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ERMONS preached in St. James's Chapel
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THE EASTERN ORIGIN of the CELTIC
Journal of Belles Lettres, arts, Sciences, &c.
we disapprove, 1, of the pet-like epithet, “dar-that proud effect of genius, quoting only the ideal surface, but from the harmony which is
AND This Journal is supplied Weekly, or Monthly, by the principal Booksellers and Newsmen, throughout the Kingdom; but to those who may desire
its immediate transmission, by post, we recommend the LITERARY GAZETTE printed on stamped paper, price One Shilling. No. 763. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1831.
PRICE 80. Her children with Tartarean fires, or shakes REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS,
Their shrieking cities, and, with one last clang A System of Geology, with a Theory of the Poland; a Poem. By Thomas Campbell, Esq.,
Of bells for their own ruin, strews them flat
Earth, fc. By John Macculloch, M.D., &c. author of 6 the Pleasures of Hope." To But we will not utter another word in the This work can hardly be said to impugn Dr.
2 vols. 8vo. London, 1831. Longman and Co. which are added, Lines on the View from St. Leonard's. 12mo. pp. 27. London, 1831. way of our vocation : it is far more agreeable Macculloch's
character as a geologist—for he Cochrane and Co.
to us to quote such charming lines as the fol-
states that it was written in 1821 ; and, thereHow much depends upon the choice of subject
fore, it is not more than ten years behind the is evinced by the two poems before us,
“ With thee beneath my windows, pleasant Sea! present state of the science: but it impugns his
I long not to o'erlook Earth's fairest glades tracted from the Metropolitan Magazine," and And green savannahs: Earth has not a plain judgment_nay, even his veracity- to say that now published in a pretty little separate vo. So boundless or so beautiful as thine.
during that period no new facts have been lume. The poet was stimulated by the same,
The eagle's vision cannot take it in;
added to the science, - a statement which or perhaps a superior, enthusiasm in the cause Sinks half-way o'er it like a wearied bird :
occurs in the learned doctor's preface, and is in of Poland; but excitement is not always the It is the mirror of the stars, where all
that preface surpassed by the assertion, that
Their hosts within the concave firmament, parent of beauty in poetical progeny. Strong
Gay marching to the music of the spheres,
this little island contains every geological fact feeling has been awakened in the author's Can see themselves at once.
in the world, except volcanoes. There are two breast on behalf of a struggling people ; but
volumes, and the matter in them should the everlasting sea has proved a far higher
How vividly this moment brightens forth,
have been condensed into one. The first con
Between gray parallel and leaden breadthssource of inspiration than the turmoil of human belt of hues that stripes thee many a league,
tains some mere general essays; the second, passions--the picture, however vivid, to the ima. Flush'd like the rainbow, or the ring-dove's neck, a scanty supply of facts, not sufficient for
And giving to the glancing sea-bird's wing gination of human wrongs and sufferings. We The semblance of a meteor!
an elementary work, and a still sorrier foun. may therefore be excused if we pass over the first
dation on which to erect a system. This, in of these compositions, intended, as if in mockery,
Cameleon-like thou changest-but there's love the doctor's own dogmatic style, would, for
In all thy change, and constant sympathy to be " inscribed in the new edition of the Plea
With yonder Sky, thy mistress; froin her brow
any ordinary work, be enough ; but we shall to sures of Hope ;" and confine our attention to Thou takest thy moods, and wear'st her colours on facts. The general objects of geological science the last, which contains, within the compass of
Thy faithful bosom ; morning's milky white, are knowledge and utility; and geology is an
Noon's sapphire, or the saffron glow of eve, from 130 to 140 lines, several passages worthy. And all thy balmier hours, fair element !
accurate science. It would be inaccurate only, of the utmost fame of Thomas Campbell.
Have such divine complexion--crisped smiles, if the author's statement in chap. 2 was true, Our personal pleasure in reading this poem
Luxuriant heavings, and sweet whisperings
that the positions and mutual relations of the
That little is the wonder Love's own queen may have been increased by seeing the bard in From thee of old was fabled to have sprung
accessible portions of the globe are irregular the full enjoyment of the scenery he describes ;
Creation's common! which no human power and intricate. The constancy of position and
Can parcel or enclose; the lordliest foods inhaling the refreshing breezes of St. Leo
of mutual relation is the science of geology.
And cataracts that the tiny hands of man nard's, musing along the sounding shore, and Can tame, conduct, or bound, are drops of dew The revolutions which the crust of this globe almost unconsciously (as it would appear to the
To thee, that couldst subdue the earth itself, has undergone, are contained in a few, but
And brook'st commandment from the heavens alone, striking phenomena, which Cuvier has endeacommon observer) gathering those deep im.
For marshalling thy waves. pressions of external objects, which he has com
Yet, potent Sea!
voured to enumerate; they are, according to bined so finely with poetical images and associa
How placidly thy moist lips speak ev'n now
our author, “ a thousand fold.” “ The pre
Along yon sparkling shingles! Who can be tions. The verse opens delightfully :
So fanciless, as to feel no gratitude
sent duty of a systematical inquiry is to de« Hail to thy face and odours, glorious Sea!
That power and grandeur can be so serene,
scribe objects and actions which cannot all yet Twere thanklessness in me to bless thee not,
Soothing the home-bound navy's peaceful way, Great beauteous being ! in whose breath and smile
And rocking ev'n the fisher's little bark
be classed under general divisions and laws." My heart beats calmer, and my very mind
As gently as a mother rocks her child ?"
The objects, like all natural objects, must he Inhales salubrious thoughts. How welcomer Thy murmurs than the murmurs of the world!
To us these extracts breathe the true spirit capable of classification to a certain extent ; Though, like the world, thou fluctuatest, thy din of song. Nothing can surpass the magnificence and the laws, if physical, will be appreciated To me is peace, thy restlessness repose."
of the general view of Ocean, which the light the individual. If that individual cannot clasWe will not indulge in hypercritical carping; ning's wing cannot sweep without sinking sify his objects
, he must be unacquainted with but merely to shew that our admiration is not half-way like a wearied bird : nor is the more
them or their relations ; if he cannot expound indiscriminate, we notice that there are slight particular glance less beautiful, where we are censure. For example, in the ensuing five the varying belts of the ever-changing expanse be a systematist. We do not allude to inpoints in this poem liable, in our opinion, to presented with the meteor-like sea-bird between the laws of their actions, he must be unac
quainted with science, and therefore unfit to lines
of water. The exquisite thought, too, and so « Ev'n gladly I exchange yon spring-green lanes, exquisitely expressed, of Love's own queen
ferences which constitute the results—they are With all the darling field-flowers in their prime, rising from Nature's common, is of the noblest retrospective, and imply a theory of the earth. And gardens haunted by the nightingale's class of poetical conception. But such writing globe: geologically, this should not be deduced
The third chapter embraces the form of the For these wild headlands and the sea-mew's clang;" – requires no comment - it must reach every from observations on gravity, which regard an
heart and we now leave it ling;" 2, of the possessive ending of the line, concluding lines :
between the heights of the present con“nightingale's
tinents and mountain chains with the depths of Long trills;"
« Old Ocean was,
the ocean's waters, and then we are able to appre.
Infinity of ages ere we breathed and, 3, of the final word “clang" applied to
Existence; and he will be beautiful
ciate the aid which geology can be made to give to the scream of the sea-mew.
It does not convey
When all the living world that sees him now astronomy. Had the author been aware of this a true idea of the sound; and that it does Shall roll unconscious dust around the sun. not, is curiously enough proven by its proper
Quelling from age to age the vital throb
fact, he would not have asserted in his chapter In human hearts, death shall not subjugate
on the general disposition of the surface of the application in another passage, even in this The pulse that swells in his stupendous breast, globe, that the height of mountains is a mere short production :
Or interdict his minstrelsy to sound * True, to the dream of fancy, Ocean has
In thundering concert with the quiring winds :
object of curiosity; and the same remark ap. But long as man to parent Nature owns
plies to the well-established fact, of the disHis darker hints; but where's the element
and in times beyond That checkers not its usefulness to man
tinction existing between the equatorial and With casual terror? Scathes not Earth sometimes
The power of thought to reach, bard after bard
polar regions in the general height of their
mountains ; a distinction which our author says I quotation. It is extraordinary that an author founded on the radiation of heat, and differs can lead to no useful geological result. Un. who proposes to write a system, should not very little from that of Professor Cordier. We stratified rocks are not those in which the know what a system is. “Should I,” he says, shall here terminate our unpleasant labour of forms are irregular, but rocks which observe" attempt to describe accurately the several geo- pointing out the inadequacy of the present no parallelism in their beds; as changes of the logical connexions in which the rocks of this work to occupy in our literature the important absolute quality of the rock in a stratum are division exist, (alluding to the sandstones), it station of an accredited system of geology. Only not only rare, but we suspect unexampled. would lead to geological histories of the whole last year an anathema of a similar kind was
The classification adopted by Dr. Macculloch series of the secondary strata in every part of pronounced within the walls of the Geological is arbitrary and unscientific.' Brogniart, like the world.” Now, either strata are the repre. Society on a work of similar pretensions, and the first geognosts, has attempted å mineralo- sentatives of one another, or they are not; if gladly' shall we avail ourselves of the first gical classification of rocks; but he acknow. not, there has been accident in the formation opportunity of awarding due merit to the author ledged its inadequacy to the purposes of geology of the earth, and there is no such a science as who may be the first successful representative Dr. Macculloch has pursued a system which is geology; but if, as is the case, there is a simi. of a profound, important, and interesting branch somewhat of a mineralogical character, as he larity either in superposition in mineralogical of science. puts sandstones and limestones apart ; but he characters, or in organic remains in the same Looking at some of his more miscellaneous does not assist the student by any specific dis- (formation all over the globe, is it not the sys- remarks, we agree with Dr. Maccullochtinctions, nor does he bring the very ground- tematist's duty to ascertain and to describe “ That the water in stones is actually satu. work of his arrangement to elucidate the me- them accurately? The sandstones of the coal rated with earths, and probably with silica or thod adopted, or exhibit that method in its formation have a paragraph occupied in their lime, appears to be also proved by certain aponly favourable light-namely, the advantage description! The red marl comes next in order. pearances which take place on breaking and of well distinguishing different rocks. In geo- It is divided into three beds, separated by vast drying some of these. In marbles raised very logy there should be no arbitrary classification deposits of limestone, themselves distinguished wet from the quarry, a whitish dusty surface -it must be a table of superposition, as far as by important mineralogical characters, and their soon follows from the deposition of the carboregards stratified rocks; and with respect to the application to domestic uses. It would hardly nate of lime; and a similar deposition of silica unstratified, it must be founded on their minera- be believed, that out of these Dr. Macculloch will account for that gray tarnish which is prological characters, or the period of their appear- describes only the red marl with saliform de- duced on pitch-stones within a very few hours ance on the surface of the earth; - a subject posits.
after the specimens are broken from the rock, which might involve some discussion, but which Not only in the practical part of the science during which process of drying they become far discussion would be attended with benefit to have we to complain of a want of labour and less tender and more compact.” the science. In what concerns the sedimentary method, but in the very essays which comprise This fact is no less interesting in a geologideposits or stratified rocks, the work is la- Dr. Macculloch's elementary and theoretical no- cal point of view, than it is important as conmentably deficient; and not to enter into par- tions, one would be led to suppose that the nected with the arts; for it shews the propriety ticulars, where the author is unacquainted principles of geological science had never been of squaring and working stones for the ordiwith the labours of the Germans and the laid down. “ Whatever analogies," he says, nary purposes of building and ornamental ar. French, and with the important researches of“ may be found all over the world, not only chitecture as early as possible after their exca. Messrs. Sedgwick and Impey Murchison,* among the natures of the strata, but in the vation from the quarry. Independent of the which have assisted in throwing so much light relative order of their stratification, there is no heavy expense of carriage in transporting large on what have been called the secondary and ter- where that resemblance which can authorise blocks of granite, sandstone, or oolite, in tiary rocks,we shall comprise our critique in us in supposing that they have either been mass, a considerable portion of which is subse. stating that the details given do not even make simultaneous, or under the influence of a quent waste--if such blocks were worked for an approach to what is at present known of the universal law.” Again, “ The order of suc- all the ordinary purposes of building-stone at differences which they exhibit in various coun- cession is only general, and very far, indeed, the quarry before removed, an immense saving tries, (a fact which is denied by the author in from being so particular as it has been ima- would result both in carriage and labour. his preface), and even in the same country ;-gined.” Geology, we would answer, is a sci. What, for instance, can be more absurd than of the variety in organic remains in contempo-ence of observation, not of imagination. Our the accumulation of a vast mass of freestone, raneous formations, in various geographical author further remarks, “ All successions are sandstone, and granite, to lie hardening by the situations ; -of the relation of the secondary analogous, and not identical.” Now, positive sun and air, for several years, on Ramsgate with the tertiary formations, and of these with geognosy, or the order of succession of the pier, in order to make extra work in finishing each other ;-of the relation of the sedimentary various strata of the earth, and the succession that fine structure, which has been already deposits to the rocks of plutonic origin ; and of the different terms of the series, has been thirty years in progress ! in fact of that which embraces the most marked established from observations made in the two In the latter sections of the work, on the features of the science, and constitutes the worlds. If by the term identity the author Theories of the Earth," the Dr. is not orer brilliancy and glory which have characterised means identity of composition, his assertion nice in attacking the different views of other the progress of geology when other sciences would be correct; but if he means identity of geologists. But whether the views he puts remained almost stationary.
formation, which is the only identity we can re-forth as a “Sketch towards a Theory of the There is no such thing as a primary red cognise in geology, then such is not to be found. Earth” be exempt from the charges be advances sandstone, –a sedimentary deposit, alternating The mineralogical characters of the rock may against contemporary geologists, we shall not with primitive crystalline rocks. Why so vary in different countries ; even the organic take upon ourselves to offer any opinion. From tenacious in error ? We more than doubt the remains may vary in their species or their the very diffuse style of the author, it is by no transition of old red sandstone into granite. genera, but their superposition is supposed means an easy matter to arrive at his corchaAt the only place quoted by our author, the never to vary: As mineral masses, they are, sions. So far as we can collect his meaning, Ord of Caithness, we have excellent authority then, either similar or dissimilar; but when we the planet we now inhabit was a mass of that it is not the case : “ As the mountain consider them as terms in an ascending or gaseous matter, as it emanated from the fiat of limestone is conspicuously the next stratum in descending series, their identity becomes almost its Almighty architect. That it became suc. England, while sufficiently constant in Scot- certain. We shall here quote De Humboldt : cessively condensed into the liquid and salid land, - and as an analogous one is similarly “When geognosy was raised to the rank of a form now constituting the terrestrial globe, found on the continent, this must be esteemed science, when the art of interrogating nature through the radiation of heat from the sur. the natural succession." If it had not been was improved, and when journeys to distant face ; while the central portion of the mass proved by the occurrence of mountain limestone countries furnished a more exact comparison still retains its igneous fluidity. But since the between the rock in question and all other between different formations, great and immu. origin of things, the crust of this globe, or secondary rocks, we doubt very much if geo- table laws were recognised in the structure of spheroid, has undergone no fewer than eight diflogists would have admitted its natural succes- the globe, and in the superposition of rocks; ferent eras or "conditions," easily distinguish. sion, from reasoning like that presented in this the most striking, analogies in the position, able by geological evidence ; such as the inter
composition, and the included organic remains ruptions or change in the chemical nature of • " The evidences of geology,” Dr. M. ventures to of contemporary beds, were then observed in the rocky series, through the agency of fire, a assert: - have indeed been multiplied, yet through idenboth hemispheres; and in proportion as we water, or both agents combined. " I knot of tical facts only; since I do not perceive that a new one been.” Without appealing to foreign
authorities, we shall of view, their identity daily becomes more of a fluid globe could be consolidated but by
This ought not to have consider formations under a more general point no mode (says the author) in which the surface son, Serope, Webster, Lyell, &c, to answer these sweeping probable.” The hypothesis advanced as “a the radiation of heat. The immediate result charges.
sketch towards a theory of the earth,” is of this must bave been the formation of rocks
has been added to the science.
on that surface; and if the interior fluid does can hardly be expected themselves to distin-jfrom an author, the honour of his own coun. now produce the several unstratified rocks, the guish the effects of the Archbishop of Granada's try, and an example to the authors of other first that were formed must have resembled apoplexy, and are not unwilling to pass over kingdoms, to whom all must be proud to own some of these, if not all. We may not unsafely in their composition, as instances of mere care- an obligation. Family tradition supplied me infer that they were granitic, perceiving that lessness or bad luck, what others may consider with two circumstances, which are somewhat substances of this character have been pro- as symptoms of mortal decay. I had no choice analogous to that in question. The first is an duced wherever the cooling was most gradual. save that of absolutely laying aside the pen, account of a lawsuit, taken from a Scottish The first apparently solid globe was therefore the use of which at my time of life was become report of adjudged cases, quoted in note to a globe of granite." Now, although the above a habit, or to continue its vagaries, until the chap. vi. p. 129. The other-of which the is perfectly intelligible, we have some doubts public should let me plainly understand they editor has no reason to doubt, having often whether our readers will consider the following would no more of me; a hint which I was not heard it from those who were witnesses of the section of the sentence in the same light : unlikely to meet with, and which I was deter-fact-relates to the power of a female in keep** And though we have not as yet even con- mined to take without waiting for a repetition. ing a secret (sarcastically said to be impossible), jectured the causes of what is, nevertheless, a 'This hint, that the reader may plainly under- even when that secret refers to the exercise of fact in evidence, we ought to admit it on stand me, I was determined to take, when the her tongue. In the middle of the eighteenth the doctrine of final causes, or of a directing publication of a new Waverlay novel should century, a female wanderer came to the door Power; seeing that it is necessary for that dis- not be the subject of some attention in the of Mr. Robert Scott, grandfather of the present position, or management of the earth, the con- literary world. An accidental circumstance author, an opulent farmer in Roxburghshire, sequences of which are essential to its ends.” decided my choice of a subject for the present and made signs that she desired shelter for the Again : “ If such is this view of the first, or work. It was now several years since my im- night, which, according to the custom of the truly primitive solid globe, I need not dwell mediate younger brother, Thomas Scott, al- times, was readily granted. The next day the on the quality of the evidence ; since, be it ready mentioned in these notes, had resided country was covered with snow, and the dewhat it may, it is apparent. But under the for two or three seasons in the Isle of Man, parture of the wanderer was rendered impossame evidence, there is now a second condi. and, having access to the registers of that sin-sible. She remained for many days, her main. tion; or, from the presumed original one, a gular territory, had copied many of them, which tenance adding little to the expense of a confourth, and that a terraqueous one, or an earth he subjected to my perusal. These papers were siderable household; and by the time that the analogous to the present, however differing in put into my hands while my brother had weather grew milder, she had learned to hold many essential particulars ; some obvious, and thoughts of making some literary use of them, intercourse by signs with the household around others only to be conjectured !" Need we I do not well remember what; but he never her, and could intimate to them that she was adduce any farther instances to justify our came to any decision on that head, and grew desirous of staying where she was, and workremarks as to the obscurity with which our tired of the task of transcription. The papers, ing at the wheel and other employment, to author has overlaid his subject in order to I suppose, were lost in the course of a military compensate for her food. This was a compact make out a system? Dr. Macculloch is un- man's life. The tenor of them, that is, of the not unfrequent at that time, and the dumb questionably a man of profound science; but most remarkable, remained engraved on the woman entered upon her thrift, and proved a honesty obliges us to say, that he is also a memory of the author. The interesting and useful member of the patriarchal household. skilful book-maker.
romantic story of William Christian especially She was a good spinner, knitter, carder, and so
struck my fancy. I found the same individual, forth, but her excellence lay in attending to The Waverley Norels, Vol. XXVIII. Peve- as well as his father, particularly noticed in the feeding and bringing up the domestic poul
ril of the Peak, Vol. I. Edinburgh, 1831, some memorials of the island, preserved by the try. Her mode of whistling to call them togeR. Cadell, London, Whittaker.
Earl of Derby, and published in Dr. Peck's cher was so peculiarly elfish and shrill, that it We last week noticed this new volume of the Desiderata Curiosa. This gentleman was the was thought by those who beard it (to be] more Waverley series, and the novelties it contains. son of Edward, formerly governor of the island; like that of a fairy than a human being. In this From these novelties we now think it but jus- and William himself was afterwards one of its manner she lived three or four years, nor was tice to offer an extract or two: the first is from two dempsters, or supreme judges. Both father there the slightest idea entertained in the family the introduction, where the author says and son embraced the party of the islanders, that she was other than the mute and deprived
“ If I had valued my own reputation, as it and contested some feudal rights claimed by person she had always appeared. But in a mois said I ought in prudence to have done, I the Earl of Derhy as king of the island. When ment of surprise, she dropped the mask which might have now drawn a line, and remained the earl had suffered death at Bolton-le-Moors, she had worn so long. It chanced upon a Sun. for life, or (who knows ?) perhaps for some Captain Christian placed himself at the head of day that the whole inhabitants of the household years after death, the ingenious author of the roundheads, if they might be so called, and were at church excepting Dumb Lizzie, whose Waverley.' I was not, however, more desirous found the means of holding communication infirmity was supposed to render her incapable of this sort of immortality, which might have with a fleet sent by the parliament. The island of profiting by divine service, and who therelasted some twenty or thirty years, than Fal. was surrendered to the parliament by the in- fore stayed at home to take charge of the staff of the embowelling which was promised surgent Manxmen. The high-spirited coun- house. It happened that, as she was sitting him after the field of Shrewsbury, by his patron tess and her son were arrested, and cast into in the kitchen, a mischievous shepherd boy, the Prince of Wales. • Embowelled? If you prison, where they were long detained, and instead of looking after his flock on the lea, as embowel me to-day, you may powder and eat very indifferently treated. When the restora- was his duty, slunk into the house to see what me to-morrow! If my occupation as a ro- tion took place, the countess, or by title the he could pick up, or perhaps out of mere curi. mancer were taken from me, I felt I should queen-dowager of the island, seized upon Wil- osity. Being tempted by something which was have at a late hour in life to find me out an- liam Dhône, or Fair-haired William, as Wil- in his eyes a nicety, he put forth his hand, other ; when I could hardly expect to acquire liam Christian was termed, and caused him to unseen as he conceived, to appropriate it. The those new tricks which are proverbially said be tried and executed, according to the laws of dumb woman came suddenly upon bim, and in not to be learned by those dogs who are getting the island, for having dethroned his liege mis- the surprise, forgot her part, and exclaimed, in old. Besides, I had yet to learn from the pub- tress, and imprisoned her and her family. Ro- loud Scotch, and with distinct articulation, lic, that my intrusions were disagreeable ; and mancers and readers of romance will generally " Ah, you little deevil's limb!'. The boy, terwhile I was endured with some patience, I felt allow, that the fate of Christian, and the con- rified more by the character of the person who I had all the reputation which I greatly covet-trast of his character with that of the high- rebuked him, than by the mere circumstance ed. My memory was well stored, both with minded but vindictive Countess of Derby, of having been taken in the insignificant ofhistorical, local, and traditional notices; and I famous during the civil wars for her valiant fence, fed in great dismay to the church, to bad become almost as licensed a plague to the defence of Latham House, contained the es- carry the miraculous news that the dumb public as the well-remembered beggar of the sence of an interesting tale.
woman had found her tongue. The family ward, whom men distinguish by their favour, “ The character of Fenella, which, from its returned home in great surprise, but found perhaps for no better reason than that they peculiarity, made a favourable impression on that their inmate had relapsed into her usual had been in the habit of giving him alms as a the public, was far from being original. The mute condition, would communicate with them part of the business of their daily promenade. fine sketch of Mignon, in Wilhelm Meister's only by signs, and in that manner denied posi. The general fact is undeniable_all men grow Lehrjahre, a celebrated work from the pen of tively what the boy affirmed. From this time old, all men must wear out ; but men of ordi- Goëthe, gave the idea of such a being. But confidence was broken betwixt the other innary wisdom, however aware of the general the copy will be found greatly different from mates of the family and their dumb, or rather fact, are unwilling to admit in their own case my great prototype ; nor can I be accused of silent, guest. Traps were laid for the supposed any special instances of failure. Indeed, they borrowing any thing, save the general idea, impostor, all of which she skilfully eluded ;