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the authority of the Bill. Heaven forbid contending that the cases were not anachat any should ! but the Bill was meant logous or equal; for robbing ready-fur. to operate upon the fears of the many, nished lodgings, and stealing or making who would not otherwise abstain from away with the knitting-frame of a stocking practices so unjustifiable in theniselves, manufacturer, differed essentially in their and so injurious to the interests of the respective degrees of importance. There stocking manufactories. With regard to were not many such persons as major the clause making it a capital felony to Semple, who would sell the furniture of break open a house, with an intent to cut their lodgings; but there were thousands and destroy the frame or frames of ano- who would sell their frames. ther; if a man broke into his house, with The amendment was agreed to. an intent to do an illegal act, he ought to Sir James Johnstone said, that as the be punished severely; for the crime in Bill was to extend to Scotland and create him was not the less because he had not new crimes there, he hoped they should been enabled to commit it altogether; the have English justice to try them by. intent was his crime, and for that he should The chairman reported progress, and suffer; and as to its being his intent, that asked leave to sit again. was a matter for a jury to decide upon, and gentlemen need not to be afraid of a May 14. The Bill being again com. jury's too. often finding a person guilty mitted, who was so charged, because it was in Mr. D. P. Coke observed, that as the general a matter of extreme difficulty tó Bill contained a clause by which it was inprove an intent, and juries were too honest tended to create a capital felony, he had to bring in a verdict of so fatal a nature, moved to report progress, in order to give without having first had sufficient proof gentlemen an opportunity of considering adduced to convince them that the verdict how far such a measure was necessary or was merited.
proper. He was not speaking his own The Committee proceeded with the sentiments, but those of other people; the Bill, and filled up several of the blanks. manufacturers of Nottingham imagining, When they came to the clause making it that if breaking into a manufacturer's felony and a transportable offence to sell house by night, with intent to cut or deor make away with another person's stroy any frame, or work in a frame was frame,
made a capital felony, that offence would The Attorney General said, that the never again be committed. They had common law held the parting with the therefore instructed him to propose such property of another to be a breach of an alteration in the law, and to remind the trust, and not a felony. There was one House, that there was an act of parliament particular, indeed, in which the legislature in existence, which made it a capital had thought fit to declare a breach of felony, to commit a similar offence in any trust to be a felony, and that was the woollen or silk manufacturer's house in making away with the furniture of ready- Spitalfields; and as the frames of the Notfurnished lodgings; but there the law had tingham stocking manufacturers were of pronounced a simple felony or larceny, twice the value of the frames used in the not of necessity incurring transportation woollen or silk manufactories of Spitalon conviction, but subject to an arbitrary fields, they hoped the House would have punishment at the will of the court. He no objection to extend to them the advanwas ready to agree, that in the instance of age of a similar law : of this at least they making away with the knitting-frame of were certain, that if such an extension another, the common-law remedy, by an were denied them, the statute in favour of action of trover, did not amount to an the Spitalfields manufacturers ought to be adequate remedy ; but then, he saw no repealed. reason for going from that all at once to Mr. Grenville said, that the remarks of absolute transportation, which was cer- the hon. gentleman, were, in bis opinion, tainly the best punishment to death itself. a convincing proof that he ought to reHe should propose, therefore, to put it sist the proposition, and that it was high upon the footing of robbing ready-fur- time for the House to set its face against nished lodgings, and declare it punishable any extension of capital punishments, un. at the discretion of the court as a felony less in very particular cases; for it was or a larceny.
evident, that if the legislature permitted Mr. Çoke argaed against the objection, such an extension, in ever so strong an
instance, it was directly made a precedent. proper place to examine and check the For these reasons, he opposed the filling accounts. They would call to mind, that up the blanks of the clause, with the words, every sum voted was issued upon impress, « shall suffer death, without benefit of on account, to sir William Chambers, and clergy."
that he would necessarily have to discharge The question being put, it was nega- himself ultimately, by producing before the tived.
auditor his vouchers, from whom, like every
other public accountant, he would not be Expense of the Buildings at Somerset able to obtain his quietus, without having House.] May 5. The Report from the in a satisfactory manner proved, that every Committee of Supply was brought up. shilling issued to him, had been fairly exUpon the Resolution, " That 25,0001. be pended. With regard to himself, he had granted to his Majesty upon account, no personal feeling on the subject. The towards carrying on the building at So- design had not originated with him, but, merset-house."
as the House well knew, long before he Sir John Miller rose to complain that was in office. there was not a proper account of the Mr. Hussey declared, that he had often money already expended in the erection of wished the House was burnt down ; but the buildings at Somerset-house. The es- he did not then wish it, because the right timate signed by sir William Chambers hon. gentleman opposite (Mr. Dundas) was too loose and unsatisfactory to give was to be in it; but he really thought parthe House the necessary information. No liament should give some check to the exprivate gentleman would suffer his archi-penditure of such large sums, and it was tect to proceed with a large building, and not sufficient to say, that the architect put him to additional expense, merely upon would lay his vouchers before the auditor having presented him with such a state of the imprest when the whole building ment. Sir John read the particulars of should be completed. There remained a the estimate, and commented upon them, great deal yet to be done, and there ought observing that there were large arrears to be some one responsible person apstated to be due. He wished to see the pointed to watch over, and superintend the vouchers for what had been already ex- progress of the building. pended, and the plan of what as yet re- Mr. Pulteney said, that there never was mained to be done ; since, without that any thing so entirely without a check as House having it in its power to administer the buildings in question. There ought any check or form any opinion upon the undoubtedly to be some means of control subject from authentic documents, it ap- adopted ; and especially when it was conpeared to him that sir William Chambers sidered that sir William Chambers had might go on from year to year, laying 5 per cent. on all the money expended, foundations for future erections, and come It was his interest, therefore, to find as regularly, and ask for 25,0001. as his an- many ways of adding to the expense as nuity. Although the House were not ar- possible. chitects, they had a right to look into the Mr. Rose said, that Mr. Paine, one of public expenditure. He was willing to ad- the first surveyors in the kingdom, was apmit, that the buildings did credit to sir pointed to watch over the buildings. The William, and credit to the country; but House would also bear in recollection, that he, nevertheless, could not but complain before sir William had any sum issued to of there not being any vouchers of the him, the expenditure of the sum last issued, expenditure before the House.
| underwent a strict examination. Mr. Pitt said, that the money voted, The Resolution was agreed to. from time to time, for carrying on the building, showed undoubtedly the libe- Slave Trade.] Mr. Pitt said, that he rality of the country, but that the House would take the opportunity of so full a would recollect the plan of it had been House to give notice, that, on the ensuing several times before them, and that the Thursday, he would call the attention of mode of voting the money by annual sums the House to a subject of much importhad been long since settled by themselves. ance. Many petitions had been presented He had not the smallest objection to their on the subject of the Slave-trade; and an having any papers that gentlemen might hon. friend of his (Mr. Wilberforce) had, desire to see upon the subject, but he ap- early in the session, given notice of his prehended that the House was not the intention to bring forward some proposi.
tion respecting it; but, unfortunately, he
Navy. had been prevented by indisposition from 18,000 Seamen...... £.936,000 attending to fulfil his intention, nor was it Ordinary ............. 700,000 at all probable that he would be able to | Extraordinary ......... 600,000 be present in that House previous to the prorogation. Indeed, if it were, in the Making a total of ......... 2,236,000 present advanced period of the session, it
ARMY. would not be advisable that a business of
so Guards and Garrisons, Plantasuch considerable importance slould be
tions and Gibraltar, half-pay gone into; but he nevertheless thought,
to the British and American that the session should not pass over, with.
Forces, to the amount of out some notice having been taken of the
228,0001. ; Chelsea Pensioners subject of the petitions in that House.
173,0001., &c. making a total He, therefore, would, on Thursday, move
for the Army of .............. 2,022,023 a Resolution, “ That the House will, early
But from which sum 43,0001. in the next session, proceed to take into
is to be deducted, on account
of stoppages from the troops
them from hence. The Budget.] The order of the day
419,000 for going into a Committee of Ways and
| Expense of maintaining Convicts 34,000 Mieans being read, the House went into
Annual allowance to American the said Committee, and the various ac.
Loyalists ........................ 74,000 counts were referred to the same. Mr. Chancellor Pitt now rising, re
Repayments on Addresses, &c. 46,000
Civil Establishments in Amerimarked, that in laying before the Com
ca, together with the expense mittee an account of the state of the re
of Somerset-place, African venues, and particularly of the receipt
Forts, &c. .......... ...... ...... 90,000 and expenditure for the year, he was more
Deficiency of grants in the than usually anxious to gain their atten
year 1787 ......
63,000 tion, and to show them how truly the cal
Estimated deficiency of Land culations had been made, and in how
and Malt ........................ 300,000 small a compass of time the influence of
Expense of the Armament...... 311,000 the arrangement which was adopted had
Sum voted to pay the Prince of operated to the essential benefit of the
| Wales's debts, &c. ............ 181,000 nation. The statement could not fail to give satisfaction to every gentleman who
Amounting in the whole to 5,779,365 beard him. He would not detain the Committee with any previous matter, but A farther sum had been voted to pay simply state the particulars of the account off exchequer bills, and for deficiencies of on both sides, observing, however, that several funds, to the 5th of April 1787, a very considerable increase had taken which latter would never occur again, in place in the expenses of this year beyond consequence of the Consolidation Act; the estimate that had been made in the but as both these sums, to the amount of year 1786, and which had been thought 6,078,0001., were taken on both sides of essential to our national prosperity and the account, he omitted them for the sake honour. These were not likely to occur of perspicuity. In this account, it was, he again, and, in the mean time, it was a said, to be observed, that, in the navy, matter of no small satisfaction, that, not- there was an increase beyond what would withstanding these increased demands and be the necessary peace establishment, of temporary calls, such had been the bene- 446,0001. In the army there was an inficial effects of the late arrangement, and crease of 233,000l., and in the ordnance such the prosperous condition of the there was an increase of 61,0001. These country, that ample provision had been increased demands were occasioned by the made for all, without recurring either to circumstance of our putting the distant a loan or to new taxes.
I possessions of the country into a state of Mr. Pitt first stated the several articles more complete defence, by sending out of supply which had been voted for the 3,000 men more than came within the service of the current year, and which contemplation of the Committee, when consisted of the following heads, viz. they made the report of what would be
the requisite peace establishment of the Premium on the Lottery ...... navy, and by the consequent extraordinary Stoppages from the troops for sum for supplying that body with provi- | provisions ............
43,000 sions. These were not then to be con. Exchequer bills, and the sum sidered as the permanent necessary ex voted for deficiencies, as stated penses of the country; and to these there in the supply ..................... 6,078,000 were several sums to be added which could not occur again, or at least could! Mr. Pitt having gone through the whole not make a part of our settled yearly ex. of the account, and specified the several pense. Such was the sum for the relief sums, stated that there was a clear surplus, of the loyalists, the expense of the late this year, of 27,000/. over all the expenses, armament, and the vote for the payment without taxes, without loan, and without of the debts of the Prince of Wales. interrupting for a moment the application These sums added together, amounted to of the million to the discharge of debt. 1,282,0001., which was to be considered The surplus had been applied, the armaas extraordinary, and was consequently ment had been provided for, the debts of to be deducted from the settled regular his Royal Highness had been paid, the peace establishment of the country. It extraordinary expense of 1,200,0001. had had been considered as wise to put every been sustained, and there was a clear surpart of the British dominions into such a plus of 27,0001. The extraordinary exposture of defence as to ascertain to the pense would, he feared, endure for two country the blessings of peace, and he years more. It would take so long before had the happiness to say, that though they could be certain of coming to the they had thus incurred an extraordinary permanent peace establishment. Perhaps expense of more than 1,200,0001, the re- he might state the farther extraordinary ceipts of the country had fully answered expense that the nation was likely to incur it, and that without abating from the plan for excess of navy, excess of army, excess which the House, in its wisdom, had esta- 1 of ordnance, and indeed for every other blished for the diipinution of the national article, except one, of a material nature, debt. That the same extraordinary de at a million, or a million and a half; and mands would continue in future was not for this he thought there were ample reto be apprehended, though, undoubtedly, sources in the revenue, as there had been it would be some time before they could proved to be for the large excess in the come to the real establishment which, in present year. The other article of extratime of peace, had been thought sufficient ordinary expense which he meant was, the for the country in the report that was satisfaction to be made to the American made in 1786; but it was a happy circum- loyalists. The commissioners, had now stance, 'that the condition and prospect of nearly wound up the whole of the claims, the country warranted him in saying, that and it appeared that there was property they should be able to provide for the lost which the commissioners had asextra expense in the years to come, as certained and agreed to liquidate at they had in this, without going to any 1,860,0001. There might yet remain 2 new operation of finance.
or 300,0001. to be ascertained. This was Mr. Pitt then stated, that in order to to be considered as loss of property. defray these expenses, Parliament had al. There were also claims of loss of office, ready voted,
which the House would take into their Land and Malt .................... 2,750,000
consideration, and act upon as their geneThat he should propose to the
rosity might incline them. But stating Committee to vote a farther
the whole at 2,000,0001. or 2,100,0001., sum, to be taken as the grow.
the House would see that 500,0001. ing produce of the Consoli.
had been paid them, and there was still dated Fund, between this and
1,600,0001. to be paid. He was authothe 5th of April, 1788 ......... 1,845,000 rized to say, that they would be well Imprest monies, to be paid in
pleased to have this sum paid them by the course of the year ......... 200,000 | instalments, and that the payment should
200,000 Army savings of the year 1786 200,000 commence next year; and he meant to And a farther sum to be repaid
propose that the profits of a lottery, to be by the India Company, on ac.
established annually, until their claims count of troops and victualling
were fully liquidated, should be applied to the fleet in the East Indies ... 500,000 their relief. A lottery for seven or eight years would fully answer this exigency, (nor a rational ground of confidence, to provided that the bargain should every argue from the evidence of one year only., year be rendered as profitable as it had been He begged leave to remind the Commitfor the last year, and for the present. He tee, that the last year had many unfriendhad made the bargain on a competition ly circumstances in it, particularly the inamong different bidders, and the profit terruption which our commerce naturally would be about 260,0001. a year. Gen- received in the late alarm of war: but, tlemen might be astonished at this cir- even in looking back to the average of the cumstance, but such was the rage and last three years, they found the calculamadness for this species of gambling, and tion strongly confirmed, though certainly such was the bargain that he had made. the surplus was not so favourable. Yet
The probable state of our revenue, and we had other very essential grounds of the certain amount of our expense were confidence: various branches of revenue matters which came next in order, as, were improving, and many more were undoubtedly, it would be requisite to susceptible of improvement. The farming prove that we ought to have confidence in of the post-horse duty brought an accesour situation. That we should invariably sion of 30,0001. to the funds. He must proceed in applying the million to the yet, before the close of the session, prodiminution of our debt, was a proposition pose an increase of duty on the stills used which he would not detain the House for in the distilleries of Scotland and on the a moment in discussing, as it had already duty on houses for selling spirituous liquors. so forcibly demonstrated its utility. The Some regulations to prevent the abuses million was, therefore, added to the per practised to avoid the duty on tobacco manent establishment of the country; and, ) were also essentially necessary. He had as the House had, in its wisdom, estab- it in view to propose something on this lished a longer system of defence than was subject, but he was not yet fully adequate in contemplation two years ago, he would to the attempt. state the permanent peace establishment. The progressive improvement of a of the country, instead of 15,478,0001. country in peace, and particularly of such as calculated by the Committee, at a country as England, was a material ob15,624,0001. He explained the rise to ject, and this was not left for mere specuproceed from the increased plantation lation. From the experience of four years estimate, which would cost 100,0001, more we were able to form some estimate. The than it was taken at, and the Hessian receipt of the permanent taxes in 1787 subsidy which was 36,0001. There was had been 15,792,0001. including the land to be deducted from this sum a saving and malt, or 13,000,0001. exclusive. The of interest of about 16,0001. a year, which receipt of the taxes in 1783, exclusive of made the excess about 120,0001. only, the land and malt, had been 10,184,0001. but he took it at 124,0001. calculating the Thus there was an increased revenue of anticipated establishment àt 15,500,0001. three millions, of which not more than one The produce of the last year's revenue up | million and a half accrued from new taxes. to the period ending the 5th of April, | The rest proceeded from the actual, clear, including the land and malt, was and ascertained improvement of the coun. 15,792,0001. which was 314,0001. more try in all its branches, and which demon. than the Committee said would be neces- strated the increased opulence of the sary for an establishment, and it was empire. Every department presented the 168,0001. more than was necessary, even | same progressive improvement. In the by the increased establishment, which the trade, the navigation, and the fisheries, House had thought it wise to adopt, and the progressive improvement bore an which perhaps political circumstances had exact proportion to the increased revenue. rendered requisite.
So that our exports and imports, with the Arguing, therefore, from the experience immense loss of the American colonies, of last year, we had the fairest ground for upon which some persons had so greatly confidence that we should not only enjoy depended with the immense loss for ever ample funds for the liquidation of every of the money that was lavished on the expense, but also for carrying on the | war-with the loss of the people were great purpose of the late arrangement, the now as great as in the most flourishing extinction of the capital of our debt. But year before the last war. perhaps it might be argued, that it was In 1772 our imports were upwards of not a fair mode of stating our situation, | 14,500,0001.; our , exports upwards of (VOL. XXVII.)