made ; and how the mind of man has been insensibly guided through the whole wondrous chain of events, from gloomy darkness unto hope and light. How obftinate prejudices have been overcome ; the bonds of habit broken; and the fetters that held the human mind in sach fad durance, by degrees, loosened. This will be ftill more the purport of what is proposed to be printed in the succeeding volumes, than even of what is contained in this. But as, in this present volume, there has been occasion both to refer to, and to fling some light upon, the historical part of the Holy Scriptures; and also upon several passages in the most antient classic authors; two short indexes are added ; besides a very full and minute table of contents. The one index, points out the passages in the Holy Scriptures, that are at all illustrated in these pages; in regular order, according to the arrangement of the Sacred Books. And the other index, leads to such passages in antient wri. ters, as are here placed in any striking point of view ; or have had any additional light cast upon them. And also some particular cir. cumstances, besides those mentioned in the table of contents, that are most deserving of notice. And is made as short, and comprehensive as poffible. The same plan will be pursued in the succeeding volumes, if the author's life is spared to print them

« How far the endeavour of rendering the search after antiquities more interestingly ufeful, has been accomplished in these volumes,

every reader muft judge for himself; and faithful endeavours must · speak for themselves ; after a candid examination of the conclusions (which] they produce."

This extract from a preface, as loquacious as the title itself, will serve to shew the present work in its general character to the public. From that we conceive this to be in plan and in execution, an effort of extraordinary zeal, and an exertion of extraordinary learning. But we consider the author, though pofiessed of that first quality of the human soul, a deep feeling

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: fame rule.
cond volume, which has the plates already engraved, and
with all expedition, will relate to the works of the, Ro.

Iland, and the improvements introduced by them; to
of the Britons as were imitations of Phænician, and Syrian*
with which they were made acquainted by the traffickers
! 10 such as were mere imitations of Roman architecture;

ch as, in the more barbarous parts of the island, were
225 of those imitations." This disposition is a vicious
opinion; as the " imitations of Phænician and Syrian
among the Britons, “ with which they were made ac-
ne traffickers for tin" long before the Romans came, if
r made at all, ought to have been noticed under the
e Britonsin the first volume.
1 volume, which is also ready for the press; will con.

of what truly relates to the Saxon times.'
fourth, the History of the strenuous efforts of Norman

the preparations which their sturdy, and violent enermitted to make for better times.. .:

he author's own punctuation. Rev.
'new and additional light to the subject,is not

* The author's own punctuation is still preserved, as it equally is afterwards. Revo

D 2

ige. Rev." .me

of religiousness, through all its powers, yet inheriting no flame of genius from heaven, proceeding only in an equal and even pace of thinking, judicious but not vigorous, steady but not strong, even leaving his readers to ĵumber where they should be awake the most. Such an author must seem incompetent to the mighty task before him, to infuse life into the dead matter, to set the dull mass in motion, and to make the jarring atoms unite into a world of beauty. Even his fober faculty of judgement, however predominating, can hardly be expected to be continually wakeful at her station, through so long and tirefome a combination of extraneous incidents into one system. And we find this to be actually the cale. : . In the introductory remarks we find Mr. King asserting, that so in the Highlands, and most northerly parts of Scotland, there was not, in the time of Ptolemy, in the middle of the second century, so much as one British town among nine nations."*

These nine are the Epidi, the Cerones, the Carnonacze, the Caronist and the Cornabii, ihe Caledonii, the Cantæ, the Logi, and the Mentæ. These, indeed, have no towns assigned them by Ptolemy, because they had no Roman or regular towns like the others. But that they had “ British towns,'' is evident from Mr. King's own confeffion afterwards, when he allows - some clusters of antient dwellings were, by degrees, constructed in deep woods, and morasses; and near rivers ;" I when he acknowledges among there, " we may juftly dee'm one to have been even the first origin of London :" and when concerning the capital of Caflivellaunus” he quotes Cæsar as saying, “ The Britons call a place a town, where they have fortified thick impassable woods, by means of a vallum and fofle's If the Britons in general had towns, then the nine nations in particular had them. Only, these were not such towns as the Romanized Britons had. They were merely “ British towns.” They were merely forts in the woods. Yet even these Mr. King afterwards recognizes expressly, for towns; as 66 even their best towns,” he tells us, “we find to be universally, 'mere assemblages of-huts.” It Thus they, who are reported at first to have no one British town among nine nations,” are acknowledged, indirectly, at last, to have towns equally with the other nations of Britain, and to have such towns now as the other nations had originally. The author has confounded himself, for want of distinguishing between the conquered nations of the south and the unconquered

* P. 1o § 1bid,

+ Ptolemy, ii. 3.
56 P. 13.

I P.12.
1 Ibid.

of

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