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They may be excusable; but their excuse depends on the circumStances of their particular situation. It is, then, the duty of all created beings, as such, to obey the will of their creator; and we need not, I think, proceed any further to be assured, that it is the duty of man, as a creature and dependent, to obey the will of God. The attempt to trace his obligation to virtue to any higher source is, if I mistake not, as unnecessary, as it would be in vain. Diftinctions must be made, of course, according to the nature and capacities of the created beings. Of all created beings, with which we are here acquainted, man alone is endued with what can properly be called liberty of action. Consequently, he only is capable of voluntary obedience."

In the fourth chapter, (says Mr. P.) “ it is essential to my purpose to observe, that whatever may be determined with respect to obligation in general, moral obligation, as I hope has been fufficiently made out in Chap. I. results from God's will, and is constituted by God's command. *"

“ If, in supposed conformity' (says the author) to the sense of the 13th Article of our national Church, it be alledged, that the beathens could not act virtuously, or acceptably to God, without the grace of Christ, and the inspiration of his Spirit,' it may be answered, that though, from the circumstances of their situation, the heathens could not have actual' faith in Christ;' yet we have no authority for afferting, that the grace, which is here supposed necessary to render actions pleasing to God, was not bestowed on many, before the appearance of Christ on earth.* All that can


* Thus, our submission to civil authority, when it is rendered from a principle of obedience to the will of God, becomes the difcharge of a moral duty. Accordingly, it is on this principle, that we are in Scripture exhorted to render that obedience. "Be subjeft,' says the Apostle, not only for wrath, but also for conscience fake ;' not merely from fear of human punishment, but from a principle of duty to God. This point might be enlarged upon, especially in popular addresses, with very beneficial effect. St. Paul, in a most comprehensive passage to the purpose, furnishes an appropriate text. • Whether ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.' See also Coloff. iii. 23,"

"* On this subject, I not unwillingly lead the mind of the. reader to the Article of our Church, which relates to it; both because I think, that the confideration of the Article may throw light on the subject, and that what is here faid may tend to confirm the sense, in which, as I think, the Article itself ought to be understood. It will easily be seen, that the general sense of it is at least reconcileable with what I have all along infifted on ; namely, that actions, of whatever nature or tendency they may be in themselves, are not to be esteemed virtuous, unless they are done in known or fupposed obedience to the will of God. Those, who wish for a fuller discuffion of the Article, may consult the judicious explanation and comment of Dr. Hey, in his Norrisian Lectures.

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66 F, Mala

be justly expected of men is, that they should live according to the law under which they are placed; and God, we may be assured, always does what is right.”

It appears, that Mr. Pearson is a disciple of the school of Butler and Balguy. Dr. Paley is of a different school. Their characeristic differences are sufficiently evident to those who have paid but a transitory attention to the late publications of Ludlam and Hey. We have only to lament, chiefly for the sake of academic youth, that the heads of the university of Cambridge should be so divided-fo notoriously divided in their opinions, on subjects of morality—that they should thus publith their discordant sentiments, inattentive to the consequences. Indeed, we thought the adoption of Paley's “ Principles of moral and political Philosophy,” for a text-book for public Jectures on morality, an act of extreme indiscretion ; the bad effects of which we, at that moment, foretold. Nor was the prediction any proof of extraordinary fagacity. It was easy to foresee “the heart-burnings, jealousies, and fears," which now exist amongst the teachers of the Cambridge youth.

F. Malbranche, whom I have quoted before, admits the juft. ness of the opinion, that grace, sufficient to enable men to act vir, tuously, was bestowed before the coming of Christ. Though the whole of the passage, in which this appears, is not appropriate to the present subject, I transcribe it as curious and important. • There are several reasons, why the law (the Mofaic law) did not promise the true blessings; but one of the chief is, that, since this sort of enjoyments cannot be the object of concupiscence, the knowledge and worship of the true God would have been soon loft among the Jews, and that chosen penple reduced to a handful of men, belonging to Christ, and fanctified in every age by inward grace. But it was necessary, that the knowledge of the true God should be preserved with some luftre among the Jews, a prophetical people, and an unex, ceptionable witnefs of the truths of religion, in spite of all the power and artifices of the prince of this world, until, at length, the only begotten Son of God, for and by whom all things were made, should come down from heaven, to change the face of things over all the earth, and to open the surprizing and wonderful scene of God's conduct.' Still more directly to the purpose does Archbishop Tillotson, speaking of Socrates, Epi&tetus, Antoninus, &c. allow, that they were not wholly deftitute of an inward principle of goodness.' though,' says that sensible and amiable Divine, they had not that . powerful grace and affiftance of God's Holy Spirit, which is promised, and afforded to all sincere Christians, (as neither had the Jews, who were the peculiar people of God, and in covenant with him) yet it is very credible, that such persons were under a special care and provi. dence of God, and not wholly destitute of divine affiftance,' Sermon 209."


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Mr. Pearson, with great appearance of sincerity, ingenuousness, and candor, observes :

- For the full discussion of this important part of Natural Religion (the benevolence of God) see the invaluable tract of the late Dr. Bala guy, entitled, “Divine benevolence asserted, and vindicated from the Objections of ancient and mcdern Sceptics.' How much is it to be lamented, that the work, of which that tract, printed in 1781, is faid by the author to be a specimen, has not yet, ( I write in 1798) been published ! In a pecuniary view, indeed, such publications, from the improbability of their becoming popular, may not answer to the publishers; but it is pity, that those, who are capable of under. standing and relishing them, should therefore be hindered from their use. In the present cafe, however, I have no doubt, that the Syndics of the Cambridge press, ever ready to promote the interests of found learning and religion, would afford their allistance in bringing before the public such a work of such a son of their common alma mater, and would even esteem it an honour to do so.

« To those, who have been informed of what pafled at a particular meeting of the Syndics, respecting the present publication, it may seem, that the above passage is intended to be understood in an ironical and sarcastic sense. * I think it necessary to declare, therefore, that is stands exactly as it did before the transaction referred to took place."

We are really much concerned at the conclusion of the note. Well may the young gentlemen, of Cambridge, alk:

" Who ihall decide, when Doctors disagree ?" To see the different lecture-rooms of the university converted, in a manner, into heathen schools, where each philosopher instructs his disciples in virtue, according to his own preconceived notions, or according to the opinions of his own masters in philosophy ; is, in truth, a most degrading spectacle, in a Christian country!“Would to God, that the Bible were the only text-book !"-was, in the fullness of the heart, our spontaneons exclamation. But, alas ! from the Bible have been formed, according to the conceptions of different minds, very different systems of morality: and such will be the case, to the end of the world. Still, however, we recur to our first position--the unfortunate circumstance, that the instructors of youth lhould be thus openly at variance that the heads of houses should be thus at war, in the face of the rising progeny of the British nobility and gentry, whose opinions yet remain to be formed ; and many of whom, probably, from the animosity of their superiors, will become sceptics on all religious subjects. “ I am of Paley !” cries one. I of Pearlon !” cries another : But others despising the disputatious folly of the Greybeards, will, in the gaiety of their hearts, exclaim; “ We are of HUME!"

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Pp. 522

Travels in the interior of Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope to

Morocco, from the Years 1781 to 1797; through Caffraria, the Kingdoms of Mataman, Angola, Malli, Moncmugi, Mufchako, &c. Likewise across the great Desert of Sahara, and the Northern Parts of Barbary. Translated from the German of Christian Frederick Damberger. Illustrated by a Map and coloured Plates, 8vo. Two Volumes in one.

. 9s. Longman and Rees. London. 1801. OUR

UR knowledge of the interior parts of the vast Continent

of Africa has been considerably extended of late years, by the publications of men of science, observation, and veracity. Shill, however, from the nature of the country, that knowledge is, and must necessarily continue to be, extremely imperfect. The work before us may add something to the ftock, if dependence is to be placed on the author's assertion that he was “ an eye-witness to all he has related, and has adhered in all things most strictly to truth.” But they who have read the very interesting Travels of Mr. Park, reviewed in a former volume, will not derive much amusement from the perusal of Mr. D’Amberger's book, which is one of the most dry and tedious narratives which have fallen under our inspection. With great opportunities for the acquisition of most useful information, the author has given a mere insipid journal, tiresome from its uniformity, and the eternal repetition of common-place remarks. He entered as a soldier in the service of the Dutch East India Company in May 1781, and failed for the Cape of Good Hope, in the following month. There he remained, part of the time as a soldier, and part as a domestic in a Dutch family, till the end of the ensuing year; when, to avoid the importunities of his maiter's wife and daughter, both of whom, we are told, bad-conceived a passion for him, he resolved to defert; and to traverse the Continent of Africa in order “ to return to Europe by land.” He accordingly left the Cape on the 25th of December, 1782, and, after undergoing innumerable hardships, and incurring innumerable dangers, reached Morocco in May 1791, where he remained, in the capacity of a Nave, until ranfomed by a Dutchman, in 1796, when he returned to Holland.

In his account of the Hottentots, and the nature and fitua, tion of some parts of their country, the author flatly contradicts M. Le Vaillant, and even goes so far as to say that he never had seen many of the districts which he minutely describes.

** The untrod path on which I now entered was extremely irk, some, for it lay among woods, precipices, and rocks, which rendered it almost impassable. Yet this was the very fame which M. Le Vaillant pretends to have gone with his caravan; but I will venture to asjert be never was there ; for the whole countıy is so rough and trackless, that the traveller must work his way with extreme labour, and overcome the greatest obstacles." (P. 42.) Again

" M. Le Vaillant is mistaken in representing the young women of this country as particularly virtuous and chaste. Adultery, indeed, on the woman's fide is punished severely by the whole horde; but the men are allowed to keep company with girls when their wives are lying-in. M. Le Vaillant errs also as to the beauty and cleanliness of the Hottentot women. Among the bastard Hottentots, indeed, are many beautiful and cleanly women and girls, but I observed very few such anong those who live in the craals; high foreheads, sunkeri eyes, flat nofes, projecting lips, and woolly heads, are not constituent parts of beauty."

There are many flippant and indecent sneers at the Christian religion in different parts of the book, which can only be imputed to the author's ignorance; though, in some other of our modern travellers, such {neers proceed from an affectation of philosophy. There are also some contradictions and inconliftencies which have excited suspicions in our mind respecting the author, not unlike to those which he himself entertains of M. Le Vaillant; and certain it is that we have nothing like a satisfactory account of the manner in which he kept his journal and preserved the names of all the countries, towns, and villages through which he pafled, for so many years. He tells us, indeed, towards the latter end of the second volume, that he had preserved his pocket-book by fastening it with thongs under his arm; but he forgets that long before he had informed is that he had been robbed and stripped of every thing. Mr. Park had published, in the 22d chapter of his work, a very able and fatisfactory account of the state and sources of flavery in Africa. M. Damberger's account of the Slave Trade is of a different nature ; and were the credit of his book to be estimated by the consistency of his statement on this subject, he would have but little cause for triumph, on the score of veracity, over his predecessor M. Le Vaillant. In a note to P., 175, he observes, in confirmation of Mr. Park's ideas,

" The Europeans probably firft acquired the idea of trading in laves from the Africans, and in confeqnence of discovering their coafts, for, with the exception of South Caffraria, the commerce of the human face is carried on by every nation I visited ; and the unhappy flaves frequently pass in a few years through the hands of several different pations; the inhabitants of Matamun, for instance, exchanging them


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