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Samuel Glover Shaw, of Point Pleasant, from his very rich collection of pre-bistoric and Indian remains. In describing theae five medals, I will begin with that one belonging to the society:
1. Wyoming Medal—Obverse, military bust of George I. Legend "George King of Great Britain." Reverse, under a tree to the left stands a deer on a hill. To the right, at the foot of the hill, stands an Indian, with a bow drawn, and in the act of shooting the deer; over all, the sun with his rays. Size, 35-16.
This medal was included in the Chambers Collection, which was purchased and presented to the society in 1858, thus forming the nnclens of the the valuable collections now owned by this society. The medal is described in Mr. Chambers' catalogue as "one of the medals presented by George I. to the chiefsof the Six Nations in 1716." As there was no conference with the Indians by any of the colonies of Great Britain in 1716, Chambers' conclusions are merely conjectnral. It may have been presented at the conference of the Governor of New York and the Six Nations in 1715 or 1717, but in the very full account of those conferences no reference whatever is made to this or any other medal. Where Mr. C. procured this medal and what its local history, I cannot ascertain; but the above account of it disposes of the impression which somehow has prevailed, that it was the copy referred to by Mr. Miner, or had been received by this society from the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
2. Point Pleasant Medal—Obverse, military bust of George I., draped and laureated, facing right, and 3-16 larger than the head of No. 1. Legend the same as No. 1, "George King of Great Britain." Reverse, same as No. 1, except that the hill is higher, the tree shorter and the Indian larger. Brass. Size 38.
3. Point Pleasant Medal—Obverse, military bust of George I., facing left, and laureated. Legend "Georgius,—Mag. Br. Fra. et Hit. Rex." Reverse, under a tree to the right, which follows the curve of the planchet, an Indian is standing in the posture of one about to run. He holds in his hand a bow from which the arrow has been discharged. To the left, under a second tree which follows the left curve of the planchet, is a deer running at full speed. Between the Indian and the deer stands a bush at the foot of which lies what appears to be a dead deer. There is no sun on the medal. Planchet very thin. Brass. Looped. Size 10.
4. Stearns Medal.—Copper. Almost identical with No. 2. Size 30. In possession of Master Denison Stearns.
5. Jenkins Medal.—Obverse, military bust of George I. The hair does not fall over the
back in a queue but is confined closely by the fillet, which is composed of 13 leaves, and is much smaller than the others. The legend, George King of Great Britain, extends over % of the circumference, while in the other it is only about %. Reverse, The sun; a very large Indian to the right throwing a javelin at a very small deer, whioh stands to the left at an angle of forty degrees from the Indian. Copper. Very thick. Size 24. This medal, now in the possession of Hon. Steuben Jenkins of Wyoming, Pa., was found on the banks of the Susquehanna at Sunbury, by Mr. J. H. Jenkins.
A copy of No. 2 is known to be in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. It is described in Miner's History of Wyoming, p. 37, and is represented there by an engraving. It will be recognized as a duplicate of No. 2. Mr. Miner gives this account of its discovery: After a general description of the remains of ancient fortifications in the Wyoming Valley, he refers to one "on Jacobs' Plains, or the upper flats in VVilkes-Barre:" gives a detailed account of its appearance, and continues, "in 1814 I visited this fortification in company with the present Chief Justice Gibson and Jacob Cist, Esq. The whole line, although it had been ploughed for more than thirty years, was then distinctly traceable by the eye. Fortune wws unexpectedly propitious to our search, for we found a medal bearing on one side the impress of King George the First, dated 1714 (the year he commenced his reign,) on the other an Indian Chief. It was awarded to Mr. Cist, as the most curious and careful in such matters, and by him was deposited with the Philadelphia Historical Society." Mr. Miner adds, in a note, "Should it not be placed with the Indian relics in a museum to be formed in Wilkes-Barre?" I courteously commend this suggestion to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. I think Mr. Miner must be in error as to the date, as none appears on the engravings of the medal, and none appears on any of the four medals just described. Other copies of this medal have been discovered in the State of Pennsylvania, but I have had no time to ascertain their present whereabouts.
Early Doctor* of Huntington Valley.
Dr. Charles E. Gaylord was probably the first permanently settled physician in Huntington Valley. His family were among the first settlers of the Susquehanna Co. His father died in the Revolutionary War and his brother, Lieut. Asher Gaylord, fell in the massacre at Wyoming. The doctor settled in Huntington soon after the cessation of Indian hostilities. His only child was Henderson Gaylord, who afterwards was made wealthy by the coal deposits on his land.
The next physician was Dr. Crystal, who came soon after 1800. His wife was a Miss Stookey, of Salem.
Dr. Griswold afterwards located near Town Hill, and practiced about 20 years. Dr. John Weston practiced awhile as the successor of Dr. Gaylord, but moved to the State of New York where his children yet reside.
These early physicians were succeeded by Drs. Pickering, Jones, Davenport, Crawford, Hayden and others, who each resided in Huntington some years, then sought locations elsewhere.
Dr. Sidney H. Warner located in Huntington in 1833 and practiced nearly half a ocntnry. Onedaughter is the wife of Dr. Clinton Bacon, of Huntington and a son, Dr. John Nelson Warner, is practicing dentistry in Wilkes-Barre, the mother, nee Cornelia Machette, of Philadelphia, making her home with the latter. Dr. Warner almost literally tsoodhead and shoulders over his followers, physically and mentally.
A few years after Dr. Warner came Dr. William Barrett, who practiced at Cambra a score of years. Originally from Gettysburg, he hastened thither after the battle and bravely assisted in the care of the sick and wounded.
Dr. Mason Crary was one of the early settlers and the first physician of Salem Township. He was a native of Stonington, Conn.
In 1846 Dr. L. C. White located in Shickshinny and practiced several years. The following year he was joined by his brother-in-law, Dr. Charles Parker. The latter practiced here until his death, at the age of about 80, Dr. White removing to Mississippi.
Dr. William D. Hamilton has practiced in Shickshinny more than 2T> years. Later comers are Drs. Kamerly, Dodson, Chapin, Rogers, Harrison, Kingsbury, Betterly, but lift, Santee, Harvey. Bonham, Bacon, Hice, Boston, Lockhart and Davidson.
For details the reader is referred to Mrs. M. L. Hartman's historical artical in the Shickshinny Echo of July 23, 1880, from which these facts are taken.
The Vegetable Origin of Corti.
Prof. Leo. Lesquereux, Fossil Botanist of the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, and well-known in WilkesBarre, by reason of his visit to the collection of the Wyoming His torical and Geological Society, is writing a series of articles going to favor the origin of anthracite coal. He takes up several objections to this theory and then answers them. We quote:
First Objection.—The vegetable remains found in and upon the share of coal beds do not prove that the coal itself is a compound
of plants. The preserved remains may have been deposited and indeed have been deposited in the shale after the formation of the coal. Therefore leaves, branches, fragments of plants of diverse nature, like pieces of bark, etc., found now in connection with coal beds, may have been carried by atmospheric disturbances, storms, etc., and strewn upon layers of bituminous matter, like the lakes of bitumen observed in the vicinity of some volcanoes. The plants, therefore, may be totally foreign to the composition of the coal.
Answer 1.—In examining seams of coal covered by shale-bearing plants, one sees that the roof shales become gradually more bituminous in approaching the line of connection with the coal; and that even where they have become quite black, or half shade and half coal, the remains of the plants are still recognized, losing their forms only when the matter is entirely decomposed or reduced to hard coal. But even then, in some coal beds, the thin layers of nearly pellucid very hard bituminous matter are separated by their lamella' of charcoal, evidently woody matter. Leaflets of ferns, and pieces of bark with their peculiar leaf-sears, are often printed with a perfect preservation of their forms and of their nervation, easilydistinguishable with the eye.
Answer 2.—In some coal beds of cancel, or very bituminous coal, fragments of plants of divers size, trunks of trees, branches of fern, especially small seeds, spores (the seeds of Lycopodiaca;) are found, sometimes in great abundance. Species of coal in England have been found composed of spores in such profusion that some authors have hazarded the opinion that coal has been entirely formed of spores. In the cannel coal, the most compact coal of which the matter has been so thoroughly decomposed that the fracture of the substance is as smooth as that of black marble, for example in the Breckinrilge coal of Kentucky, one finds large steins, xti'i/mai-ia, lepulotleiiltron, etc., whose forms are perfectly preserved as sulphide of iron or oyrites. At Canneltou, the bed of coal also cannel, rests upon a layer of less thoroughly decomposed matter, but still coal, wherefrom the remains of 250 species of plants have been obtained and described.
Objection continued.—But the objector may say, bitumen either deposited by and from the atmosphere or by the eruption of volcanoes, may have been distributed upon forests or upon land covered with a varied vegetation: and of course the remains of plants might thus be found at the base of the bituminous deposits, or pieces of wood, branches, trunks, large fragments of bark, may have been thrown from the borders during the process of accumulation of the matter without having contributed in any essential manner to the composition of the combustible.
Answer 3.-^Now we have for answering, the preceding objection a kind of evidence concerning tne true nature of coal to which it seems that no contradiction can be reasonably offered. By the work of the lapidary it is possible to obtain lamellae of coal thin enough to be rendered nearly translucent. On subjecting these lamellae to the microscope, one may easily see the matter of the coal to be composed of mere fragments of vegetables, though they may be deformed by compression and decomposition. Researches of this kind have been for some time actively pursued, and have proved that a piece of coal taken from any part of a coal seam, either in vertical or horizontal direction, is entirely made up of very small fragments of plants mixed of course with an amount of bitumen such as necessarily resalts from the decomposition of plants. Researches on this subject have been pursued in Germany, by Oumbel; in France, by Renault; in England, by Williamson, Carrnther, Wethered; in Switzerland, by Fruh; in North America, by Dawson. All have arrived at the same conclusion, that the coal is entirely composed of vegetable remains.
It cannot be said against these revelations of structure made by the microscope that the so-called carbonized vegetable tissues may not be plants; for the celebrated anatomist Renault, of the museum of Paris, remarks as others have noticed before him, that in a great number of "ases, the remains of the plants which composes the coal, although deformed by maceration, still show recognizable organic structures, and may be identified as plants of the same species as those which are found in fragments silicified or in the roof shale, where they have been protected against deformation by being embedded in clay, iron, sand, etc.
The thin layers of hydrocarbon are produced of course by the decomposition of the vegetable tissue and by compression. They are rarely pure bnt generally mixed with spores or pieces of cellular tissue, isolated cells, etc.
To the evidence thus obtained directly by the eyesight of observers may be added the no le?s direct evidence of chemical analysis. The proportion of ashes remaining after combustion of coal is on an average the same as that of various species of wood. If there is a little surplus in the proportion it is easily accounted for, as caused by the introduction into the original mass of that dust of mineral matter reduced to powder always carried by the wind.
And, in regard to the constituents of the coal, chemistry acknowledges that they must
positively be a result of the slow, gradual and long-continued decomposition of vegetable matter, protected from the free access of the air and its burning element oxygen. The process of this peculiar decomposition has been followed from its beginning in peat, to its first more advanced stages in the lignite of the glacial era; in which latter form the branches and trunks of trees have already become softened to the consistence of soap without losing their color; then, to the next stage of miocene lignite, in which the wood, still soft, is already quite black; then, to lower tertiary or upper cretaceous coal, where the vegetable matter is hard and compact like coal, but easily disaggregated by atmospheric action; then, to coal of the carboniferous period; and finally to the conditions of anthracite. The whole series forms an unbroken chain of successive modifications, which not only can be, but has been carefully studied and recorded as one of the most interesting pages of the secret work of nature.
The Formation of Coal.
The Recoeo has already given some of the arguments of Prof. Leo Lesquereux, fossil botanist of Pennsylvania, to sustain the theory that anthracite coal is of vegetable origin. A French paper—the bulletin de. la Ceramique—now publishes a singular and entirely different theory in which M. de Grand' Eury argues that forest vegetation had nothing to do with coal formation. Buffon having indicated the fact that coal deposits are situated in places which at one time were covered with water. M. de Grand' Eury argues that tne water of such seas or lakes was heated by the earth's calorio properties and by the sun. The atmosphere being charged with carbonic acid, there was in these waters an enormous production of inferior vegetation which absorbed the carbonio acid of the air, and became decomposed either by the want of water or of oxygen. A sort of vegetable jelly will thus have been formed which, gradually losing its humidity, transformed its carbon into nlmic hydra-carburetted substances; to become successively transformed into asphalte, petroleum, naptha. earth pitch, bitumen, and finally coal.
This principle is opposed to the idea that large trees and shrubs produced coal, and in further support of this theory it is stated that the carboniferous flora consisted of plants deficient in substance necessary for producing coal, the investigations of M. Gaston de Saporta on this point indicating that this vegetation consisted of a relatively thin circle of wood and a large quantity of a softer substance. Brogniart and Elie de Beaumont attribute the foundation of coal to the transformation of the close herbaceous vegetation which surrounded the larger forest trees aud plants. Similar opinions have been expressed by M. Ponchet and other savans, so that M. Grand' Enry has more or less eminent authorities tor his statement, that a calculation of accumulation of trees, etc., necessary for the conversion into even a thin coal bed, a forest suddenly buried under water or gradually letting its residue gather on the ground, leads to an evidently erroneous result: so greatly is it necessary to exaggerate either the mass of vegetable matter or the duration of the process of coal formation.
M. Grand' Enry believes that coal was at one time liquid, and gradually assumed a solid shape. Ue considers that coal beds were formerly beds of naptha and bituminous petroleum, produced by the decomposition of inferior aquatic vegetation, under the influence of heat and dampness. Asa proof of this assertion, he quotes the fact that the porous minerals found at the bottom of ocal pits are impregnated in their pores with naptha and petroleum. This is immediately detected by their odor and it is therefore argued that this naptha could only have been absorbed during the first state of coal formation. It is further remarked that this theory serves to explain the formation of petroleum, asphalte and other bituminous springs, which are found at various depths and even at the bottom of some lakes.
In further defense of the hypothesis that coal was once in a liquid state, it is urged that cannel coal lights in the same way as resin, and can be used like a torch or flambeau. Another proof is the fact that the lighter substances (turfs, lignites, etc.), are on the top. Various proofs are furnished by the absence of similarity between the ashes of wood and coal, that the two substances are not so closely connected as has been thought to be the case.
The presence of fossil imprints or plants is explained by the fact that these imprints are in the earthy and schistous portions of the mines, and not in the coal itself. The trunks of trees which are sometimes found are not coal, properly so called, and retain certain properties of wood. The waters in which there grew the vegetable substances contained (like such waters of the present time) carbonate of lime, carbonate of iron, and alum. Hence the presence of these salts in certain kinds of coal is explained.
These interesting fact~ quoted by M. Paul Nool are possibly not altogether new, but in any case deserve attention from the methodical and careful manner in which they are presented by him. Ideas of a more or less novel kind have from time to time been put forward by French writers with regard to this subject. M. Genncte asserted that coal is produced from a certain sandy earth which
he names ogas, while M. de Gonsanne regards it as clay mixed with sufficient bitumen and sulphur to render it combustible. In further illustration of his theory, he quotes the fact that none of the ligneous products with which we are acquainted can, strictly speaking, be called coal; referring specinlly to lignites, etc.
A Former Wilkes-Barrean's Death.
Col. William P. Wilson, formerly of this city, died at Warm Springs, Va., a short time ago, his demise being caused by heart disease superinduced by rheumatism, contracted while serving in the Rebellion. Col. Wilson was engaged in the drug business in this city in 1870-1, in partnership with P. M. Barber, they having a fine establishment in Music Hall block, and another on Public Square in the store room lately vacated by C. B. Metzger, Col. Wilson's wife is a sister of Allan H. Dickson Esq. He was an aid in Gen. Hancock's staff during the war, and for five years subsequently. Col. Wilson was a brave soldier, an honorable business man and an upright citizen.
The following is taken fromKulp's Families of Wyomiug:
Rev. H S. Dickson had four children, the youngest, Allan Hamilton Dickson, Esq., of Wilkes-Bnrre, another, Ellen, who married Col. W. P. Wilson, of Potter's Mills, Centre County, Pa. Col. Wilson was a grandson of Hugh Wilson, who was one of the founders of the Irish settlement at Bath, Northampton County, Pa., and a son of Dr. William Irvine Wilson, whose wonderful energy, courage and devotion in the practice of medicine throughout Penn's Valley during its early history, and whose cheerful and profuse hospitality at his home, at Potter's Mills, made him famous and beloved by all of his many friends and acquaintances. He died atBellefonte, on September 22, 1883, in his ninetieth year. Col. Wilson served throughout the war on the staff of Gen. W. S. Hancock, and remained in the regular army until 1870, when he resigned his commission and engaged in business.
,Indge Dana's Indian l'lpe.
A Tunkhannock correspondent of the Scranton Free I'rcxs, writes thus: "Up the side of Avery mountain is a cave, from the mouth of which you get a lovely view of the valley: they say this cave was a hiding place and shelter for the Indians in days gone by. Just across the river on the flats was an Indian burying ground. A German farmer, who work's Dr. Dana's farm, told me yesterday that two years ago, when plowing for corn, he turned up seven Indian skulls, a lot of beads, wampum, arrow tips and a curious pipe. Judge Dana, of Wilkos-Barre, who is a collector of relics, gave $'.30 for the pipe.
THE IIEKWICK CENTENNIAL.
Some Data Relating to the Town's .Settlement — Confusion as to the Precise Date — Names of the Founder ami Early Residents—Notable Kvents, Enterprises, Kuilflings, Ktr.
Authorities differ as to the exnct time to celebrate the centennial of the borough of Berwick, Columbia Co. The people there say 1886 is the proper year. Hon. Steuben Jenkins says it should be next year. While Dr. Egle. in his history of Pennsylvania, says Berwick was first settled in 1783, and this date coincides with that given in Day's Historical Collections of Pennsylvania, published in 1843. In the Berwick hulepenilfnt of Jul) 14, 1870, still another date is given, it being stated that Berwick was founded in 1780 by Evan Owen, whose name would indicate Welsh origin, who came from Philadelphia in a aDnrhamboat. He built a habitation and laid out a town, which he called Owensville. He subsequently named the town Berwick, after his birthplace in Scotland, along the river Tweed. His house was of logs upon a site now occupied by the St. Charles HUel. The settlers who immediately followed were Robert and John Brown, Englishmen: Samnel Jackson, a brother-iu law of Owen; Jaines Evans, a millwright: Henry Traugh, a tanner: John Smith, a shoemaker, and John Jones.
John Brown opened the first hotel, and it was the favorite stopping place for travelers between Wilkes-Barre and Northumberland. This hotel stood where the Y. M. C. A.building now stands.
The next hotel was built by John Jones, at corner of Market and Front Streets, and was kept by him.
Abraham Klotz kept the Jones Hotel stand a long while: then Frederick Nicely, duriug whose time it was known as the Cross Keys. The St. Charles Hotel was the first brick structure in the town. It was first known as theSeybert stand, then as the Rising Sun. Its present name was but recently applied. After Seyberl it was kept successively by Connelly. Leidy, Ruch, Miller. Hoyt, Correll, McNair, Stedman, Euke and Seely.
Dr. Headley kept a hotel in what is known as the old Headley house, the present residence of H. R. Bower.
A market house was erected in 180ij, it serving for schools, religious services, public meetings and elections.
Game was plenty in those days and wolves were a common nuisance.
John Jones opened the first store about 1800. Other early storekeepers were J. & A. Miller, J. A E. Leidy, Thomas Richardson, Matthew McDowell, Wright & Slocum, Robert Mc
Curdy, Stowers 4 Ellis, Clark, Drilly <fc Scoville, Wm. C. Reynolds, Gilmore <t Shumau, Rittenhouse and Shuman, Headley it Bahl, Headley, McNair it Co., Fowler it Driesbach, J. & J. Bowman, who were succeeded by C. B. Bowman, George Lane, father of the late Charles A. Lane, of this city, who was also a Methodist preacher and for a long time identified with the Book Concern, Now \ots.
The first farmer was Sebastian Soybert, who had also a store and blacksmith shop. His farm was at the Swamp, in Salem 1 ownship, two miles above Berwick.
Among the early comers were Mr. Davenport, the Mi.lloys, Samuel Herrin, William Cox, Paul Thompson, iwho was a potter,) the Vernetts (Mrs. Dr. Ingham being a descendant of this family) and Marshalls. Joseph Staekhouse brought fruit trees from Bucks County which he planted in the square comprised between Second, Third, Mulberry and Vine Streets. The first lawyer was Bancroft; first judge, John Cooper; first doctors, Moreland and Reisswick; first postmaster, William Brien; first schoolmaster; Isaac Holloway; first Sunday schoolman, D. Bowen; first preachers, Carson and Painter, first coopers, John and Peter Solt; first carpenter, John Brown; first blacksmith, Aquila Star: first tailor, Benjamin Dean; first mason, Johnathan Cooper; first dyer, Bush; first tanner, Henry Traugh; first dentist, Vallershamp: first tinner, Hiram Inman; first gunsmiths, Sleppy <fc Co.; first wheelwright, James Evans; first silversmith, Marshall; first milliner, Roxana Courtright: first painter, Abel Dalby; first butcher, Staekhouse; then Jonathan Cooper; first weaver, Polly Mullen; first cabinet m iker, Samuel Herrin; first saddle and harnessmaker, Col. John Snyder; first lime burner, John Jones.
Wm. Brien kept the first ferry. The first bridge was built in 1814 by Theodore Burr, it being carried away by a freshet 21 years later. Its officers were A. Miller, Sr., president; John Brown, treasurer; managers, Silas Engle, Thomas Bowman, ElUha Barton, Jr. After a few years a new bridge was built, the State contributing 810,000, and this structure still stands. The contribution on the part of the State was obtained through the effort* of Jesse Bowman, who was delegated to visit Hariisburg and urge the matter before the Legislature. The bridge was built by Eliphalet Edson andCharles Barrett. Its cost was about 845,000. John Bowman was presidem in 1837, when it was finished, and until 1843. He was succeeded by his brother.Jesse Bowman, who continued in office during his life. Others who helped the enterprise through were S. F. HcHdley, J. T. Beach, Dr. A. B. Wilson, Robert Smith and Judge Mack.