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and as a proof, that the Jacobins of France were no more than imitators of the American Whigs.

“ The quantity of our paper money is too great, and the price of goods, can be only effectually reduced by reducing the quantity of this money, The next point, then, to be considered is, tbe method to reduce it. (Mark well this method.] The circumstances of the times require, that the public characters of all men should now be fully understood, and the only general method of ascertaining it is by an oath or affirmation, renouncing all ailegiance to the King of Great Britain, and to support the independency of the United States, as declared by Congress. Let, at the same time, a tax of ten, fifteen, or twenty per cent. per annum, to be collected quarterly, be levied on the property of all those who refuse to take the oath. There alternatives, being perfe&tly woluntary, will take in all forts of people. HERE IS THE TEST; OR

Further, it would not only be good policy, but frict justice, to raise fifty or an hundred thousand pounds, or more, if necefl'ary, out of the estates and property of the Quakers in Philadelphia, to be distriþuted as a reward to those inhabitants of the City and State who shall turn out against the enemy; and likewise to bind the property of the Tories, to make good the damages which that of the Whigs may sustain.”

These were the means recommended for giving freedom to America ! The advice was not thrown away. The intrigues of the leading Whigs, that is to say, rebels (the terms were, and are, fynonymous) had so far succeeded, as to gain over a great number of the sturdy rabble to their fide, while the violence, with which they exercised the power they had ufurped, struck terror into the hearts of the peaceable and the rich.

Now began a scene of pillage, of confiscation, of insult, of cruelty, of perfecution of every species, in which the loyal and unfortunate Quakers were the principal suffers. They were robbed of their corn, their flour, their cattle, their shop goods, and sometimes of their household furniture, and the very beds from under them, by virtue of those requisitions, on which the French have so greatly improved. This moveable property was generally seized by armed ruffians, sent by the Committees of Safety, (another inftitution which the French have borrowed from the Americans,) who generally accompanied the execution of their orders with the groffest indecencies towards the females of the families they plundered. The men they frequently beat and lacerated in the most unme:ciful manner. Some they'ducked and pumped on ; others they carried aftride upon a tharp rail, till they dropped off in a state of insensibility; others they dragged to prison, fhut them up with deserters or common thieves, giving them the cold earth to lie on, and bread and water for their only sustenance. Barely to enumerate the various modes which the ingenious cruelty of the Whigs discovered, for the tormenting of these inoffensive people, for their fidelity to their King, would occupy one half of the pages of your Review.

One regulation, which these inexorable rebels alopted, has not, as far as I have heard, been imitated by the regicides of France. It was this : They issued a decree, forbidding any person, who refused to take the tift, that is, who refused to abjure his King, and become a rebel, to go out of his township, or parish; and, as the houses and inhabitants are so widely fcattered, this prohibition operated as a most unbearable cruelty. A great portion of the loyalists, the Quakers in particular, were at once totally cut off front their places of worship, from their markets, their neighbours, their acquaintances, their friends, relations, parents, and children. If a man were at the point of death, his child, if a lojaliit, dared not cross the townthip boundary to see him. An old Quaker doctor, in Chester County, was


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cailed up in the night to come to the aslistance of his daughter, who was fuddenly taken in child-birth, in a township where no midwife refided. It was thought that the father, who also lived out of the town thip, might escape, if detected in passing the boundary ; but those who thought so were not yet fully acquainted with the barbarit: of Whiggiím. The old man was seized just before he reached the house of his daughter, who actually expired for want of help, while the father was dragged to Chester, and lodged in the common prison, from the grates of which he afterwards fawhis daughter's corpse carried to the burying-ground. In fact, this cold-blooded, this lavage, this most hellith decree, leveret the Quakers from all the felicities, all the comforts, all the charities of life. I myself knew a man in Bucks County, who, during a part of the continuance of this decree, W:5, by its operation, 'ei arated from all medical aid, at a time when a dysentery raged in the neighbourhood, and when he had ten children, together with his wife and bimself, stretched on their beds by that mofi dreadful disease. A physician was at last found bold enough to cross the townthip line, and to come to this scene of human woe; but for want of timely aid, four of the children died in one and the same day. One would think, that distress like this would have foftened the hearts of tygers: it might, perhaps, but it produced no such effect on the Whigs, who, having heard that this Quaker had a Tory doctor of another township fecreted in bis house, sent a detachment of ruffians to search for him, and to carry him to prison! I do not believe it possible for the Jaco' ins of France to furpass in cruelty the Whigs of America. The forn er have been more violent, more fierce, they have discover d more of what may be called ferocioufi:efs ; but, that they have been more crue', that they have discovered greater del ght in tormenting the mind or the body of the objects of their perfecution, I utterly

, deny.

These things ought not to be buried in oblivion. The success of the American Whigs has ftified the voice of truth in that country, and the fingular situation of parties here, it and since the end of the war, has hitherto ftified it in this country also; but, Sir, I hope, we shall yet see the day, when all the crimes of this most foni, unprovoked, and unnatural rebellion, and when all the criminals (whether British or American) therein con erned, shall be exposed to the abhorr nce of the present generation, and be so collected and recorded as to insure the abhorrence of pisteriry. As an humble effort of my own towards the effecting of this good work, I shall now proceed to relat two or three remarkab?r instances of the cruelty of the Whigs, and of the fidelity and fortitude of the Quakers.

All the oppreflive measures which I have ne' tioned above, did not induce one single Qua er to take the hateful test. The members of the Congress, irritaied ai tbis obftinalę loyaliy, which, while it was very convenient in illelf, was a living satire on their own c nduct, fell upon a new mode of persecution, lic, a well as most of their ot' er tyrannical inven tions, ' as been improved upon by the republicans of France. On the ? Sihof Auguft, 1777, ibey pafted a refolve, in compliance with which the ExecuTive Coucil (another instrument of opprethon that the French have borrowed from them) of Pennfylvania, of which Thonias Warton, jun. was prefident, George Bryan, vice-president, and Timothy Matlack, fecretary, issued an order to arrest all persons who had, in their general conduet and conversation, evinced a ifpofition inimical to t'e cause," and articularly several persons who were named in the came warrant. The execution of this order was committed to twenty-four Whigs, (composed chiefly o. Pres


byterians) remarkable for their violence and cruelty*. The'e men'werė empowered to seize persons and papers, “ particularly the records and papers of the Meeting of Sufferings of the society of the people called Quakers.” A fimilar order respecting the Quakers was extended to all the Colonies, the leading rebels in each being requested to transmit all the papers of the Quakers for the inspection of the Congress.

In Philadelphia and its vicinity the order was executed with great rigour. Houses and chambers were broken open, desks and scrutoires were rifled ; the most atrocious acts of violence and fraud were perpetrated under the pretence of preserving the liberty of the people. Finally, after loading themseives with the papers and ipeils of hundreds of farnilies, after driving great pumbers of men from their homes, after extorting forbearance-money from some and reluctant promiles from others, the Committee of Philadelphia, whose names. I have above recorded, seized on between forty and fifty of the richest and most reputable men in that city and its neighbourhood, whom they placed under a military guard.

To thele men, thus seized and imprisoned, the Whigs offered their freedom upon certain conditions, one of which was, that they should take a teft, renouncing all allegiance to their king. Some of the prisoners had been relealed upon various grounds, foon after their confinement, and of those who remained, some took the teft; but amongst these there was not one Quaker.

The number was now reduced to twenty-two, - to whom was reserved the honour of giving a most memorable proof of their loyalty and resolution. They were in formed, that, unlets they took the test before a certain day, they would be banished to a distant part of the Continent. They remonstrated strongly against a proceeding which dragged them from their homes and sent them into banishment, without confronung them with their accusers, and even without specifying their crime; but they continued steady in their refusal to take any telt, whereby they should abjure their Sovereign, or acknowledge allegiance to those who had usurped their rights and his authority.

On the gth of September the tyrannical Executive Council issued an order for their banishment, which order was, without delay, carried into execu« tion. The priloners were placed in a barricadoed waggon, and were thus conveyed under a military escort ( forming altogether a perfect prototype of the Cayenne Diligence]: from the city of Philadelphia to Stanton in Virginia. Their route was rendered as long and as painful as possible. They were taken through the back parts of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and did not perform a journey of less than five hundred miles, before they reached their new place of imprisonment, where, when the disposition of the people was considered, the Whigs of Philadelphia must have expected, that the exiles would not long escape death. Those who have travelled on the roads in the back parts of the American States, and who conlider the cooped up situation of thefe l'oyal prisoners, together with the almost unbearable heat of the season in which they were compelled to travel, will be astonished that one half of

* William Bradford, Sharpe Delany, James Claypole, Willian Heysham, John Purviance, Joseph Blever, Paul Cox, Adam Kemmel, William Grabam, William Hardy, Charles Wilson Pea.e, Captain M'Cullo k, Nathaniel Donnell, Robert Smith, Williain Carlon, Lazarus Pine, Birney Captain, John Gallaway, John Lile, James Longhead, James Cannon, James Kerr, William Tharpe, Thomas Bradford.


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them did not perish on the way. The danger, to which they were necef sarily exposed, was encreased by the cruelty of their guards, who, when they stopped to regale themselves, in the towns and villages, through which they passed, spared nothing to inflame the populace against them.

Arrived in Virginia, they were confined to certain limits, and were pro hibited from all manner of correspondence, even with their friends and relations. In this most cruel situation they remained 'till near the close of the war, constantly refusing to forswear their king, a refusal which they re peated as often as the oath or affirmation was tendered to them.,

The names of thele men should be recorded in your loyal publication ; I therefore insert them here; and it will, I am persuaded, give you no fmall satisfaction to perceive, that those of them who were not Quakers, were of the Church of England. Q. Ifrael Pemberton,

Q. Owen James, jun.
č. John Hunt,

Q. Thomas Gilpin,
Q. James Pemberton,

C. Charles Jervis,
e. John Pemberton,

C. Phineas Bond,
2. Thomas Warton,

C. Thomas Affleck,
Õ. Edward Pennington,

C. Wm. Drewet Smith,
C. Thomas Coombe,

C. Thomas Pike,
& Henry Drinker,

C. William Smith, 0. Thomas Fisher,

Q. Elijah Brown, 7. Samuel Pleasants,

č. Charles Eddy, 0. Samuel R. Fisher,

Q. Miers Fisher. The fate of Moseley must not be forgotten. This young man, who was ą Quaker, had been absent from the city of Philadelphia for some weeks, Upon his return he was falsely charged, by the Whigs, with having conveyed intelligence to the British army; for which offence, though no proof appeared against him, they hanged him, and buried him under the gallows. Soon after they committed this murder, the near approach of General Howe's army compelled them to seek for their own safety in flight. The reign of justice and of real liberty having been once more restored by the actual arrival of the army, two of poor Moseley's friends took up

his body, and interred it in the burying ground of the feet, of which he had been a member. But, after the subsequent evacuation of the city, the Whigs resumed their former sway, and, ever as cruel as they are cowardly, they ordered the two friends of Moseley, on pain of instant death, to dig up his body a second time, to replace it at the foot of the ignominious tree, and to give notice, in the public papers, that they had so done, and that the body and the empty grave were ready for the inspection of the friends of liberty;". por could the tears and intreaties of the friends and relations of their innocent townsman, whom they had murdered, prevail on them to defift from their purpose, or to abate one jot of the gratification of their base and blackhearted revenge. This abominable act has been imitated by no republican Frenchman, except the ferocious Victor Hugues, who, after he had recaptured Gudaloupe, ordered the body of General Dundas to be dug up, and to be suspended on a gibbet. How little difference is there between the heart of a Whig and that of a Jacobin!

Suffer me, Sir, to give you one instance more of the cruelty of the Whigs, and of the lufferings of the people, whose conduct I have taken pon nie to defend.

Wherever the melancholy story of John Roberts and Abraham Carlisle Thall be related, there will the principles and the practices of Whigs be


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held in abhorrence. These two Quakers fell a sacrifice to their loyalty in the city of Philadelphia, a city of which their forefathers were amongst the founders, in which they themselves were born, and in which they had long been universally respected and beloved.

The alledged crime of Carlisle was, his having kept one of the barriergates, while General Howe held the city; a post, which he had accepted at the request of all those who wished for mild measures, and in which he had conducted himself with so much moderation and humanity, towards men of all parties and descriptions, that every disinterested person, even amongst the Whigs, looked upon his poffeffion of the post as a most fortunate circumstance.

Roberts's offence was of a nature equally trifling. His house in the coun. try, lay without the British lines, whence, being apprehensive of being taken, and probably murdered, by a party from Washington's army, who were continually spreading havock through his neighbourhood, he had made his escape into the city, leaving his wife and children behind. Some weeks after his arrival in the city, a foraging-party went out into the township where his house was situated. Anxious to see his family, who had been, in the mean time, expoled to the insults and violence of the rebels, he eagerly availed himself of the protection of the foraging-party, with whom he went out and returned, bringing in his family with him. Out of this circumstance, in which, one would have thought, matice itself could find nothing to blame, the Whigs trumped up an accusation against him, as a man who had volunteered his services as a spy and guide to the British army!

Yet, on charges lo frivolous were these two respectable and inoffensive men dragged before the Supreme Court at Philadelphia, in which M‘kean and Bryan fat as Judges, and of which the Revolutionary Tribunal of Robespierre was so striking an imitation, that, ever since the proceedings of the Tribunal have been heard of in America, M-Kean has been honoured with the name of Fouquier Tïnville. It was well known at the time, and has fince been openly avowed by the Whigs themselves, that the putting of these men to death was a mere stroke of policy; a measure folely intended to terrify the Tories, and to commit the wavering Whigs beyond the posli. bility of receding. The voice of justice and of mercy had long been filenced; but, they were again heard on this memorable occasion. The intention of the leading Whigs to take away the lives of Roberts and Carlisle was no Jess manifest than was the injustice of the act itself. The great mass of the people once more resumed their natural feelings, and the President of the Executive Council, Reid, together with the whole Council, and the Judges feemed to fear that, if they succeeded in procuring a condemnation, a rescue would be effected. Every measure was therefore taken to prevent the failure of their fanguinary project; but, notwithstanding the jury was packed for the purpose, notwithstanding no counsel of eminence was found bold enough to defend the prisoners, notwithstanding the number of witnesses that were subborned, notwithstanding the partiality and violence of the judges, it has ever been believed that the jury would have refused to find them guilty, had it not been for fear of being murdered themselves, an apprehension which was artfully excited by the appearance and the dreadful mnenaces of a set of miscreants who had been prepared for the purpose, and who came into the court just as the jury were retiring. Care was taken in the mean time, to draw forth all the staunchest of the Whigs under arms. The city had the bayonet placed to its throat, and, while every man was in houry dread of being ipurdered himlelf, he thought lels of the judicial murder


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