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for salt with those of Mazumbo, and these selling them for coro to." the inhabitants of Congo, till, at laft, from kingdom to kingdom, they fall into the hands of Europeans."
Yet nine pages farther on, in P. 184, he does not blush to aflert, in a peremptory manner;
“ Had Europeans never been known in Africa, or their merchandize exposed to sale, this species of traffic would never have exifted; and every true friend to humanity must sudder, must even doubt the rationality of those cannibal-minded Christians, as they are called, when he witnesses the manner in which these poor wretches are treated. Not only here, but in other countries, have men reduced thousands and thousands under the yoke of Navery. In how many countries is the holy religion of Jesus abused, to the oppression of freemen, and to the afligning them, as it were, a middle place between man and beast, merely for the sake of riches, and heaping up possessions of every species! We ought, therefore, by no means to be surprised, if in countries where Christianity has for such purposes been established by fire and sword, but from which it has been again expelled, Chriftians are not unfrequently perfecuted, and even martyred. Nor is it without a motive, that many heathens of this country say the Christian religion must confist in robbing other men of their property, in 'con. verring countries into deserts, and rendering mankind wretched : while, on the other hand, these nations have been unjustly described as cruel and base, merely through hatred, for having treated some few Europeans as the latter have created thousands of their
What credit can be given to a writer who thus fatly contra dicts himself? The following mode of killing Tigers, said to be practised by the Seegerins, borders on the marvellous.
“ The next day I procured information relative to the adjacent countries, and in the afternoon went to the wood, with four men, to hunt. They foon descried a tiger, which they determined to take. I feemed uneasy at the preparations they made for the chace; but at this they laughed, and at length were so fortunate as to kill him without being hurt themselves. Two of them threw javelins at him, while the other two, who stood near, held a spear in their right hand, and in their left a piece of strong leather, made of buffalo or elephant-skin, to defend themselves in case they did not hit the beast well, and he should attack them. This took place in the present instance; for the tiger attempted to seize the foremost man by the throat ; but he held his hand, which was covered with leather, ready, and thrusting it in. to the throat of the beast, robbed him of the power of biting ; mean. while, with his right hand, he immediately plunged his spear into his body, upon which the other three rushed upon him, and killed him. In like manner they destroy wolves and lions."
In the note to P. 202, the author is guilty of a falfhood in asserting that “ the English boast of paying large sums” for
the ranfom of Europeans, who have fallen into the hands of the Africans, whom, instead of restoring to liberty, they fend as flaves to their own colonies. During his stay at Zambre, in the service of the King of that country, he tells us, he“ made three campaigns," though he only staid " there five months."* (P. 79.) Of the kingdom of Haoussa he draws a most flattering picture.
“ The kingdom of Haoussa is the fineit tract of country I saw in Africa, on my whole journey from the Cape. It borders eaftwards on the kingdom of Mophaty (Zanfara), northwards on the territory of Fomingho*, westwards on the kingdom of Feene, and southwards on the kingdom of Bahara. The river Niger flows through one part of the country, fertilizing it, and procuring it many advantages for commerce ; as a number of vessels go from Tambuko to Boosu ; where the goods are un hipped, and farther transported by caravans. This country is extremely fruitful ; and, if it were inhabited by civilized nations, might obtain great wealth. It is rich in animals of all kinds, with plenty of timber and a variety of fruits. The mountains yield salt and saltpetre, the forests honey and wax, and the mines, which might be found in their bowels, if the inhabitants would but explore them, would produce immense treasures. The country has three several nations for its inhabitants : 1. The Samtygoetys, inhabiting the southern borders ; 2. The Kahmosanians, dwelling on the east side; and, 3. The Haoussanians, in the heart of the country. The inhabit. ants, in general, wear long cloaks of party-coloured linen, fastened about the body ; and, instead of fhoes, leather thongs wound crosswise over their feet. About the head they usually wind a partycoloured linen or cotton cloth. The soldiers alone wear round their head a red cloth, made of either goat's-hair or cotton, together with the ordinary cloak.”
Of the motives of this fortunate kingdom his account is equally favourable; he represents them as kind, obliging, humane, and hospitable.
The coloured plates, mentioned in the title-page, are three in number, representing two natives of Caffraria, two inhabitants of Bahahara, and a Moor of the desert of Sahara, they are extremely well executed. Of the map prefixed to the work, as being of more consequence, it will be proper to give the editor's own description.
“ As to the projection, that of Mercator was made choice of as the most suitable to the statement of those regions of the world which the author frequently lays down, and as the disadvantage of it, in too greatly extending the higher latitudes, is of the least consequence precisely in regard to Africa, which the equator pretty nearly divides in
* “ This tract, which is from ten to twelve German miles in length, and five or lix in breadth, I have never found on any map."
the midft. The Latitudes are marked at every five degrees, in which the common rules for these degrees, x=9,3010 Paris-inches, and therefore five degrees of longitude 0,81166 inches have been adopted. It were to be withed that every map should give in numbers the scale on which the construction has been made; the attention to that circumstance in our map will not be thought superfluous.
• The author had delineated his route on Mannert's map, published in 1794, by Weigel and Schneider, without naming the worthy author. It might be supposed that I had no more to do than to transfer that route to my map, always applying the magnetic declension according to Major Rennell's hypothesis. But I often found that I absolutely could not follow his directions, fo as that they would suit the places which he names. Accordingly I was obliged to insert these latter as they are set down in the best publications, and suit them to his journey as well as I was able. The compass that he had with him, feems by some injury or other to have been out of order.
“ The degrees, astronomically ascertained, are notoriously but few, and most of those stated in Niebuhr's, Bruce's, and Browne's Travels, as well as the investigations made of late by the French in Ægypt, lic too remote from the route of our author for enabling me to make any ether than a distant use of them as applicable to his travels.
“ In the northern part of Africa, the coast from cape Spartel to cape Verd is well ascertained by the voyage of the Itis frigate, published by Fleurieu, Paris, 1793, 2 vols. 4to. This would have been taken as the ground.work, only some of the main particulars are not fo itated as they are given in those Travels, but interpolated from the latest Connaissance des tems for the year xi. and others. From thence, the charts which Bellin has subjoined to his Histoire générale des Voyages, furnish us with an excellent series of plans of the coast reaching quite to cape Negro. The last is a point astronomically afcertained. Thence again, as far as the Cape of Good Hope, Mr. Arrowsmith, in his second Map of the World, which appeared in 1795, seems to have laid down the coasts the most accurately, as in the track he has two astronomical points, which I find no where else.
“ The Cape of Good Hope, and particularly the Cape-town, is generally allowed to be extremely well ascertained by la Caille. But from thence, as far as the Red Sea, where Niebuhr's statements com. mence, the coast, Madagascar excepted, is one of the parts of the earth with which we are the least acquainted. I supplied the deficiences here as well as I was able from Arrowsmith's two maps of the world, Vaugondy's map in three sheets, that of Mannert, and the latest by Dr. Reinecke. Cape-Guardafui is admitted as laying in 12 deg. 45 min. of north latitude.
« As to what concerns the northern part of the inland country there was no choice. Rennell, by his last map, has almost entirely rectified the whole; and his statements will long remain the rule for geogra. phers to proceed upon. This is moft fenfibly felt by comparing his former inap of northern Africa, which he presented to the African
Company in 1793, with that lately given in Mr. Mungo Park's Travels. That future travels may place many things in a different light ; that, even at present later discoveries state particular parts quite differently; for instance the empire of Darfur, which he places 5 degrees more to the south than Browne, is rather the fault of our flight knowledge of Africa than of the meritorious author. It is only to be lamented, that he somewhat increases the difficulty of such as come after him, from the circumstance that the stereographic net, or intersecting lines, which he usually puts to his maps, is not always accurate and just.
" Of the southern part Dr. John Reinhold Forster has given a map, published by Schneider and Weigel. But I cannot conceive how it happened, that the Cape of Good Hope, and with that main point the whole map is one degree too far to the west. I have, therefore, brought so much more eastward all the points taken from this map.
“ Of the lower part we only know, on the eastern coast, the territories of Monomotapa, Sofala, and fome of the adjacent countries; and on the east side Leango, Congo, Angola, and Benguela, with one or two others in those parts. These are taken from Arrowsmith's
for one of them actually has sometimes more and some. times fewer places and geographical data than the other ; and from Bellin. What was wanting in them is taken from Vaugondy, Rei. necke, Mannert, and the map of Janvier, which appeared in 1753, consequently three years labsequent to Danville's. I was obliged to be satisfied with this, which generally conforms to that of Danyille, as I could not pick up the former. This great geographer also published an uncommonly valuable dissertation, in the xxvith volume of the Mémoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions, on the rivers in the interior of Africa. A few other maps made use of, I omit to mention, for example, that of the Algerine States, with the latest account of that country, which appeared some years ago in Altona, and is the best of those States now extant, as they could only furnish me with a few detached points. “ Leipzic, Oa. 11, 1800.
" C. F. GOLDBACH."
two maps ;
Remarks on the Poor Laws and the Maintenance of the Poor.
By William Bleamire, Esq. Barrister at Law, and one of
Mainwaring, Esq. whose zeal and vigilance as a magis trate, whose integrity and independence as a fenator, and whose perseverance, judgment, and ability in the discharge of
the very arduous and important duties of chairman of the quarter tessions for the populous county of Middlesex, give him an irresistible claim to the gratitude of his fellow countrymen, and endear him, in a particular manner, to those who bave an opportunity of more closely observing his many private and public virtues. The author, who is himself an able, upright, and judicious magistrate, enumerates the various laws which have pailed, from time to time, for the support and maintenance of the poor; and concludes with strongly recommending the abolition of the office of overseer; and of all parochial settlements. But, though Mr. B. is himself fully convinced of the propriety, expediency, and utility of this meafure, it would produce so radical a change in the whole system of our Poor Laws, that it would require to be very seriously considered, and very minutely examined, before it could be adopted.
In speaking of the poor Mr. Bleamire makes a very proper distinction, which, it is much to be wished, were more generally observed, between those who are fit objects of relief, and those whom it was never in the contemplation of the framers of our poor laws, to cast as a burden upon the parish.
“ Speaking of the poor, I do not mean to include in that description all the objects that are received into A POOR-HOUSE, but those only who, by the old law, were, and now are, distinguished by the impotent poor.' Persons utterly unable to support themselves were always proper objects for relief, by the means before mentioned; but the idle, lazy, and abandoned, who now, to the shame of our modern governors of parishes, croud every poor-house, were, and fill ought to be, objects of punishment. If those who are intrusted with the care and management of the poor would exercise an impartial and honest discrimination among the persons who apply to them for relief, poorhouses would be less frequented, the poor-rates considerably reduced, and, by turning these recepticles into workhouses, vicious idleness be checked, and virtuous industry greatly promoted."
The author explains his meaning, in respect of the abolition of settlements, in the following passage:
“ With regard to the abolition of fettlements, I confess myself an advocate for the measure, being of opinion that all perfons should be considered as settled in the parish or place where they may happen to want relief. This would prevent the great trouble and enormons ex. pences which in appeals and other litigations constantly attend the re. moval of paupers, and afford an opportunity to every poor and induftrious person to procure a living in such place as shall be best suited to his particular exertions." But surely there will be insuperable objections to the adop