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Oct. 4th. This morning the Army Marchd. and left Fort Sullivan at 9 O Clock for Wyoming—came over scrub land this day— Posad, a defile on the brink of the river where a narrow path on the steep side of a large mountain about 200 feet perpendicular which made it very dangerous to pass; and was a sollid rock three horses with their loads fell off and dashed to pieces in the River—Proceeded, on and encampt on the point of the river—Some rain this day and very hard this night—Came 25 miles this day —Part of the troops came in the boats.
October 5th. This morning 11 O Clock the troops all embarkd on board the boats, excepting a No. to drive the Cattle, and take down the pa^k-horses Proceeded down the river and encampt 7 miles below Wyluoee the boats came on very well, this day passd some bad rapids—This river on the sides is very mountany and opposite on the other side some small rlatts—Some of these mountains 300 feet perpendicular—Came 21 miles this day.
October 6th. This morning the troops movd on at 6 O Clock proceeded down this river and encampt west side of the same on a piece of land that was cleared by girding the trees and was coverd with English grass —Came 30 Miles.
October 7th. This morning the Army movd on and arrivd at Wyoming 12.0' Clock A. M. and encampt on a pine plain— the troops drew half a pint of Whiskey each —This river is very mountany, on the sides of it and opposite these mountains on the other side, some small flats which are very rich and good land, those flatte from Tioga to Wyoming have all been improvd and clear d by girdling, but the houses are all burnt by the Indians—This Wyoming is pleasantly situated on both sides of the river and the land near the same very good —Came 15 miles, making in the whole 91 miles from Tioga to this place by water.
October 10th (8unday) The Army marchd and left the ground 3.0'clock P. M. for Easton—Came over a large mountain very rocky and some muidy sloughs Arrivd. at Bullocks-f'arm at a long meadow 11.O'clock at night where the troops encampt—Came 7 miles this day.
October 15th. Arrivd at Easton 1.O'clock P.M.
In 1780 the great "Pumpkin Flood" inundated the entire Valley and did much damnge.
In 1820 the population of the county was 20,027.
In 1820 the coal trade increased rapidly, and the Baltimore Coal Company was organized.
In 1829 the first county bank, the "Wyoming Bank," at Wilkes-Barre, commenced business.
WHKN BKRWICK WAS FOUNDED.
Evidence Tending to Show That the Recent Centennial Was a Year Ahead of Time.
Edixob Recobd: There having been exhibited lately some diversity of opinion as to the time of the settlement of the Town of Berwick, I have concluded to add to the confusion already existing upon the subject, by giving what was said about it upwards of eighty years ago.
Thomas Cooper, one of the Pennsylvania Commissioners, under the act of 1799, knownasthe "Compromising Law," in the performance of his duties wrote under date:
"NoRTHCMDKitLAND.Jan. 18, 1803.—A part of the Town of Berwick stands on a tract of land taken up undet Pennsylvania by Evan Owen, who laid out that town, and who, I understand, is now at Lancaster making his complaints on this subject, and who, to my knowledge, most egregiously exaggerates the importance of the case as will soon be perceived. A part of this tract and of the town of Berwick is included in the Town of Salem. Qeneral Steele. Mr. Wilson and myself directed Mr. Sambourne, the surveyor, to run out the lines of interference. They can give evidence respecting it. Mr. Sambourne's return to me makes the business quite insignificant, but whether more or less, I had to decide on principles that have no relation to the quantum of the dispnte. I held this case under advisement on the following ground: It appeared in evidence before me, by the voluntary deposition of Evan Owen himself, that he made his commencement of settlement on the tract of land whereon the Town of Berwick now stands, on the 10th day of May, 1787, the Confirming Law having passed on the 27th day of March preceding. It appeared to me that this Confirming Law was public and legal notice to him of an opposite and older title, then recognized by the Legislature, and that he settled at his peril. He took up the land and settled it, knowing of a precedent title. Thomas Coopeb."
This letter will be found recorded at large in the office of the Secretary of Internal Affairs at Harrisburg. in volume I, relating to Wyoming lands, p. 152. It would seem to be satisfnctory evidence of the time when the Town of Berwick was laid out.
Wyoming, Sept. 17, 188B.
In 17iH a fatal form of typhus fever raged along the Susquehanna. Whole families fell victims to it.
In 1773 the first marriage in Wilkes-Barre (white) occured this year in the Denison family, and the first birth followed it.
In 1812 the first church erected and completed in the Public Square, Wilkes-Barre,
The Old TOIlkes-Itarre Academy Editob Recobd: An article in the Recobd recently headed "Text-Books of the Old Academy" was peculiarly interesting to me, a student in Wilkes-Barre fifty years ago. It brought to my mind vividly reminiscences of the olden time, the quaint buildings, the early pedagogues, the somewhat crude books and methods of teaching, and the mischievous scholars, some of whom have since risen to eminence in church and State.
The writer of the article referred to went back to a period less than fifty years ago, as I saw no reference to the old "yellow Academy," which to me and doubtless to others who remember it, is attended with more ancient, and therefore hallowed, associations. At the time I entered it, the old building was in a dilapidated condition through extreme age and bad usage by the scholars—one of whom had made two or three unsuccessful attempts to end its existence by conflagration. The structure was one of four public buildings which then occupied the square, viz: Thecouri house, "fire-proof" (in which the county offices were located) the M. E. Church and the academy. Running through the square at right angles,were Main and Market Streets; on the latter a long gable-end building, with roof supported by pillars, constituted the public market house. All these buildings were of a style of architecture peculiar to the Pennsylvania Dutch towns of that period, and beyond the powerof any imagination to describe, though I can see them now clearly in my mind's eye. The schools taught in the academy were excellent for the time, and as I have said, many eminent men were fully prepared for college within its uncouth walls. The names of the teachers, I cannot recall, except the principal. Deacon Sylvester Dana, a graduate of Yale, and a most excellent preceptor. With great kindness of heart and much patience, he was yet very thorough and severe. The discipline of his school was maintained at all hazards, and woe to the scholar who disputed his authority. His mode of punishment was the rawhide, a plentiful supply of which was always kept at Mr. Anheiser's store on the west side of the square. I remember on one occasion going to the store tor one which Mr. Dana used to chastise the late Judge Waller. Among the names of those who were attending the academy are J. Butler Conynghan, Frank Bntler, Charles Collins, C. P. Waller, George G. Waller, Sam McCarra
Sher, S. H. Lynch, Tom Smith, ob Wright, Ed Butler, Charley Chaaman. W. L. Conyngham and Jonathan Bulkeley. The latter had an experience at one time with the deacon's rawhide which resulted in the indictment of the teacher. A number of the scholars were summoned as witnesses
before the Grand Jury, and I well remember how awestricken we were as one by one we appeared in the august presence of the jurymen to give our testimony. But the case was settled before it came to trial, and Jonathan ceased to be a member of the school.
According to my recollection the old building was demolished in 1839, and for two or three years the school was kept in a part of the old Morgan Hotel, on River Street. A brick building ot more modern pretensions and appointments was erected on the old site, and that gave place with the other buildings on the square to the present court house. C. E. L.
Carbondale, Oct. 15, 1886.
The Old Hollenback House.
Apropos of the disappearance of the old Hollenback house on Franklin and Northton Streets, it was thought that a few facts relative to the building and history of the old landmark would be interesting. Thorough inquiry, however, failed to reveal the exact date or the architect or builder of it. Several gentlemen in town who are familiar with local history, agreed that the date of construction was about 1846. At the time it was built it * as considered a magnificent mansion, outrivaling any other dwelling in town; and, in fact, the length of time required to tear it down this summer, and its excellent condition, vouch for the skill and conscientiousness of its builder, whoever he was. Thin was the last home of George M. Hollenback, who waits so long identified with local interests.
The most prominent event remembered in connection with the old Hollenback house is the Centennial Tea Party of 1876. On this occasion everyone who had books, letters, or any articles whatever, of interest relating to the early history of the town or valley, were brought to the Hollenback house and they were arranged in rooms by a committee of ladies. Some very interesting, as well as ancient, relics of the longago in this vicinity were there on exhibition, and everyone attended the tea party, which was as great a success as the other famous one of 1770 in Boston.
The Elmira Advertiser has been publishing a series of historical reminiscences under the title of "Letters of Uncle Jonas Lawrence." The author is John L. Sexton, Esq., of Blossburg, Tioga Co., Pa., who deals with many of the towns and villages on both sides the line between New York and Pennsylvania. The letters have just been issued in book form by the Advertiser.
In 1811 the first nail factory was erected in Wilkes-Barre.
A Former Wllkes-llarre Pastor In Town.
A Recoud man Wednesday liBd a conversation at the Wyotniug Valley Hotel with an agreeable and well-preserved gentleman who some 40 years ago lived in Wilkes-Barre for a few months. His name is Rev. Dr. Charles D. Cooper, and he is rector of the Holy Apostles' Church, Philadelphia. Dr. Cooper Ims some very interesting reminiscences of Wilkes-Barre. he having spent part of the year 1847 as rector of St. Stephen's. He was preceded by Rev. Dr. Claxton, of holy memory, and succeeded by the late lamented and beloved Rev. George D. Miles. Dr Cooper gives a very graphic description of Wilkes Barre, as it was 40 years ago, though he sees now iti the bustling city ot 3f>,0O0 people scarcely a trace of the little tumbledown village which Wilkes-Barre was at tlmt time. He and his good wife came here iu 1847 by stage, leaving Philadelphia at 3 am., and by easy relays reaching here on the third day. Dr. Cooper was the guest for a time of the late Judge Conyngham s family and he formed many delightful acquaintances, including the elder Judge Woodward's family. While he was m"st favorably impressed with the pe*>rle he was not so similarly impressed with the town. It seemed inacessible to railroads, had no perreptible resources and he saw nothing in the future to encourage a young man and a stranger to cast his lot here. Accordingly he concluded to seek a wider and more promising field and he went to Philadelphia (by stage toPottsville and thence by rail to the Quaker City.) Dr. Cooper occupies a prominent position in the diocese of Pennsylvania. He is impressed not only uy the general progress iu Wilkes-Barre but by the remarkable growth of Ms old parish, he considering St. Stephen's one of the strongest parishes in the diocese of Ceulral Pennsylvania. He never anticipated a time when as now, the rector of Si. Stephen's would have an outlying field rtquiring lour assistants. The doctor regrets the absence of Rev. Henry L. Jones at General Convention. He is accompanied by Mrs. Cooper and a lady friend. Dr. Cooprr's coming *as very quiet but now that his whereabouts have been made known by the Recoup he will doubtless be called upou this morning by some of the gentlemen whose fHthers he knew and who were only boys in 1847. — W.-B. Record, Oct. til.
Rev. U. W. Condit is the author of a history of Easton, which is being printed in parts at TiO cents each. Part 5 is devoted mainly to the Lutheran Church history of the town. A biography of Hon. George Taylor is also given. The illustrations are: St. Paul's Church, St. Peter's Church, the '•Pot Rock and Eddy" and a profile of George Taylor,
Centenary Memorial of the Erection of the County of Dauphin and the Founding of the City of Hnrrisburg, Edited by William H. Kglc. M. D., 8 TO., p. 3b7.
This is the title of a volume giving a complete record ot the celebration last year, prepared under the auspices of the Dauphin County Historical Society. The volume contains a fuli account uot only of the preliminary meetings and addresses, but complete reports of the imposing ceremonies of that celebration, and of the antiquarian exhibition, which was so successful a feature of the event. The edition is limited to 400 copies at $2 each. The proceeds of the sale of the book are to go to a fund for the es-' tablishment of a public library.
A Philadelphia firm are making arrangements for the publication of a history of Susquehanna County. We hope it is not one of the bogus histories with which so many comities have been cursed and which charge an exhorbitant price and fail to give satisfaction after all. Miss Blackman's history of the county is not yet out of print and should be patronized before the people throw their money into the coffers ot an outside pnrty. We believe in protection to home industry to the fullest extent. It is announced in the Montrose Independent that ''a number of leading citizens of the county will assist in the preparation," and the chapter on the me dical profession will be written by Dr. Calvin C. Hawley, of Montrose.
We learn from the Doylestown Inlellinencer that Bucks is to have its history prepared by an Ohio firm. If their experience is anything like that in Luzerne the Bucks County people will wish they had let "patent" histories alone.
The Mmjazine of American History for September is both a surprise and a delight. With the first opening of its beautiful pages one is ushered into an unique portrait gallery, and makes or renews acquaintance with a long lint of brilliant public characters A more entertaining contribution to magazine literature than Mrs. Lamb's "Illustrated Chapter of Beginnings" h would be hard to find. It is the history of an old historic institution important to the whole country, and contains just precisely the information wanted by thousands of intelligent readers in various parts of the land—it is a graphic and historical sketch never before presented so concisely and effectively.
Dr. Egle's S'otrx anil Queries in the Harrisburg Telryiaph for Aug. 14 contains an article on 'Pennsylvania Anti-Revolutionary Currency," "Records of Bmdnagle Church," story of a good Indian of doubtful existence and an account of the Enders Monumental Association.
XLhc Ibistorical 1Recort>
Vol. I. NOVEMBER, 1886. No. 3.
JONKPH Bit A ST.
Unveiling Hi* Monument at Jlrautford, Canada— New Facts in the Life of the I'Mimtus Chief— Denial that he was in the Wyoming Massacre uf .Inly 3, 1778. The question whether the Mohawk chief, Brant, was at the battle of Wyoming has never yet been answered to the satisfaction of all. Authorities differ, most historians insisting that Brant was not here, others, ( prominently Hon. Steuben Jenkins) claiming with equal earnestness to the contrary. As the decades have gone by the effort to relieve Branl's memory from its former odium has never for a moment been relinquished, and it is not surprising that last month when a monument was unveiled in his honor at Brantford, Ontario, it was announced authoritatively that he had no hand in the atrocities at Wyoming. The PoslEjcpreJia, of Rochester, N. Y., under date of Oct. 14, gives an excellent historical sketch of the famous Mohawk chieftain, and we take pleasure in laying it before our readers Mr. E. S. Loop having kindly favjred us with a copy of thepaper referred to: I.
Bbantkobd, Ont., Oct. 13.—Your correspondent arrived at this place yesterday and found, as he anticipated, other persons from "I'he States," drawn here by the same attraction, namely, the unveiling of the monu ment to Joseph Brant, who was once the most famous man of the Genesee country. The ceremonies began this morning and will last two days. Wnile we are waiting for them let me give you as condensed a sket h as I can of the career of the Indian chieftain whose memory has never received justice at our prejudiced hands.
According to tradition the celebrated Mohawk war-chief Joseph Braut—whose Indian name was Thayendanega—was born in the year 1742, on the banks of the Ohio River, wiiere Ins people were temporarily sojourning. The home of his family was at the Cauajoharie Castle, in the Mohawk Valley, and his mother returned there while Joseuh was quite young. There are varying statements regarding his father and the origin of his name; but Stone produces considerable evidence in his "Lifeof Braut," in relation to the aucestry of his suliiect, and very justly remarks that "from srch a body of testi
mony, direct and circumstantial, it is hazarding but very little to assert that Joseph Braut was of the noblest descent among his nation." It would appear from evidence presented that Thayendanega's father was a distinguished warrior; sometimes called Aroghyadagha and at others Nicku" Brant, who became sachem of the Mohan ks on the death of King Hendrick in 1755. Aroghyadagha had three sons in the Entrli-h army, and his daughter, Mollie, became the Indian wife of Sir William Johnson, then British superintendent of Indian affairs in North America. It is evident that. Thayendanega himself possessed some knowledge of his origin through family tr.idition for he distinctly declared that he "was born of Indian parents," and Marshall says, in his "Denonville Expedition," that while stopping near the present village of Victor. N. Y., about 1797. the noted Mohawk chieftain informed several persons that his grandfather guided the French army under Denonville—that destroyed the Seneca town on Boughton Hill many years before— f-om Irondequoit Bay to Boughton Hill. Brant also visited the locality where the Senecas ambuscaded Denonville, and pointed out the field of battle; facts then unknown to historians but long afterward confirmed by the researches of O.H. Marshall and the original accounts of Denonville and his officers.
There are no definite accounts of the early youth of Thayendanega, but from all that is known he must have beet) a lad of uncommon enterprise. When but 13 years of age he joined the Mohawk warriors under Sir William Johnson, and received his baptismal fire at the battle of Lake George, where the brave King Hendrick was killed. This was during the old French and Indian war of 1754-1704, which was the result of a struggle between B'rance and England to obtain and retain possession and control of the water-sheds and water-routes of the interior of America from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. At the time hostilities commenced, the French occupied stations on Niagara River, along French Creek and Allegany Hiver, between Fort Presque Isle on Lake Erie and the Ohio: to the great disquietude of the Six Nations whose northern and western borders were constantly in dan?er of incursions by the French «nd their ndian allies. The Senecas constituted the great northwestern barrier of the Iroqnois comederaey, and Sodns, Irondequoit, Genesee River, Braddocks' Bay, Niagara, Buffalo, Presque Isle, and some minor ports were open doors requiring the constant presence of vigilant sent nels; while the site of Rochester was noted as the location of the two fords where many trails converged, and where all parties passing in this vicinity crossed the Genesee. Duriug the continuance of the wars Indian scouts and war parties were constantly moving through the great wilderness from Lake Cham plain to Niagara and the Ohio, and the trails of the Genesee were often warm with the pressure of inoccasined feet.
There is reason to believe that menbers of Nickus Brant's family were familiar with the Genesee trails, and Stone gives the following excerpt from the private jonrnal of Sir Wm. Johnson: "1757. Nov. 4. Canadiorha, alias Nickus Brant's son, who was in quest after DeConague as far as Oneida, came here (Fort Johnson) and said he inquired what news was stirring among the Oneidas. One of the sachems told him .... about the French intending to stop the powder from the Six Nations—building a fort near Chennessio—etc., that it made a great noise among the nations and gave them uneasiness; wherefore, they were a°sembled often at Chennessio and keeping great councils among themselves how to act in this affair of last moment, etc." The name of Brant is inseparably connected with the aboriginal history of the Genesee country; and, though the records of his presence here are meagre, we know that from infancy to old age Thayendanega was often on the foot and canoe trails of the Genesee valley. Feck's history of Rochester, page 08, says: "July 1st, 1750, Gen. Frideanx, with Sir William Johnson second in command, left Oswego with an army of 2,000 men and 500 Indians on an expedition against Fort Niagara at the mouth of the Niagara River, then occupied by the French. The expedition was supplied with heavy artillery and all necessary equipments for a protracted siege, and was transported in vessels, batteaux and canoes. Coasting the south shore of Lake Ontario the first night's encampment was made at Sodns, the second at Irondequoit, and the third at Braddock's Bay—which latter place was then Prideaux Bay, in honor of the English commander who was killed a few days later during the siege." Joseph Brant, then about 17 years of age, was in the Mohawk contingent that accompanied the expedition, and is said to have acquitted himself with "distinguished bravery" during the campaign. Especial mention is made of the good be
havior of the Indians—of whom Brant was one—in the open field engagement of July 24th, when the French reinforcements under D'Aubrey suffered a disastrous defeat. Brant received an English education through the liberality of Sir William Johnson, who employed him In public business for several years and contributed to his advancement until he became a leading man of the Mohawk nation.
At the beginning of the revolutionary war Tryon county included all of the colony of New York west and southwest of Schenectady, with the county seat at Johnstown, the residence of Sir William Johnson, who died suddenly on the 24th of June, 1774, and was succeeded in his title and estate by his son, Sir John Johnson. The official positions of superintendent of the Indian department, and maj >r-general of militia, held by Sir William, were conferred on his son-in-law Col. Guy Johnson, and Joseph Brant was made secretary to Guy Johnson. The leading and influential men of Tryon county at that date were Sir John and Col. John Johnson, their brother-in-law Col. Daniel Clans, Col. John Butler and his son, Walter N. Butler—all bitter partisans of the king. In 17G3 the Mohawks numbered 100 warriors, the Oneidas 250, Tuscaroras 140, Onondagas 150, Cayugas 200 and Senecas 1,050. For many years they had received their supplies through Sir William Johnson, gone to him for advice and counsel, and looked npon him as an oracle. At his death their affections were transferred to his family and successors. They had been taught to reverence the name of the king, believed him all powerful, and considered the officers of the crown their best friends. Hence it was but natural that they should side with the British in the contest between king and colonists. In 1775 Guy Johnson, Col. John Butler, his son Walter :ind other tories, Brant and a number of Mohawks moved to Fort Stanwix, (Rome) thence to Ontario, Oswego and Montreal. Sir John Johnson subsequently followed them, and returning to Oswego raised two battalions of tories known as Royal Greens, while Colonel Butler recruited a body of loyalists terme I rangers. These troops and those Indians of the Six Nations who took up arms under the English standard, ravaged Tyron County with relentless fury during the war. Brant was commissioned a captain in the British sorvice, and visited England in 1775. Returning to America early in 1770 he entered into the conflict with all the force of his fiery nature, and was speedily recognized as the principal war chief and master spirit of the British Indian allies. His name was associate 3 with every affair in which Indians were engaged—often unjustly—and became