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happiness in another world. I cannot explain soners to rail, I may say to rave, against re- | England, he is now about to die for a burglary the contradiction – let the reader judge for ligion, in terms of ridicule, scorn, and violent committed since his return. His glance at himself. Two persons, say A. and B., are hatred. I should but shock the feelings of the sheriffs and the ordinary tells of scorn and ordered for execution. They both display the many, and without any countervailing advan- defiance. But even this hardened ruffian will liveliest faith in the doctrines of Christianity, tage, by repeating the language, or particularly wince at the most trying moment, as we shall Apparently the minds of both are equally filled describing the conduct, of those prisoners who see presently. The third is a sheep-stealer, a with religious thoughts, to the exclusion of take offence at the anxiety of the chaplain and poor ignorant creature, in whose case there are what belongs to this world. And the sincerity others to imbue them with religious sentiments. mitigating points, but who is to be hanged in of both is equally manifest; for any one who But I may add, that on almost every execution consequence of some report having reached the watches them, may be sure that they have day on which several are banged, the chaplain ear of the secretary of state that this is not his ceased to think of their own situation, otherwise is subjected to the most outrageous insults from first offence; and, secondly, because, of late, a than as they look forward to the approaching one or more of the doomed men. He will good many sheep have been stolen by other execution as the happiest moment of their readily confirm this statement. And it may people. He is quite content to die ;-indeed, lives.' I quote the words which are frequently be further proper to say, for the information of the exertions of the chaplain and others have uttered by persons ordered for execution, and religious persons amongst those who make our brought him firmly to believe that his situa. to all appearance with entire sincerity; for it laws, that every year several of their fellow. tion is enviable, and that the gates of heaven is an indubitable fact, that nearly in all such creatures are cut off in front of Newgate in the are open to receive him. Now observe the cases of religious fervour, the bodily health of very act of scoffing at God, and Christ, and the fourth-that miserable old man in a tattered the enthusiast is excellent, his sleep sound, his Holy Sacrament. Let us return to the con- suit of black : he is already half dead. He is appetite good, his pulse steady, and his skin demned pew, supposing it to contain four per- said to be a clergyman of the church of Eng. moist; whilst, speaking generally, he who sons ordered for execution. The rest of the land (Rev. Peter Fenn), and has been congoes to the scaffold scoffing at religion is full of congregation, I have said already, pray for the victed of forgery. The great efforts made to bodily disease, of which the main symptoms are condemned during each morning's service; but save his life not only by his friends but by want of appetite and sleep, a rattling or faint- on the Sunday preceding the execution, there many

utter strangers, fed him with hope until ing pulse, and a skin hot and dry, as if he is a grand ceremony, usually called the con- his doom was sealed. He is now under the were in a burning fever. Now in the supposed demned sermon,' when, besides the sermon, influence of despair. He staggers towards the case of A. and B. the physical symptoms are which is of course made for the occasion, ap- pew, reels into it, stumbles forward, flings precisely alike, whilst the language and con- propriate hymns are sung -- such as the himself on to the ground, and, by a curious duct of the two men indicate the same degree lamentation of a sinner; and if the execution twist of the spine, buries his head under his of religious fervour. A. is hanged, blessing be to take place next day, part of the burial body. The sheriffs shudder; their inquisitive the executioner, and lost to all but one senti- service is performed. The condemned service friends crane forward ; the keeper frowns on ment--that of confidence in his own salvation is conducted with peculiar solemnity, being the excited congregation ; the lately smirking by faith. B. is spared, and within a week is attended by the sheriffs in their great gold footmen close their eyes and forget their liveries heard laughing and railing at all religion. Ichains, and is in other ways calculated to make the ordinary clasps his hands ; tbe turnkeys ery have said before, that it is chance which gene- a strong impression on the minds of the con- hush ;' and the old clerk lifts up his cracked raily decides who shall be hanged and who gregation, who may be considered as repre- voice, saying, “ Let us sing to the praise and spared. Consequently, we are not to suppose senting the criminals of the metropolis. Whe- glory of God.' People of London ! is there any that A.'s greater criminality was the cause of ther the impression be a good or a bad one, I scene in any play so striking as this tragedy of his greater enthusiasm ; nor can we, indeed, leave the reader to decide : but in order that real life, which is acted eight times a-year in presume that his religious feelings were more he may have the necessary materials

for de- the inidst of your serene homes 2 They sing, profound than those of B. Judging from se- ciding justly, I lay before him the following the Morning Hymn, which of course reminds veral actual cases of this kind, I should say, description of a condemned sermon, premising the condemned of their prospect for to-morrow that if B. had been hanged and A. spared, the only this—that not a circumstance is stated morning. Eight o'clock to-morrow morning is same conduct would have attended the same which I have not witnessed. The sheriffs are to be their last moment. They come to the circumstances, without regard to the person already seated in their own pew, accompanied burial service. The youth, who, alone of those concerned. It is not often that much religious by their under-sheriffs, and two friends drawn for whom it is intended, is both able and wil. fervour is displayed by convicts until after they thither by curiosity. Not far from them ap- ling to read, is, from want of practice, at a loss are ordered for execution ; nor are the same pear two tall footmen, swelling with pride

at to find the place in his prayer-book. The ot; pains taken to imbue them with religious feel their state liveries. The ordinary is in his dinary observes him, looks to the sheriffs

, mud ings previously to the decision of the council

. desk ; his surplice is evidently fresh from the says aloud," the service for the dead!' The As soon as a man is ordered for execution, the mangle; and those who see him every day, youth's hands tremble as they hold the burok great increase of his danger produces extra. observe an air of peculiar solemnity, and per- upside-down. The burglar is heard to mutter ordinary exertion on the part of those who ad- haps of importance, in his face and manner. an angry oath. The sheep-stealer smiles, and, minister the offices of religion to the inmates The clerk is busied searching out the

psalms extending his arms upwards, looks with a glad of Newgate. These are the ordinary, a Catholic proper for the occasion. The tragedy begins. expression to the roof of the chapel

. The priest, and one or two dissenters, who volunteer Enter, first, the schoolmaster and his pupils ; forger has never

moved. Let us pass on. All their services, but who do not confine their then the prisoners for trial ; next the tran- have sung the lamentation of a sinner,' and offers of service to persons of their own sect. sports, among whom are the late companions have seemed to pray, · especially for those now The Catholic priest attends the cells only when of the condemned men ; and then the women. awaiting the awful execution of the law.? We a Catholic is in danger. As soon, then, as the Lastly, come the condemned: they are four in come to the sermon. The ordinary of New council has selected from a body of Old Bailey number. The

first is a youth, about eighteen gate is an orthodox unaffected church of Engconvicts those who are to be executed, the apparently. He is to die for stealing in a land divine, who preaches plain homely disa ordinary and his assistants visit the press-yard dwelling-house goods valued at more than 51. courses, as fit as any religious discourse can be frequently every day, and indeed almost live His features have no felonious cast ;-on the fit for the irritated audience. The sermou of with the condemned men, exhorting them to contrary, they are handsome, intelligent, and this day, whether eloquent or plain, repentance, prayer, and faith. In about half even pleasing Craft, and fear, and debauchery, useless, must produce a striking effect at she such cases the exertions of religious teachers have not yet had time to put decided marks on moment of its delivery. The text

, without are most successful, and are attended, un him. He steps boldly, with his head upright, another word, is enough to raise the wildest doubtedly, with the happiest effects on the looks to the women's gallery, and smiles. His passions of the audience, already fretted by an prisoners--the effects described above, as pro- intention is to pass for a brave fellow with exhibition of gross injustice, and by the contra

. duced by religious sentiments. In about one those who have brought him to this untimely diction involved in the conjunction of religion case out of four no religious impression is pro- end; but the attempt fails—fear is stronger in with the taking away of lives. duced ; but the prisoner goes through all the him than vanity. Suddenly his head droops ; of God are a broken heart: a broken and cou: ceremonies of his situation with an air of in. and, as he sits down, bis bent knees tremble trite heart, O God! thou wilt nos despise." difference, being occupied to the very last and knock together. The second is an older for a while the preacher addresses himself to moment with the hope of a reprieve. in the criminal, on whose countenance villain is dis- the congregation at large, who listen alten: fourth case, not only do the teachers fail in tinctly written. He has been sentenced to tively-excepting the clergyman and the bar their endeavours to produce a religious feeling, death' before, but reprieved, and transported glar, of whom the former is still rolled up at but those very exertions have an effect directly for life. Having incurred the penalty of death the bottom of the condemned pew, while the opposite to the one iutended, causing the pri- by the act, in itself innocent, of returning to eyes of the latter are wandering grund the

• The sacritices

chapel, and one of them is occasionally winked, only add one recent instance of the worse than of those near Lodi. But," adds the doctor, impudently, at some acquaintance among the folly exhibited on the execution of capital con- " having carefully examined the stomachs of prisoners for trial. At length the ordinary victs. Motley, hanged at Lincoln for arson, these several fishes, I have found that they pauses; and then, in a deep tone, which, says the Lincoln Times, “ had obtained the lived on other substances, and that from the though hardly above a whisper, is audible to comforting assurance of pardon from Him to anatomy of the stomach it is impossible they all, says — Now to you, my poor fellow- whom the cry of a broken and contrite heart should be able to digest gold.” mortals, who are about to suffer the last pe- was never raised in vain ; and never do the Our next extract is a historical view, in nalty of the law.' But why should I repeat rays of Divine mercy appear so resplendently which much of important research is com. the whole? It is enough to say, that in the beautiful as when reflected from the tear of pressed into a wonderfully small compass. same solemn tone he talks for about ten minutes repentance on the cheek of the dying cul. The Middle Ages." It is further to be obof crimes, punishment, bonds, shame, igno- prit”!!

served, that the coinage of the middle ages was miny, sorrow, sufferings, wretchedness, pangs,

conducted with little skill and still less taste. childless parents, widows and helpless orphans, Jacob on the Precious Metals.

The operation had been rendered hereditary in broken and contrite hearts, and death to-mor

(Third Notice.)

certain families who were answerable for the row morning for the benefit of society. What Continuing our review of the interesting intrinsic value of the pieces they issued, but happens. The dying men are dreadfully agi- matter contained in these volumes, we now troubled themselves very little about their tated. The young stealer in a dwelling-house come nearer home.

beauty, being only compelled to stamp on them no longer has the least pretence to bravery. " It has been supposed that in the present the name of the reigning sovereign. On acHe grasps the back of the pew; his legs give day, in this country, the quantity of gold and count of the scarcity of silver about the year way; he atters a faint groan, and sinks on silver in actual existence, including utensils

, 1213, the Emperor of Germany established nuthe floor. Why does no one stir to help him? ornaments, jewellery, trinkets and watches, is merous mints in several cities; and, that the Where would be the use? The hardened three or four times as great as the value of those moneyers might practise no deceit, a number burglar moves not, nor does he speak; but his metals which exists in the form of money. In of persons were placed in each, under the title face is of an ashy paleness ; and, if you look case circumstances should arise to induce the of adjoints, whose duty it was to buy and recarefully, you may see blood trickling from his conversion of plate into money, there would be ceive the metals, to watch carefully all the lip, which he has bitten unconsciously, or from a resource which could furnish a supply: but transactions regarding the real value of the rage, or to rouse his fainting courage. The in the Roman empire, the plate and jewels of coins, and especially of those of inferior standpoor sheep-stealer is in a frensy. He throws two thousand wealthy families would have been ard; but, above all, to superintend the securing his hands far from him, and shouts aloud- but a feeble aid to the money circulating in those emoluments to the emperor to which he

Mercy, good Lord ! mercy is all I ask. The that powerful empire, which comprehended was entitled for his seigniorage. Those preLord in his mercy come! There ! there! I within its limits the most populous and exten- cautions were found, however, so ineffectual

, see the Lamb of God! Oh! how happy! sive parts of the known world. The cities of that it became necessary to issue penal ordiOh! this is happy! Meanwhile, the clergy-Herculaneum and Pompeii were buried by an nances, by which the punishment of the galleys man, still bent into the form of a sleeping dog, irruption of Vesuvius about the year 79, when in some cases, and of death in others, was destruggles violently; his feet, legs, hands, and the Roman power and prosperity had shewn no creed. Without further mention of the proartes, even the muscles of his back, move with a visible tokens of that decline which began a ductions of the mints in the middle ages, it is quick jerking motion, not naturally, but, as it few years afterwards. The latter was one of sufficient to observe, that the coins of that were, like the affected part of a galvanised the most industrious and populous cities on the period being clumsily formed, were thicker than corpse. Suddenly he utters a short sharp coast of Italy. Within the last century their those of more recent date; and as they thus scream, and all is still. The silence is short. ruins have been examined. Pompeii was cover- exposed a much less surface to friction, there As the ordinary proceed to conclude,' the ed with ashes and cinders, rather than with was proportionably less loss on them than on women set up a yell, which is mixed with a lava, and the investigators have been more suc- modern pieces of money. There is good reason rustling noise, occasioned by the removal of cessful in their examinations there than at to conclude, that during the period we are those whose hysterics have ended in fainting. Herculaneum. In some of the houses skeletons viewing, a very small part of the produce of The sheriffs cover their faces; and one of their of the inhabitants have been discovered ; in all, the mines of gold and silver was permanently inquisitive friends blows his nose with his domestic utensils and personal ornaments. But applied to other purposes than that of money: glove: The keeper tries to appear unmoved ; among the utensils none have been found either A portion of it was undoubtedly used for dobut his eye wanders anxiously over the com- of gold or of silver ; but those for which in our mestic utensils, for religious institutions, and bustible assembly.

The children round the day silver is almost exclusively adopted by the for personal decorations : but it would appear wonder. The two masses of prisoners for trial brass. These antiquities

give a correct idea of among the higher classes of society, including communion-table stare and gape with childish middle class of persons, are composed of iron

or that such portions were small, and dispersed undulate and slightly murmur; while the ca- the domestic arrangements of the people, such the ecclesiastical communities, in very small pital convicts, who were lately in that black as they were at the period when the

catastrophe quantities. We should be justified in conclude pew, appear faint with emotion. This exhibi. occurred, and they shew most clearly that gold ing, that whatever existed in other forms than cion lasts for some minutes, and then the con- and silver were not to be found in the dwellings that of money, was, with the money, held to gregation disperses ; the condemned

returning of the inhabitants; though the size of the houses, be at the disposition of the government when. to the cells; the forger carried by turnkeys; the paintings, the statues, the books, and other ever the necessities of the public required it to the youth sobbing aloud convulsively, as a pas- objects, sufficiently prove that the proprietors be put in requisition. Thus, when Richard, sionate child ; the burglar muttering curses of them were persons at least in easy circum- king of England, was a prisoner in Austria, and savage expressions of defiance ; whilst the stances. From their durable nature, if gold and Louis of France in Egypt, and John of France poor sheep-stealer shakes hands with the turn. silver had been in these houses at the time of in England, their redemption was effected by keys, whistles merrily, and points upwards the calamity,

they would have been found there, placing in requisition, as has been already nowith madness in his look. Of what use are as the iron and bronze have been, of which

their ticed, the plate of noble

individuals and of relithe religious ceremonies in which persons about spoons and forks were made ; and which retain gious houses in all parts of their dominions. to be hanged are made to play a part ? The their original shape after a lapse of more than The gold and silver articles, of whatever kind, question should not give offence to the most seventeen hundred years."

so collected, would be converted into coin, religious, since it applies only to the ceremonies. The following is a curious superstition, either by those who delivered or those who reThese, it would appear, are of no peculiar ser- which we must copy in its insulated position. ceived them, and become a part of the general vice to the condemned that is, all the good “ The inhabitants of Pesquare,” says Dr. mass of current money. In more tranquil seawhich he derives from religion might be be- Belon, “and of the borders of the lake of Gard, sons, when peace gave a breathing time for the stowed on him without any

public ceremonies. and also of Salo, are firmly persuaded that the indulgence of luxuries, the coin might and proThe object, then, of the religious ceremonies carp in those lakes are nourished with pure bably would be reconverted into objects of in which he shares, is to make a useful im- gold ; and a great portion of the people in the tification. These changes might increase the pression on the other inmates of the prison. Lyonnois are fully satisfied that the fish called waste of both metals. As far as relates to Is this object effected ?"

humble and emblons eat no other food than silver, there is a small portion of waste at every We never read a more graphic sketch than gold. There is not a peasant in the environs melting; and though gold suffers no loss by this; but its extent precludes us from offering of the lake of Bourgil who will not maintain that operation, yet, in its application to objects a few remarks, as we purposed, in this Nume that the laurets, a fish sold daily in Lyons, feed of personal decoration, it is divided into such ber, on the matters of which Mr. Wakefield on pure gold alone. The same is the belief of small particles, that some of them, from their treats. These being deferred, we shall now the people on the lake Paladron in Savoy, and I very minuteness, become insensibly mixed up


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in other substances, from which they are only quoted, in the year 1403, there must have been tion. The inquiring mind investigates with separated at an expense of time and labour a considerable quantity consumed by gilding accuracy, and moves with slow but steady which exceeds their value. In some of the an- and plating on the inferior metals."

steps, from link to link in the great chain of cient chronicles, notices are to be found which With this we conclude Vol. I.

causes and effects. To give to the objection would give a higher value to the stock of silver

that solidity which it claims, it is necessary and gold in the possession of some individuals An Original Essay on the Immateriality and that it should be made to appear, that every than appears to be justified by a more rigid Immortality of the Human Soul; founded man, or some individual man, is not always examination. In the gold, silver, and jewels, solely on Physical and Rational Principles. conscious. And when this is established, the taken from Piers Gaveston, the favourite of By Samuel Drew, A.M, Fifth edition. 8vo. conclusive part of the objection must be adEdward II., it is said by Rymer, that some of pp. 364. London, 1831. Fisher, Son, and mitted ; and it will then appear, that it is the silver articles in his collection bad cost four Co.

contradictory to suppose consciousness to be times the value of the metal in workmanship. A LITTLE-MINDED, querulous sceptic having essential to the nature of an immaterial prin. The workmen on the precious metals, except, annoyed Ugo Foscolo with a number of frivo- ciple, while an interval can be proved in which perhaps, on the inferior parts of the work, were lous questions upon matter and mind, asked this consciousness has no existence. Of every not mere mechanics, but men of a superior him, among other queries, Whether he be- fact which we attempt to establish, we must order, like artists, such as Cellini in Italy at a lieved in the immortality of the soul_or

, in have some conception; without this, we can. later period. Among the operators on gold and fact, whether such an essence had any existence not be certain that it is fact; and every idea silver in England, we find several ecclesiastics or not? Foscolo, calling to mind the individual which we have of any fact, supposes the esist. noticed, especially one Alan de Walsingham, a insignificance of him who put the question, an. ence of this fact. But for any man to prove, monk of Ely, who, as well as others of his class, swered, " I do not know whether you have any or rather attempt to prove, that the mind is were celebrated for their superior skill in the soul-but I am quite sure I have.” We have not always conscious, is to prove the positive goldsmith's art. Whilst the fabrication of any related this anecdote for the benefit of all those existence of a negation. Should it be asserted, articles is confined to artists, they must neces- who are anxious to ask similar questions to that man is not always conscious, I would ask, sarily be rare ; and when they become subjects that put to Foscolo by his sceptical companion, in How can that fact be known? It must be of extensive demand and use, the labour will order that we may refer them for a number of deduced from reasoning, must be self-evidens, be executed by common mechanics or manufac- satisfactory answers to Mr. Drew's able work or must exist in common experience. And, if

In that now usual appendage to the on this subject. If plain writing and straight- ! mistake not, it is not difficult to prove that dress of almost every decent person, the watch, forward reasoning carry with them any claim it can be in neither. To prove by reasoning, though it had been introduced as early as the to recommendation, we can vouch for the pre- the reality of what is supposed to have no exbeginning of the fourteenth century, only the sent volume being entitled to attention, and istence, is proving exactly the reverse of what outer case was made of silver and the inner secure of well-deserved popularity; if, indeed, is wanted to establish the is one of copper, and a gold watch was not known that need be predicated of a volume originally proving the existence of a ponentity; it cantill a period long subsequent to the first inven- published in the country, which has of its not, therefore, be known by reasoning. To tion. As far as is known of the jewellery of own merit, without quacking or puffery, run suppose it to be self-evident, is also to admit that day, it appears to have derived its great through four large editions, and is now ulti-the existence of what is presumed to bave ne value from the precious stones, and in a very mately improved by the last affecting and existence; and which, could it be once granted, small degree from the gold or silver in which important touches of the admired and vene- would necessarily destroy the very supposition it was fixed. Thus, when our Henry the Third rable author. The train of argument through. it was designed to establish; it would prove pawned his jewels for five thousand marcs, or out the essay is perspicuous and forcible — exactly the reverse of what it ought. It would ten thousand pounds, to the King of France in the result of a clear-sighted and clever mind prove that an individual is sometimes conscious 1261, the gold of the rings, in number three dedicating to its object that unwearied ear- that he is unconscious. What, therefore. is hundred and twenty-four, however heavy they nestness which so momentous a point of presumed to have no existence, cannot possibly may have been, could have borne no proportion inquiry demands from all who venture upon be self-evident. Neither can it be by common in value to the sum borrowed, the security for its discussion. We give the following chap- experience, of whatever we admit on the which must have been founded on the precious ter relative to the soul in sleep. We do not ground of experience, we must be conscious; stones. From the great value thus created in wish it to be considered as a favourable spe- without this, the very term is done away. articles of which gold and silver bore a part, cimen ; this would be unfair-for we have It is preposterous to suppose that we experience we infer that great care must have been taken quoted, not selected.

the absence of consciousness, while the very of their preservation, and that the articles of “Another argument urged against the im- supposition itself, wherever it exists, establishes silver whose value was increased by the costly materiality of the soul, which is as specious as the fact which we attempt to deny. And for workmanship, and those of gold by the stone's it is unsound, is generally stated thus:-- If any man to suppose himself destitute of conimbedded in it, were rarely used, and that the soul be a thinking immaterial substance, sciousness, is in effect for him to suppose, that consequently there was but little loss occasioned and consciousness be essential to its nature, it he is conscious of the absence of all conscious by that degree of friction to which they were must follow, that the soul must always think : ness—that he now experiences what be loves exposed. The art of gilding and plating had but this is contrary to what every man expe- not experience--and that he now knows what been carried to some considerable extent, riences. We have no recollection of what he does not know. It is proving the nonand the metal which was thinly coated with passes in sleep; and having no recollection, existence of a thing by the existence of the gold or silver was fraudulently sold for those we are left destitute of all proof that conscious- thing itself. A nonentity, therefore, cannot metals. To prevent such frauds, and also to ness at that time existed." And to suppose an be proved ; and the fact which was necessary prevent the use or waste of too much gold and immaterial substance to exist, and to allow to support the conclusive part of the objection, silver, as the preamble recites, the act of the consciousness to be essential to its nature, and has vanished into air. To assert that a confifth Henry the Fourth, cap. 13, was passed, yet to admit an interval in which this con- tinuation of thought may be inferred from which enacts that no artificer or other man sciousness can afford no evidence of its exist- continuation of life, may probably be deemed shall henceforth gild or silver any locks, rings, ence, is to admit as certain, a consciousness of more presumptuous than conclusive, becanse it beads, candlesticks, harness of girdles, chalices, which we have no evidence ;—it is to suppose seems to assume the point for which prout it hilts, nor pummels of swords, nor covers for a man to be conscious and not to be conscious demanded. But though this inference should cups made of copper or latten, upon pain

to for- at the same time.' To combat theory with be declined, the regulrrity with which an mal feit to the king one hundred shillings; but fact and incident must always be forcible, and life proceeds, during the recess of nature, cabthat the said artificers may work (chalices ex- sometimes conclusive ; and when theory can not but furnish us with seme striking anacepted) ornaments for the church of copper and be fairly confronted with such incidents, as its logies. The man who is asleep is as insensille latten, and gild or silver the same ; so that al- design was to invalidate and overcome, fact that he is alive, as he is that he is conscious ways on the foot or some other part of the and incident must always be decisive in fa- and should we appeal to him for pravi, da copper or the latten shall be plain, to the intent vouring the point in debate. But when theory would find it equally as difficult to furnisheria that a man may see whereof the thing is made, is established on the firm and immovable basis dence in the former case as in the latter. But, for to eschew the deceit thereof.' We conclude, of solid and conclusive reasoning, fact itself however insensible he may be of his condition

, therefore, that during the period in question, must be presented fairly to the mind, to coun- me well know that his lungs heave, his lireachthere could be but little consumption of the terbalance the efficacy of such arguments as it ing continues, his beart beats, his blood circle gold and silver which composed the money ; or has to oppose. The phenomena of appearance lates, and his pulsation goes on. And yet of that used as utensils or ornaments in an un- are no proof of reality. Speciousness may when he wakes, he bus ng knowledgewhate mixed state ; but that, up to passing the act | dazzle the eye, but it cannot produce convica ever of these facts, and nothing can induce

remittingly exist. But it would not affect the The Prospect of Reform in Europe. Pp. 55. Mr. Wilkinson, is applicable to cannon as well
proved that there were intervals in which the A PAMPHLET re-edited from the North Ameby our public boards, we have no doubt it will
mind paid no attention to its own operations, rican Review, published at Boston six weeks soon become well known to the world.
waking, will demonstrate the fact. That men reform, it disguises none of the mighty effects We have seldom been struck with more surprise
do not always attend to their own conscious- now in progress, and discusses many of the and admiration than we felt on entering the

him to admit them as such, but information can in no way whatever be essential to their treme simplicity, the facility with which it can
and analogy. If, then, the functions of animal real being. It is, therefore, not only possible be cleaned, its prodigious and varied powers,
economy may be, and actually are, carried on that the soul may think during the hours of render it peculiarly applicable to every purpose
in the hours of sleep, without our knowledge sleep, though we may be totally ignorant, when of naval and military warfare to which fire-
or sensibility, why inay not the mind continue we awake, of those objects which then ap- arms can be applied.
its operations also, even though we never could proached the mind, as well as insensible of the Ist, A pistol, either for cavalry, for the
know the manner in which it is employed ? manner of our intellectual operations ; but it defence of broaches, or for boarding, which can
We well know, that frequently while we are appears absurd to suppose that the operations be loaded and fired ten times in one minute,
asleep, the mind is occupied with dreams, of the mind, and our apprehension of them, projecting at each discharge 12 missiles in one
many of which so far engage the attention as should be co-existent with one another. And, horizontal line, diverging laterally from 12 to
to leave an impression which continues when consequently, where recollection fails, those 18 feet, and within an elevation of 6 feet, at
we are awake. Nay, some of these are recol- subjects which occupied our thoughts must be the distance of 30 or 40 yards. Each man dis-
lected with pain or pleasure after a series of totally unknown. Although the faculty of the charging 120 missiles per minute, 100 men
years, and even continue through life. Among soul be always the same, it may, nevertheless, in ten minutes are enabled to discharge
these dreams a great number are totally for vary in the manner of its operations. Think-120,000 missiles, each equal in effect to an
gotten when we first start from sleep'; and ing may diverge itself into a thousand direc- ordinary pistol-ball. Suppose that a squadron
sometimes it is the case, that some occurrence tions, and consciousness may be employed of 100 men charge an enemy's squadron of
which happens in the day recalls the impres- about as many different ideas; but it does not equal numbers, and that 75 direct their aim so
sion, and brings it to our memories in all its follow from thence that we must always un- badly that not one of their missiles took effect,
vividness. Sometimes days, and even weeks, derstand the manner in which the former ope- there still remain 300 well-directed missiles at
elapse, before these sleeping impressions are rates, or that in which the latter is employed. the first discharge ; or, even imagine it pos-
recalled ; and yet when they return, no person Hence, it is no more necessary to our idea of sible that only 1 in 100 was efficient, 100 men
can convince us that our minds were uncon- thinking, that we always understand the man- in ten minutes could put 1200 hors de combat.
scions through the whole of that night on ner in which the faculty operates, than it is

2d, A short carbine, capable of being diswhich they were first made. But should any necessary to the operations themselves, that we charged with the same rapidity as the pistol

, person, during the interval which passed be should always comprehend the secret springs but propelling 16 instead of 12 missiles, and tween the dream and our recollection of it, by which they move. In like manner, it is no particularly applicable to naval warfare, as 50 assert, that our consciousness was suspended, more necessary to the existence of conscious-men, directing their fire on the enemy's deck, that the mind did not operate, and that all our ness, that we always recollect the manner in while the fire of 50 more was directed against mental powers were destitute of activity, we which it was employed, or the ideas about the men on the masts and rigging, would in should have no means of contradicting the which it was occupied, than that we should be one minute pour a shower of 10,000 missiles assertion, until a recollection of the impression acquainted with those mysterious laws by which over the whole vessel; thus rendering her returned. But whenever this took place, we consciousness is governed, or that both should defenceless, and the boarding and capture cona should want no arguments to convince us that be supposed to depend for their existence upon sequently easy and almost instantaneous. his opinion was unfounded. In like manner, our knowledge of them. Our being conscious

The Marquess of Clanricarde, who bas taken it may with safety be admitted, that we have of any given fact, is a simple action of the a great interest in the perfection of this instruno reason to conclude that the mind is uncon- mind operating upon that fact, while our at- ment, was present at the experiments, together scious either when we sleep or when we wake, tention to what is passing is a reflex act of with Colonel Buller, and several other gentlemerely because we do not recollect what passed the mind operating upon its own operations. men. They were conducted by Mr. Wilkinthrough our minds during these questionable The former must precede the latter in the son, the eminent gun-maker in Pall Mall, and hours. No doubt a multitude of dreams occur order of nature, and therefore must exist inde- completely succeeded in producing all the effects to the mind, to which even then we pay little pendently of it'; while the latter, founded on we have enumerated. The pistol was about or no attention, and which we never recollect the former, is dependent on it for its existence. 3 lbs. in weight, with an elliptical muzzle, and afterwards. Though, could these be collected But whether the latter exist or not, it implies loaded with great ease and simplicity at the in the regular train of succession in which they neither contradiction nor absurdity.”

breech. The specimen was admirably finished occurred, it is highly probable that they would We strongly advocate Mr. Drew's work, not as a piece of workmanship, and the balls were leave but few intervals in which the perpetual only from its obvious utility in supplying the thrown with such force that they rebounded consciousness of the mind could be questioned. means of defence against the assaults of scep- from a brick wall, at thirty yards, more than These considerations are sufficient to silence ticism, but as a source at once of gratification half-way back. It seemed to us inipossible that objections against the perpetual consciousness to the mind from its matter, and of beneficial any military force could exist in the face of so of the mind during the hours of sleep, even exercise from the clear tone of reasoning which terrible an engine; and for the protection of though they may be deemed insufficient to pervades its pages.

houses from burglars, we never saw so irresistprove that consciousness does actually and un

ible a weapon. The invention, as improved by the soul, although it could

London, 1831. Rich.

as smaller arms; and as it is about to be tried
even at the time that it was engaged. This
fact, the occurrences of our waking hours will ago. F'as est ab hoste doceri should be its

sufficiently prove. And every instance in which motta, for it contains much important matter,
the attention is suspended, whether sleeping or cud of sweet and bitter thought. In favour of

on which the English reader should chew the

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ness, 1 readily admit; but it does not follow topics connected with this engrossing question apartment of the Queen's Bazaar in Oxford
from hence, 'that consciousness during these
intervals has no existence. It proves that we

so ably, as to be well calculated to open the Street, in which this magnificent specimen of have no apprehension of the thing, but it does eyes of the public to the real bearings of the human ingenuity, perseverance, and taste, is

exhibited. The form of the vase is classical not prove the non-existence of the thing itself.

and beautiful, the size stupendous, the execu. The existence of a faculty of the mind and of

tion rich and varied beyond conception. When its actions, and our apprehension of their ex.


illuminated by numerous gas-liglits, the effect istence, are distinct ideas. The former may NEW AND DESTRUCTIVE ENGINE OF WAR. is in the highest degree splendid and brilliant, exist independently of the latter, but the latter We have this week been favoured with the and realises the wonders of the Arabian Nights. cannot exist is the former cease to be. The sight of some experiments made with a newly This unique and extraordinary work of art is existence of a faculty must necessarily precede, invented pistol, for which a patent has been fourteen feet in height; its diameter is twelve in the order of nature, our apprehension of its taken out.

feet ; its weight upwards of six tons; and it is existence; and the action of this faculty must, This important invention, which appears capable of containing eight pipes, or about five for the same reason, precede our knowledge of destined to produce a new era in modern war. thousand four hundred bottles of wine,-a toit. If, then, the existence of consciousness fare, is decidedly the most destructive weapon, lerably suficient provision for a small convivial and thinking must necessarily precede our ap- in all its forms, that has ever been offered to party. The inventor of this striking novelty prehension of them, our apprehension of them the consideration of any government. Its ex-1(the value of which is estimated at ten thousand


guineas) is Mr. John Gunby, of Birmingham; success in so noble an aim, are deserving of animal character by which Mr. Davis's pencil and we extract the following passages from a patronage, then will M. Scrymgeour meet with is distinguished. The plate is charmingly en. sketch of its origin, history, and character, no stinted share of public encouragement. The graved. which recently appeared in a Birmingham jour- subject is the evidence of the divine mission of

William the Fourth. Dobbs. nal:

Moses and Aaron, given to Pharaoh by the “It is now nearly four years since Mr. serpent-rod of the Hebrews swallowing up the A FINE profile resemblance of his Majesty, Gunby invented and executed two small vases, rods of the Egyptian magicians. The artist embossed on tinted paper. The name of the about eighteen inches high, the first specimens has presented us with Pharaoh in splendour artist by whom the die was sunk ought to have of the art, which he shewed to some of his upon his throne, the magicians discomfited been introduced, that he might not, like one of friends, and by their recommendation he was and enraged, Moses looking upwards for Ossian's heroes, be " defrauded of his fame.” induced to procure an introduction, through heavenly assistance, and a multitude of people View of the New London Bridge, from TraSir Frederick Watson, to his late majesty variously affected by the miracle. The arcbi.

falgar Wharf, Southwark. By R. H. Essex. George IV., who was pleased to express his tecture, covered with hieroglyphics, has a suunqualified approbation of the invention and perb effect; and a distant view of the pyramids, ANOTHER 'view, in which we see more of the

On stone, by Scharf. Dickinson. execution, and commanded Mr. Gunby to exe- together with an extraordinary and powerful structure of the bridge and the boats, &c. on cute a vase on a much larger scale, suitable for light, which is introduced with great effect, the river below. Mr. Esses is, we believe, a one of his palaces. Thus encouraged by the add wonderfully to the general beauty of the countenance of so distinguished a judge, Mr. design. The colouring throughout is brilliant ; nently gifted with taste and talents, especially

young artist; but he belongs to a family emiGunby returned to Birmingham, and in a few - the whole a work of genius, the more to be in music, and he shews himself to be worthy of hours finished a rough sketch of a case of the admired, when we reflect on the difficulties

his kin. purest Grecian form, and of the prodigious to be encountered by the aspiring painter of any dimensions of the one now exhibiting at the picture of this exalted ord

Ceremony of opening London Bridge. Pro. Queen's Bazaar, Oxford Street, London. This original sketch, though produced in the in. Richmond, and its Surrounding Scenery. En.

cession on the Bridge. Drawn by Thomas

Allom. Fisher and Co. credibly short time of a few hours, has under. graved by, and under the direction of, W. B. This print affords a true and lively idea of gone few or no alterations either in the outline Cooke ; from Drawings by eminent Artists

. the gay scene which presented itself upon the or in the detail; and the boldness of the con. With Descriptive Letter-press by Mrs. Hof

new bridge when the royal party promenaded ception is no less creditable to Mr. Gunby,

land. Part I. than the great taste he has shewn in the rich No work that we can conceive, of a similar of the principal personages are well preserved ;

it. Though on so small a scale, the likenesses variety and harmony of the colours, and the character, could come before the public asso- and the tout ensemble is at once accurate and extraordinary mechanical ingenuity displayed ciated with more pleasing sentiments, or ex.

pleasing in the general adaptation of the parts, forming citing a more classic interest, than this. Few a mass of glass-work hitherto unequalled in dwellers in the metropolis, and few occasional Christ crowned with Thorns. Painted by magnitude, and presenting a combination of visiters to it, but are well acquainted with the L. Caracci. Drawn on stone by F. Wilkins, beauty and magnificence altogether unexampled picturesque beauties of Richmond and its neigh. in the arts. The prevailing colour of the ex. bourhood , and there is scarcely any foreigner Rising from human to divine, Mr. Wilkins terior of the vase is gold, which for the most by whom they have been seen, who does not has here exercised his lithographic powers on part has the appearance of being richly em- allow that their claims to admiration equal a head, the size of life, from the fine painting bossed, and which is very agreeably relieved by those of the richest pastoral landscape of his of an ancient master.' The execation is very a vivid emerald green and scarlet. The dif. own country. The representation of such de. skilful, and the delicacy with which the Man ferent compartments of the exterior are judi- lightful scenery, treated by such artists as those of Sorrows is represented does infinite credit ciously diversified, -not irregularly and with who are engaged in the present undertaking, to the art. The original partakes of the paout system, but exhibited in tiers continued cannot fail to be favourably received by the thetic rather than of the sublime, and the round the bowl, and forming distinct patterns public in general, as well as by the lovers and engraver has faithfully caught the expression. of the most dazzling beauty. This effect per- encouragers of the fine arts. The publication Indeed, we have seen nothing on stone of this fectly astonished us, and is certainly a new era will be comprised in two Parts, each containing kind more honourable to the English school. in the art of glass-cutting ; but on a nearer twelve plates. In this, the first Part, the inspection, we perceived it was produced by the drawings, with the exception of four by his

BIOGRAPHY. most elaborate cutting either on the upper or able pupil Mr. Barnard, are from the pencil of under side of the glass; and by the skilful ma- Mr. Harding, whose high rank among our This distinguished and extraordinary painter nagement of a variety of gilding and colouring water-colour painters is well known; and the died on Wednesday, at his lodgings in South all underneath the surface, a richness and bril. plates, with the similar exception of four by Lambeth, in the forty-sixth year of his age. liancy is produced equal to the most finished his able pupil Mr. Frederick Smith, are from His death was occasioned by his ruling passiou. specimens of enamel, possessing at the same the graver of Mr. W. B. Cooke, to whom we Not recovered from the influenza, under wbich time the rare merit of being equally durable, have too often paid the just meed of approbation he had been some time suffering, he went to the gold and colouring being securely protected in the Literary Gazette, to render any further Norwood to make a study of one of those scenes from the action of the atmosphere. The in- eulogium on his powers necessary. The sub on which he especially deliglited to exercise his terior surface possesses less brilliancy than the jects have been selected with great tasto and pencil, and in the execution of which he stool exterior ; but we think it is calculated to please judgment; and the fidelity of the delineation of alone. A severe cold was the effect of this the general spectator by the contrast it exhibits them is unimpeachable. There are also several exposure. He was thrown back upon his bed in its subdued colouring. The colour of the clever little wood vignettes, which ornament a in a state of weakness that nothing could reground is a warm lavender, with the vine-leaf letter-press iHustration of the work by Mrs. store. The most skilful professional aid, in the of vivid green flowing gracefully from the Hofland, whose literary talents, whose love of kind attentions of Mr. Wardrop, and the af. upper lip to the centre of the vase.

The arms,

the beauties of nature, and whose former re- fectionate care of his relatives, were of no avail. which are in bronze and highly finished, were sidence at this enchanting spot, eminently Peter Nasmyth was the eldest son of Alex. modelled by Mr. William Hollins, of this town, qualify her for the task.

ander Nasmyth of Edinburgh, whose talents as from a design of his own. Each of the arms

a painter of landscape have been known and consists of two griffins' heads, grasping a mas- Mr. C. Davis, His Majesty's Huntsman, on estimated through half a century, and who sive chain between the teeth, and supported by his favourite Mare Columbine. Painted by still lives in the vigorous exercise of his powers, a scroll, from which flows the elegant and clas. R. B. Davis, Animal Painter to His Ma- surrounded by a numerous and gifted family. sical acanthus leaf, embracing the bowl on jesty: engraved by W. Giller. Moon, Boys, The earliest recollections of Peter tell of his either side, and, being of bronze, forms a fine and Graves.

devoted attachment to nature. Nature was in relief to the general character of the work."

The title of this beautiful print gives but a truth his school; for this the schoolmaster was

very inadequate notion of its variety. It is neglected, and the truant boy was found, not NEW PUBLICATIONS.

not only a portrait of Mr. Davis on his mare, robbing orchards, nor indulging in sensual graThe First Sign in Egypt. Painted by both painted in fine and spirited action, but it tifications, but with a pencil in his hand, draw. J. M. Scrymgeour.

represents a pack of hounds in full chase through ing some old tree, or making out the anatomy Tous picture is now exhibiting at the Egyptian a rich and picturesque country; the whole exe- of a hedge-flower. To lash him into the study Hall; and if an effort to accomplish a produc- cuted with great vigour and taste, and with of books was impossible the attempt was given tion of art of the highest class, and distinguished' that striking intelligence and discrimination of up in despair. He was allowed to take his own


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