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and so few were the diffentient voices, that it is not likely that we thall ever see the Parliament of Great Britain, on any question of importance, more unanimous. At the same time, I am firmly persuaded that they spoke the general sentiment of the people, bigb and low, rich and poor, one with another. But what says our Reviewer? The answer to this letter was baugbty, reproachful, and ina compliant ; inaccurate in expression, and inconclusive in reasoning. Rounded periods, Mr. Editor, are very pretty; but I am one of those who sometimes presume to analyze them, and smile at their fungous excrescencies. Incompliant, to wit: what occafion for a term which adds no weight to the accusation, and was implied in r what had been already faid? The latter part of the sentence seems to be as little necessary. For though the critic makes a feeble but ineffectual effort, to thew that tie reasoning of Lord Grenville's reply was not conclufive; the other part of his charge, inaccuracy of erpresion, he has not attempted to prove. We will, therefore, leave

him to produce evidence in support of this cynical remark, and 4 only take notice of what remains to be discussed, his unwarrantable

afl'ertion that the reply was baugbty and reproachful. Now, Sir, when I consider that the answer returned has received so fully the fan&tion of Parliament; when I consider that it certainly did not proceed from any single individual, but conveyed the sentiments of a King surrounded by as able a council as ever affifted in the ma

nagement of a nation ; I cannot but consider this as an unprece'dented infance of audacity and impertinence. Let us only compare

the two persons apparently conferring. Bonaparte, a prodigal in blood, treacherous and cruel; and our amiable Sovereign, to whose superior virtue even Bonaparte bears witness. Had no answer whatever been returned to the consular application, had the messenger been dismissed, as soon as he reached our shores, with his packet unopened, I could not have said, after the insult offered to our own ambassador, that he had been baughtily treated. The natural abhorrence which a virtuous heart muit feel, at that total dereliction of feeling and even of common honesty, which has marked the steps of the ferocious Corfican, would have justified our King in refusing any intercourse with a chara&er so little to be confided in. If his epifle was heard, and replied to, it was the utmost concession that could be made by any Prince who had a regard for religion and humanity. But if the reply was also temperate, manifestly temperate, when compared with the overture which occasioned it, great must be the moderation and condescension of those from whom it sprung. Is wice to be allowed to bolt ber arguments? and is virtue to have 110 tongue to check ber pride ? If the speaks, is she to be bound to flatter only her antagonist? Does it not rather become her to dissemble nothing, to deal in plain truth, and to charge iniquity, even to its teeth and forcbead? Away then with that tame submission to an enemy, and that infolent llander of our own cause, which can deem it baughty and reproachful to reject conciliatory proposals from Bel. -zebub. If Belzebub be a devil, it is not pride that tells him he is

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a devil; nor undue reproach, that imputes war and the loss of heaven to him and his miscreants.

" Determined resistance", the usual cant of the advocates of the war, says our sage Reviewer. And pray, Sir, is not this the usual unmannerly language of Jacobinical petulance never in the wrong though supported by nobody.

As the ing, on the failure of the negociation at Lisle, declared himself ready to make peace at any time on the terms which he then offered, why should he not now fulfill that declaration ?"

Such is the question of the Reviewer. Had the government of mpire France remained in statu quo, this interrogation might have been alElt halowed fome weight. But circumstances are altered, and by cirfether cumstances must every question of expediency be directed. Surely

a King and his Ministers may be allowed to deem that unadviseable
at one period, which was thought adviseable at another. Besides,
let it be remembered, that our own overtures were (if the Critic
pleases) baughtily rejected; nor has the enemy notified that he is
willing to make them now the basis of treaty. Our ambassador:
was insulted, and we have in consequence been stirred up to such
formidable exertions as the exigence required. When the lion is

roused, can he any longer be deemed a lion, if he is cajoled again meni z into Dumber? We have brought our arms to bear against the foe;

and are we now to listen to his peccavi? God forbid that we should have no feeling for those who fall, and those who are crippled, by war. And yet, sound policy, and found religion, will assuredly justify the facrifice of a few, that the many may be more effectually preserved. Having power to correct an enemy, which has never displayed moderation during its own exaltation, I can say nothing to arrest the fcourge which is lifted up for its chastisement.

I shall notice only one more observation of this sagacious politician, and leave him to his own meditations. “ The Russian Sovereign," says he, “ in September last, gave a testimony of his zeal' in the good cause." This is another Jacobinical sneer, worthy of its author, who can allow no merit to Kings and Emperors.

But strong as the antipathy of the Critical Reviewers is to every species of monarchy, it seems, that there, are dignities of which they speak no evil. "Though the virtues of our own excellent King can extort from them no praise, they have much panegyric to spare for the regicidal usurpers of France. Out of their own mouth, Mr. Editor, will I judge theni, by appealing to their critique on the Traité de Mécanique Célefte of Laplace. We have, in this work," say they, “ another remarkable instance of the success with which the profound sciences are cultivated in France. Amidst all the convulsions of the state, the sciences continue to flourish, with a splendor almost beyond example in any, age or country. In all changes of government, the rulers, far from feeling the effects of the illumination of the human mind, have permitted, have encoua Taged, have even commanded, the cultivation of the sciences and arts, at once glorious to themselves, and useful to the world." Taking this to be, what the author certainly intended it should be,


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an indirect compliment to the rulers of France: ascribing to them
the glory, of having not only encouraged but even commanded the
cultivation of science, I shall beg leave to oppose it by the most
incontrovertible evidence to the contrary. The Critical Reviewer
will allow, that no author of modern France has done more to
fupport the dignity of her press than Vaillant. His Oiseaux d'Af-
rique is unquestionably one of the most fuperb productions of this
fiiperb age. But what says he of the encouragement he received
from the government of his own country? Hear him, hear him.
." As a reward for having devoted myself to the improvement of
a science, which I believed to be yet in its infancy, I have re.
ceived nothing but outrage, I have experienced nothing but in-
justice: and the infolence of those who had deceived me, bears
marks of baseness and poltronery of which no private history affords
an example. I am not the first who has complained of the unrea-
fonableness and perfidy of mankind; but, doubtless, I shall be the
laft, who, compelled to keep secret a truly base imposition and a
robbery the most manifeft, finds himself under the cruel necessity
of not daring to complain, without confusion to himself, and with
out stigmatizing the man who has endeavoured fo publickly to in-
jure him.

« They who are in power have invited, have careised, and have flattered me. I will not difsemble, that I depended upon their favour. The reasons which seemed to ensure it were found and just. I complained with propriety of having facrificed my fortunc, and the prime of my youth, to the improvement of a science till then advanced no farther than theory, and which rested on little experience. I controverted, it is true, the most brilliant speculative writers, and the laboured conclusions of the closet, which no one ever affected to have produced with loss to himself; but I came with my vouchers in my hand. I opened also a cabinet of natural history; I there deposited the many species, which I had procured at the distance of four thousand leagues from Paris. The whole of that city, and all the foreigners it contained, had an opportunity of judging of my labours, and of comparing my observations with observations long fince established, in the midst of my numerous collection of birds. More than five hundred species, either new or improperly described, bore testimony in opposition to ignorance or misrepresentation : one or the other of which I constantly excited. After the lapse of ten years, they have not left me to myself. I have reaped no other reward for my fatigues, for: my endeavours and my expences, than the honour of being conftantly attacked; and I have not failed to find them ever in my ivay, when it was in their power to injure me, directly or indirectly."

" In the mean time, that revolution, which, say they, restores every thing and every person to his proper place, was not yet fo. far matured, that the government, adopting the only method wh ch could be convenient to us both, was inclined to reimburse me my expences. It was, however, already agreed, that my col


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lection should be deposited in the Museum of Natural History, and
that it should advance to me, fixty thousand livres, over and above
a pension which ihould be settled on me, under the express denomi-
nation of an indemnity. It was at this moment that the earliest
efforts of liberty made their appearance. Giving way with tranf- **
port to the first struggles of this child of nature, I forgot instantly
my individual interest, that I might think only of the general wel
fare: and I postponed to future times the care of my own fate, .
which was entirely superseded till that period should arrive. At,
the time of the Constituent Assembly, the government appeared
for a moment to be desirous of fulfilling, on my account, the above
engagements: but having an insurmountable antipathy to folici. , -
tations, and having, above all, none of those powerful friends,
who are necessary to those who wish to succeed, I was presently
forgotten. The Legislative Assembly sprung up in its turn, and
was upon the point of making good the arrears of equitable indem-.
nity: but the Legislative Assembly was equally inclined to sum-
ber in its justice. At length, the National Convention, endued
with superior power and dispatch, seemed to undertake to repair
the wrongs which I had hitherto sustained. The majority of the
members of the committee of public instruion visited my cabi-
net; commissioners were appointed to inspect it: the temporary
commission of arts was itself employed in the management of this.
business: the citizens Richard and Lamark made a report on the
subject: in a word, no means whatever of taking poffeffion of the
only riches I had obtained in the world were neglected. But
affairs, more important no doubt, made them entirely forget my
cause. Having written a letter to the committee, to bring it
again to their recollection, they began to speak of causing an esti-
mate to be made of my cabinet. What! estimate one by one the
several specimens of a collection, which had cost me thirty years
Jabour, of which five were spent in traversing the burning deserts
of Africa, and for which I did not ask the twentieth part of their
value ! for, notwithstanding the lapse of time and the difference
of my need, the sum offered in 1789, was the same which I after-
wards alked of government in 1795. To be brief, this sum, not-
withstanding its finallnes, is still detained in the national coffers,
and my cabinet continues in my own poffeffion; from whence it
will probably pass into the hands of some foreigner, or be dispersed
abroad, since my circumstances do not leave it in niy power to pre-
serve it any longer.”

" Hopes of another kind, however, occupy me at present altc. gether, and, perhaps, will make me forget injuries so long protracted. Given up entirely to those attentions which my ornithology requires, I am happy not to see in the series of national curiofities, the humble but rare tribute which I came to offer to my country. I will give there may birds, to all Europe. I have raultiplied prints of them painted to the life, and as faithfully described: they will be to amateurs and to connoiffeurs a very valuable present: they will be able to consult and to refer to them


at all times: the originals will depart in vain from France, no possible occurren’e will be able to affect them: every purpose of my ornithology is accomplished.”

Such, Mr. Editor, is the encouragement given to one of the most ingenious and indefatigable men of the age, by those Gallic rulers, with whom the Critical Reviewer seems to be so much delighted. I make no comment, but leave your readers to draw their own conclusions, and am, truly,


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V OU do but an act of justice to injured authors, in allowing

1 room for their friends to come forward in their favour, and to
vindicate their character before the public. This is peculiarly an
act of justice against such writers as the Critical or the Monthly
Reviewers. There are often actuated by the mere spirit of Presby-
terianism, to assault the churchman, to abuse the divine, and to
vilify the orthodox. But they occasionally insult where they act
from no principle; and write with malevolence, from mere igno-
rance. To vindicate the former, indeed, is the grand design of
this department in your Review; but a subordinate one is often
necessary, in humanity, to vindicate the latter too. For such an
office of humanity, I now claim a corner in your department, that
I may do justice to an author whom I have been very recently
reading; and repay him in some measure for the satisfaction which
he has given me, by.doing that for him which he disdains (I sup-
pose) to do for himself. “The history of the Anglo-Saxons, from
their first appearance above the Elbe, to the death of Egbert, with
a map of their ancient territories, by Sh. Turner," is written by one,
of whom I know nothing, either personal or by letter, but whom,
from the want of all additions to his name, I suppose to be of no
profession. From a hint, indeed, of his preface, that “ his work"
is merely " the child of leisure hours," and therefore “could re-
ceive only an attention occasional and interrupted," I believe him
to be engaged in trade. And from the humility with which he
writes in his preface, hoping only, “like an humble valet, to serve
up those circumstantial minutiæ which the commanding minds"
of others “ have disdained to accumulate;" when still more, from
what he says, he feels for the public, "sensations of the most anxious
awe," while "his ground trembles beneath him;" he appears a writers,
in his first publication, very solicitous about his reception in the
world, and peculiarly alive, therefore, to such censures as the Criti-
tical Reviewers have thrown out against him. For these reasons I
interpose betwist those Reviewers and him, and shall endeavour to
repel the weapons which they have discharged at him.'

Mr. Turner's remarks on the pailage in Gildas, which he ad* duces, in p. 104, presents (says the Reviewers) “a curious instance of false criticism," In what, then, does the falsity of this criticism

· lie?

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