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mend to all Settlers holding Lands and relying on the Title aforesaid, to advance such sums, in proportion to the Interest they severally claim and hold nnder suoh Title, as will enable said Agents to employ Conneel and defray the nece nary expenses, and prosecuting and carrying the foregoing resolves into effect.
5, Resolved, And whereas it has been represented to this Meeting oy an instrument of writing nnder the hand of Abraham Horn, Esq., the Agent appointed under the Act of the General Assembly of this State passed the 10th of February, 1801, that he is authorized to acquaint the Settlers of ijuzerne, that the Pennsylvania Landholders, agreeably to the Instructions given to the Agent, are disposed to offer an easy compromise.
Therefore, Resolved that our agents be and they are hereby directed to receive any proposals that may be made by the Pennsylvania Landholders or their Agents legally authorized respectins an amicable compromise of the land in controversy and report such proposals to the settlers aforesaid.
6, Resolved, That the foregone Resolutions be signed by the Chairman and Clerk, and that the same be published in tbe public Papers printed at Wilkes-Barre.
Signed, Daniel Kinne, Chairman.
Samukl Baldwin, Clerk.
Bassett Family Re-Union A re-union picnio of the descendants of Luther Bassett was held in Boyd's grove, near Danville, on Friday, Sept. 3. Luther Bassett was aBon of Jeremiah and Elizabeth Simpson Bassett, his father being of Irish, and his mother of Scotch decent, while in tbe veins of his wife ran German blood. The family all told (living members) numbers 111, of whom 56 were present. There are living five children, 32 grand-children, 44 great grand children, and five greatgreat-grand-children. Among those present were Dr. W. G. Weaver, of Wilkes-Barre; I. C. Kline, of Kline's Grove, form-rly a teacher in the Wilkes-Barre public schools; Mrs. Margaret Morgan and three children of Kingston. Elliot R. Morgan, of Kingston, is also a relative.
The Doylestown Intelligencer of Ang. 21, contains a paper read before the Buoks County Historical Society July 27, by Rev. D. K. Turner on the Schools of Neshaminy. The same print also contains the paper on John and Jacob Holoombe, read at the joint meeting of the Hunterdon County (N.J.,) Historical Society and the Holcombe family reunion, on Ang. 11, by Dr. George Hol
Q mbe Larison,
THE REDEMPTION EKS.
A Philanthropic Form of Servitude now Passed Away—How a Luzerne County Family of these People was Swept Away by a Cruel Fatality.
Of all the conditions of servitude in this country, those of the Redemptioners were least oppressive. They were those who, being too poor to pay in money for their ocean passage, contracted absolutely to serve for a term the value of which should equal the cost of their transportation. It is important to remember that they were really sold. The "contract" was probably made with the captain,or owner of the vessel which brought them,agreeing to be sold and bonnd, upon arriving here, to some person who, for the least number of years of their service to him would pay the cost oftheir passage. I doubt if any special law covering this condition of servitude was ever in existence; it is probable that the redemptioners were governed by the general laws referring to hereditary slaves and feudal tenure. The cost of the voyage at the time the earliest settlers came to America was eight or ten pounds sterling, and it took five years of service in 1672 to repay this obligation. There was little variety in work here; it was usually agricultural or mere laboring. It is significant that, while the value of a white person in such circumstances was ten pounds, that of a negro was twenty-five pounds. Negroes had been enslaved in Africa, among each other, from time immemorial. They were first taken to Europe by the Portuguese in 1443, and to America (the Virginia Colony) by the Dutch in 1620. The conquering armies of Christendom likewise usually held their captives in slavery. To free the christians among these latter an institution of religious monks was founded, which bore the name of Redemptioners, or Trinitarians, and it is supposed that our Redemptioners took this title from that institution. Perhaps the same name was applied to the prisoners of war sent here. The Scots taken in the field of Dunbar were sent into iuvoluntarj servitude in New England: and the Ro/alist prisoners of the battle of Worcester, (of whom the names of 270 are recorded) and the leaders in the insurrection of Penruddoc were sent to America. The fact that their servitude was involuntary, however, differentiates them from the genuine Redemptioners. The Redemptioner's term of service could be transferred, but he was not in the position of an ordinary white servant, who was a frequent article of traffic, though the laws of the colonies favored their early emancipation. How many Redemptioners came to America can never be known; gome came to Lnzerne County—among the rest Conrad Knoch, the humble narrative of whose life is very pathetic, and probably typical in general of many others. He was born in Germany in 1759, and, like a sensible boy, tell in love with a girl about bis own age, which fired both of them with zeal to make life a success. Bat they were too poor to be married in Germany. The Kedemptioner's plan came to their aid, and they lauded in Philadelphia about 1784, were both purchased at their solicitation by the same person, at whose place they were married. There they worked like Germans till 1815 or '10, by which time they had not only redeemed themselves, but also saved enough to purchase 128 acres of land in Luzerne County, (Hanover Township,) as well as an abundance of the equipments of farming. A large family had by this time graced their union, and they all grew to man and woman hood, and one daughter married and became a mother; but here interposed one of the strange fatalities of nature; the father and mother and all of the children and the grandchild in quick succession were swept away as if by the hand of God. There is not an heir in America. The property descended to the nephews and nieces in Germany. They Bold it for Sl,700 to the German Consul in Philadelphia, who had been appointed administrator of the estate and who resigned the office to purchase the property. His heirs now draw the royalty on the coal which was made possible by brave Conrad and Elizabeth Knoch.
G. H. R. Plumb.
The paint-stone in the possession of Postmaster Hope, of Paint, Ohio, says a correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette, is about five inches long and three inches broad, and tapers to an edg» like a stone hatchet. It is extremely heavy and looks like a smooth piece of polished iron which has been corroded, or like a piece of polished iron ore. A hole drilled through the middle makes a place for a string or thong of deer sinew by which it was attached to his belt by the Indian warrior. "What was this hatchet used for?" I asked Mr. Hope, picking up one of the paint stones. "Do you call that a hatchet?" he remarked; "look here a minute and I will show you."
He picked up a small saucer made out of granite and rudely fashioned on the principle of an India-ink saucer. He filled the hollow of the saucer with water and then rubbed the "hatchet" in it as he would have done a cake of water-color paint. In a few minutes he had Fl teaspoonful of brilliant vermilion paint. Applying some of it to the back of his hand in stripes it proved to be a brilliant vermilion flesh dye, bright
enough to send the most dudical Indian beau into raptures.
"This," said Mr. Hope, noting my look of amazement, "is an Indian paint-stone. It was found in this county and is a remarkably fine specimen. The Indians were accustomed to tie the paint-stones to their belts by means of thongs, and always carried them to battle. The mode of manufacturing them was quite remarkable. The Indians hunted up springs which contained oxide of iron. The iron iu such springs always floats on the top in the form of a scum. This they would patiently skim off the surface with a rude spoon and collect it in a vessel which they used for the purpose. When they had collected a snfflcieut amount of 'skimming' to make u paint-stone they added certain other substances, and then molded it into the hatchet shape which characterizes all the paint-stones left by the Indians. The method they employed in doing the molding is not definitely known. The springs in the neighborhood of Paint were remarkable for the amount of iron scum they yielded, and this region was a favorite resort for the Indians to make paint-stones. This one gives a bright vermilion tint, but there are others which give a bright yellow or a rich purple tint. With these colors the Indian braves could get themselves up in superb style. They would rub the paint-stone in water in this stone saucer,and then apply the stripes to their skins directly with the stone. The color which it yields does not rub off, but remains on the skin a long time. The exact recipe which the Indians employed in making the paint-stones will never be known, but the principle of all the coloring matter is the oxide of iron. This paint scum can often be seen on the springs and streams in this vicinity now."
The riumb Faintly In America.
G. H. R. Plumb, Esq" of this city,—whose father, Hon. H. B. Plumb, recently published a valuable History of Hanover Township, Luzerne County,- is collecting genealogical and other data concerning the Plumb family in America. Already he has on his list a hundred families, representing more than half of the States in the Union, and he expects to find a thousand more. The family name is variously spelled Plumb, Plumb and Plum, and many of its representatives have become prominent in business, theology, statesmanship, law and the fine arts. Lawyer Plumb is rapidly adding to his mass of information by sending circulers to all of the family name of whom he can learn.
In 1800 the population of the county was only 12,839,
Interesting Proceeding* at the Quarterly Meeting - Valuable Contribution* — Electing New Members—Preparations for the County Centennial.
The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society held its quarterly meeting Sept. 10. President K. L. Dana was in the chair. A. H. MoClintock read the minutes. The list of contributions was read and a vote of thanks passed to the donors. The individual contributors were: A. J. Hill, M. J. Griffin,
G. B. Kolp, G. M. Lung, Hon. J. A. Scrauton.C. W. Darling, 0. B. Dougherty, Hon. K. H. MoKnne, Prof. J. C. Branner.Hon. C. A. Miner, J. G. Rosengarten, Robert Baar, F. C. Johnson, Rev. J. B. Gross, Lt. A. W. Vogdes, Dr. Harvey, John Reichard, Mich ael Roe, Wm. D. Averill, Dr. W. H. Egle, L.
H. Low, A. P. Kunkle, A. H. Welles, H. C. Wilson, E. B. Yordy, W. P. Morgan, Dr W. H. Sharpe, S. Reynolds, Record, NewsDealer, A. E. Foote, U. S. Commissioner of Patents.
The societies contributing were Natural History Society of New Brunswick, Historical societies of Virginia, Indiana, Iowa, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Irish Catholic Benevolent Union, Lackawanna Institute of History and Science, Dauphin County Historical Society, American Philosophical Society, American Antiquarian Society,Peabody Museum, Carbondale Y. M. L. A., Presbyterian Historical Society, Brookville Society of Natural History, Science.Canadian Institnte, Library Company of Philadelphia, Yale College, United States Geological Survey, Old Residents' Historical Association.
George M. Lung presented some relics of the Moravian settlement near Wyalusinn in the last century: John Reiohard, 73 specimens of Colorado minerals: H. C. Wilson, Mt. Vernon, O., Indian relics: 0 drills, perforated stone, box of bone ashes, cement used in graves, two axes, 7 cells, and 225 spear or arrow points. Mr. Wilson believes that he can trace the development of arrow-making in the specimens which he has collected—several thousand in number—and he believes the "rifled" variety to be the perfection of the lost art. It has a rifled or beveled edge, which gives it a spiral motion when in flight. Nearly all the specimens he sends are from Knox County, Ohio, though one ax was found in Bonaparte Park, Bordeutowu, N J., 11 feet below the surface. He sends, from a grave opened near Frederickstown, (h, by himself and son, some decayed wood, burnt bones and a lump of cement, the grave containing two skeletons.
Morgan, Bros. & Co. presented the first factory-made shoe ever made in Wilkes
Barre, and turned out of their factory in December, 1882.
Letters were read from Brinton Coxe, of Philadelphia, and George E. Waring, of Newport, accepting and returning thanks for their election as corresponding members.
Judge Dana submitted his report as meteorologist, of which the following is a synopsis:
The average temperature for August was 63 1-10 degrees, as compared with 66>£ in 1885; 70 in 1884; 66 in 1883.
Average temperature for July was 67, as compared with 72 in 1885, 71K in 1884, 73 in 1883.
Rain fall in August was 3.12 inches, as compared with men in 1885, 3.41 in 1884, 3.84 in 1883.
Rain fall in July was 3.02, as compared with 3 19 in 1885,4.59 in 1884 6.41 in 1883.
Rain fall in June, 1886, was 2.81, 2.44 in 1885. 3.24 in 1884, 8 12 in 1883.
Rain fall in May. 1886. was 7 inches, 2.63 in 1885, 4.27 in 1884, 5.28 in 1883.
Mr. Reynolds acknowledged the receipt of the portraits of Wilkes and Barre, for whom Wilkes-Barre is named, from the Estate of Washington Lee.
Rev. H. E. Hayden presented a photograph of a burial urn found on the island of Ossabau, on the coast of Georgia. It contained the bones of an infant child and is in the possession of Mr. Wm. Harden, librarian of the Historical Society of Georgia, who sends to the Wyoming Society.
For corresponding membership the following were proposed: Wm. M. Darlington, LL. D., of Pittsburgh, and Samuel W. Pennypacker, of Philadelphia, Dr. D. G. Brinton, of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Col. J. A. Price and W. A. Wilcox, president and corresponding secretary respectively of the Lackawanna Institute of History and Science; also Hon. Steuben Jenkins, for honorary membership. Benjamin F. Morgan, E. W. Horton, F. A. Phelps and J. E. Patterson were elected to membership.
Dr. Charles F. Ingham, the soeiety'n conchologist, read a most interesting and scholarly paper on meteors, with special reference to a supposed meteor found on the farm of J. Crockett, in Ross Township, and now in possession of the society. He pronounced the stone, which is about the size of a human head, not of meteoric origin. Dr. Ingham believes it to be auorthite, brought here in the drift period from the St. Law, rence or the Great Lake region.
Judge Dana brought up the subject of observing the centenary of the erection of Lnzerne County and stated that he had been promised the co-operation of Dr. W. H. Egle, Col. Frank Stewart, Rev. David Craft, Hon. P. M. Osterhout, Dr. H. Hollister, Rev. S. S. Kennedy, D. M. Jones, Esq., Hon. C. E. Rice. Hon. Stiiuley Woodward, Hou. H. B. Plumb, VV. 1'. Rytnan, Esq., and Hon. H. M. Hoy i. Tho due falls upon Sept. 25, and it was ordered that a meeting of the society be held on that day at lu am., to listen to histori H1 addresses. The Chair was empowered to appoint the nece.-sary committtees.
LUZKRNK'S FIRST CKNTURY.
The Occasion Comm«morut«d by a Public Meeting Under the Auspices of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.
It was on the 25th of September, 1786, that Luzerne County was erected and the centennial of that event was commemorated with interesting exercises. The celebration was very properlj held in the court house, Judge Woodward adjourning court at 10 o'clock, out Of compliment to the historic occasion. Luzerne County has had no less than three centennial celebrations—that in 1872, in honor of the laying out of WilkesBarre; in 1876, in common with the National Centennial, and in 1878, the 100th anniversary of the battle and massacre of Wyoming. This being the case the present centennial lacked the feature of novelty and was permitted to pass without the pomp and circumstance usually incident to such occasions. The Wyoming Historical Society determined to not let the occasion go by unobserved and a meeting was arranged for, Gen. E. L. Dana being the chief mover in the matter.
The hour set was 10 o'clock, at which time Judge Woodward was still on the bench. He stated that in view of the historic event, so important to the county history, he had adjourned the court and ordered the fa-t to be spread npon the day's minutes as a perpetual record. The J udge then went on to give some historical data. He proceeded to read from the statute for erecting the county, which was an Act of Sept. 25, 1786. It provided that Luzerne County be set otT from the northern portion of Northumberland County. He exhibited the first continuance docket or minute book of the county organized under the statute, from which it appeared that the first session of court was held May 28, 1787, in the house of Zebulon Butler. The first business wits to organize. Dr. William Hooker Smith, Benjamin Carpenter, James Nesbilt, Timothy Pickering, Obadiah Gore, Nathan Kingsley and Matthias Hollenback were sworn in as justices of the peace. Timothy Pickering—who might have served as a prototype for Gilbert & Sullivan's Poo Bah in the "Mikado"—was made prothonotary, clerk of the Peace and of the Orphans' Court, register of wills and reoorder of
deeds. Joseph Sprague was made court crier. Lord Butler, the first sheriff of the county, was instructed to take measures for the erection of a jail.
Judge Woodward exhibited the commission of Sheriff Butler, who was a grandfather of the Judge's wife. It bears the signature of Benjamin Jb'racklin. The legal practitioners who were sworn in were Ebenezer Bowuiau, Putnam Catlm, Rosewell Welles and Wm. Nichols. The speaker exhibited the first legal paper, a capias, Sept. Term, 1787, Samuel Allen vs. Henry Barney, Catlin attorney. At that time the county contained only 2,730 taxables, now, the same territory has a population of nearly half a million. Having concluded his hasty retrospect Judge Woodward said he would come down from the bench and turn over the meeting to its proper custodian, the Historical Society.
Judge Dana, president of the society, took the chair and after a few appropriate remarks called upon Rev. E. Hazard Snowden, the oldest minister in the county, to open the exercises, and he addressed the throne of grace in language peculiarly adapted to the occasion.
Mr. C. Ben. Johnson read letters of regret from Gov. Pattison, tho Rt. Rev. William Bacon Stev»ns, Dr Coppee, of Lehigh University; Charles J. Hoadley, State Librarian of Connecticut; W. S. Stryker, Adjutant General of New Jersey; Henry B. Dawson, the New York historian: Miss Emily C. Blackman. author of "History of Susquehanna County;" Rev. Dr. David Craft, the historian of Wyalusing. Mr. Hoadley sent an interest'ng contribution—the commission of Jonathan Fitch as first Sheriff of Westmoreland, dated Hartford, Nov. 28, 1776.
Judge Dana read a brief but valuable paper—by Dr. Hollister, of Providence, who was unable to attend—on the "Birth of Luzerne County." In it reference was made to the attempt to locate the county-seat on the west side of the Susquehanna, and of Ethan Allen's scheme to bring his Green Mountain Boys here and establish an independent government in Wyoming.
Hon. Steuben Jenkins, the veteran Wyoming historian, read a paper descriptive of the government of Wyoming prior to the erection of Luzerne County. It had to deal with the Quarter Sessions, the speaker said, as Judge Woodward had with the Common Pleas. The troublous times were described, as also the local dissatisfaction with the new regime, which placed all the offices of profit in the hands of a single individual, Timothy Pickering, and he a Pennamite. The paper was a valuable contribution to local history.
Mr. C. I, A. Chapman took exceptions to the language of the Act changing the boundary of the new county. He made the point that instead of changing the western boundary from W to N 1 degree W, an provided by the act, the change contemplated was from W to N 89 degrees W. The latter represented the contemplated change of one degree, while the former implies a change of 89 degrees, which was not contemplated. Mr. Jenkins replied that he was aware of the technicial error, but he could not change the language of the Act.
A most elaborate and scholarly paper was presented by Hon. E. L. Dana on the Chevalier de la Luzerne, from whom the county derived ice nam". Most of the subject matter was entirely new, having been obtained by the speaker's son from the unpublished archives of the French Qovernment. The paper revealed, what few people are aware of, how warm a friend Luzerne was to the straggling colonists and the practical aid given by him to the American cause. Not the least interesting was the official advice to Luzerne of the naming of a connty for him, together with his reply, which was replete with words expressive of his love for America and for Pennsylvania, in which he had lived for a time.
The assistance given by the Paxtang Rangers to the Connecticut settlers at Wyoming in their contest with with the Pennamites was graphically portrayed by Dr. W. H. Egle, of Harrisburg, who read an admirable paper on "The House of Lancaster to the Rescue." Dr. Egle was probably the best reader of the day, and his portraiture of the Hardy Scotch-Irish Presbyterians who rallied to the standard of the Yankees in their struggle against what they believed to be the tyranny of Pennsylvania was graphic in the extreme. Dr. Egle is one of the most extensive historical writers in the Commonwealth and the Historical Society was fortu nate in securing his presence. His address was warmly received and generously applauded.
At this juncture the meeting adjourned until 2 pni., when the regular order was again taken np, the first exercise being an original poem by Attorney David M. Jones, which was greeted with hearty applause.
Rev. S. S. Kennedy, traveling agent of the Luzerne County Bible Society, sent an entertaining paper, giving a historical sketch of the township of Abingtnn, originally in Luzerne, but now in Lackawanna, and it was read in part by the chairman.
Another of the old townships—Putnam— was written up by P. M. Osterhout, Esq., of Tunkhannock, who was present and read his paper. It gave an amount of valuable data.
F. 0. Johnson gave a synopsis of a paper
now being prepared by him, presenting what is virtually a chapter of unwritten history, referred to by only one historian, Miner, and disposed of by him in a sentence or two. The subject was "The Proposed Exodus of Wyoming Settlers in 1783." In that year the Connecticut settlers in Wyoming, discouraged 'iy the Decree of Trenton, which had decided the land controversy in favor of the Pennamites, determined to seek the friendly shelter of another State. A petition was drawn up and signed by 400 settlers, asking the Assembly of New York to grant a tract of lands on the Susqnehanna.beginning near the Pennsylvania line and continuing to Onoquago, immediate settlement to be made. The memorial was taken to Albany by Obadiah Gore, on horseback, where it met with favorable action of both Senate and Assembly. The exodus never took place, us such, though some of the petitioners did seek a retreat along the waters of the upper Susquehanna. As time passed by, Pennsylvania rule was found less oppressive than had been anticipated and the Wyoming people remained on their possessions. The paper was interesting as being made up of new material, the original petition, with signatures, having been furnished the sneaker by the secretary of the Oneida Historical Society, and most of the other matter having been found among the State historical records at Albany.
William P. Miner, Esq.. for many years editor and proprietor of the Wilkes-Barre Recobd, read a most entertaining paper on the progress of printing in Luzerne County. The paper began with an account of his trip on horseback from West Chester to WilkesBarre in September, 1832, having been promoted from the office of assistant devil in the West Chester Village Record to the position of imp of the ink balls in the office of the Wyoming Herald printed and published by Asher Miner and Steuben Butler. Mr, Miner described the primitive method by which the Herald was printed on a Ramage press, inked with wool-stuffed buckskin balls held in each hand. Mr. Miner alluded to these papers in his possession: Wilkes-Barre Gazelle, 1797 to 1800; Luzerne Federalist, 1801 to 1811; Gleaner, 1811 to 1818; as well as many subsequent.
C. I. A. Chapman was called upon and made some extempore remarks on the changes in the landmarks of justice which he had witnessed in his lifetime—one the incapacity of woman to possess property in her own right, the other imprisonment for debt, and his recollection, when a boy, of seeing Rufus Bennett, the last survivor of the Wyoming masacre in jail for a paltry debt of a few dollars. Mr. Chapman exhibited a drawing of the old pnblic square, made by him