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KNOTS AND MILES,
THE Statute Mile is 5, 280 feet.
The British Adoniralty Kuot or Nautical Mile is 6,080 feet.

The Statute Knot Is 6.082.66 leet, and is generally considered the standard. The number of feet in a statute knot is arrived at thus: The circumference of tbe earth is divided into 360 degrees, each degree containing 80 knots or (360x60), 21,600 knots to the circumference. 21,600 divided into 131, 385,450-the number of feet in the earth's circumfereuce-gives 6,082.68 feet-ile leugth of a standard mile. 1 knot 1. 151 miles 4 knots - 4.608 miles | 20 knots - 23.030 mlles | 600 feet

1 cable

=1 2 knots 2 303 miles 5 kuots-5.757 miles 25 knots – 28.787 miles 10 cables

1 kuot 3 kuots 3.454 miles 10 knots - 11.515 miles 6 feet

1 fathom

ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

WITH AMERICAN EQUIVALENTS.

WEIGHTS.
The Roman libra or pound - 10 oz. 18 pwt. 13 6-7 gr., Troy.
The Allica mina or pound 11 oz. 7 pw. 16 2-7 gr., Troy.
The Atlica talent (60 minæ) 56 lbs. Il oz. Opwt. 171-7 gr., Troy.
DRY MEASURE,

The Grecian furlong - 504 ft. 41-5 inches.
The Roman modus - 1 pk. 2-9 pint.

The Grecian mile - 4,030 ft. The Attic chenix = nearly 1% pints.

MONEY.
The Attic medimnus - 4 pk. 61-10 pints.

The quadrans-11-10 mills.
LIQUID MEASURE,

The as 13-10 mills
The cotyle - a little over 12 pint,

The sestertius - 3.58 + cents. The cyathus - a little over 1% pints.

Thesestertium (1,000 sestertil) - $35. 80+.
The chus - a little over 644 pinis.

The denarius - 14.36 + cents.
LONG MEASURE.

The Attic obolus - 2.39 + cents
The Roman foot - 11 3-6 inches.

The drachma-14.35 + cents, The Roman cubit 1 lt, 5% inches.

The mina (1110 druchmą) - $14.35+. The Kornan pace - 4 ft. 10 inches.

The talent (60 minä)--861.00+. The Roman furlong - 604 m. 10 inches.

The Greek stater - aureus (sanie as the Romant) The Roman mile - 4,835 feet.

- $3.58,79. The Grecian cubit-1st. 644 inches.

The stater -daricus - $7.16,66. *The modern drachma equals 19.3 cents. † Did not remain, at all periods, at this value, but this is the value indicated by Tacitus.

BIBLICAL WEIGHTS REDUCED TO TROY WEIGHT.

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Ohm
R Resistance The electrical resistance of a col 109 1 true ohm - 1.0112 Brit-

umn of mercury 106 centimetres isti Associatiou ohms.
long and of 1 square millimetre

section. Ampère с Current Is that current of electricity that 101 Deposits 1.118 milligrams

decomposes .O 009324 gramme or of silver per second.

water per secoud, Volt

E Electromo One ampère of current passing 10s .926 of a standard Daniel tive force through a substance having loum cell.

of resistance - 1 volt. Coulomb

Quantity A current of 1 ampère during 1 101 Deposits 1.118 milligrams second o time,

lor silver, Farad K Capacity The capacity that a current of 1 109 2.5 kuots of D. U. S. cable,

ampere for 1 second (-1 coulomb)

charges it to potential of 1 volt. Microfarad

1-millionth of farad. Watt Pw. Power Power of 1 ampère current pass- 107 0013405

of a ing through resistance of 1 ohm.

horse power. Jou W.j. Work Is the work done by 1 watt og

107

.238 unit of heat (Therm)." electrical power tu 1 second. *C. G. 8. - Electro-magnetic walls. Consult technical works in electricity.

1015

FOREIGN MONEYS,
English Money: 4 farthings - 1 penny (d); 12 pence- 1 shilling (*); 20 shillings-1 pound (£).

21 shilltugs - one guinea; 5 shillings - one crown.
French Money : 100 centimes -1 franc.
German Mouey: 100 pfennig-1 mark.
Russian Money: 100 copecks -- 1 ruble.
Austro-Hungarinn Money : 100 heller - 1 krone.
For United States equivalents, see table of Value of Foreign Coins in U.'S. Money."

TABLE OF GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION, (WHEREBY any questions of Geometrical Progression and of Double Ratio may be solved by Inspec

tion, the Number of Terms not exceeding 56.)

15
16384 29

268435456 43
16
32768 30

536870913
17
65536 31

1073741824 45
18
131079 32

2147483648 46
16 19
262144 33

4294967296
32 20
534288 34

8589934592 48
21
1048576 35

17179869184 49
22
97152 86

34359788368 60)
256
4194304

68719476736 51
10
519
8388608

137438963473 53 11 1024 16777216 39

274877906944 53 12 2048 26 33554432 40

549755813888 54 13 4096 67108864 41

1099511627776 55 14 8192 28 134217728 42

219902:3255552 56 ILLUSTRATIONS—The 13th power of 2-8192, and the 8th root of 266-2.

4398046511104 8796093022308 17592186044416 85184372088839 70368744177664 140737488355328 281474976710556 662919953421319 1125899906842624 2351799813685248 4503599627370496 9007199254740933 18014398509481984 36028797018963968

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STANDARD NEWSPAPER MEASURES. THE Standard Newspaper Measure, as recognized and now in general use is 13 ems pica The standard of measurement of all sizes of type is the "em quad,'' not the letter "m.

The basis of measurements adopted by the International Typographical Union is the lower-case alphabet, from "a" to "z" inclusive, and the ems used are the same body as the type measured.

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SIMPLE INTEREST TABLE. (Showing at Different Rates the Interest on $1 from 1 Month to 1 Year, and on $100 from 1 Day to l Year)

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YEARS IN WHICH A GIVEN AMOUNT WILL DOUBLE AT SEVERAL RATES OF INTEREST.

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38 42 46 50 54 58 62 65 69
.77 85
1.00 1.08 1.15 1:23 1.31 1.38

1. 46

1.54 1.15 1.27 1.38 1.50 1. 62 1. 73

1.85 1. 96

2.08

2. 19 2.31 4 1.54 1. 69 1.85 2.00

2. 15
2.31
2. 46 2. 62

2.77

2. 92 3.08 1.92 2, 12 2.31 2.50 2. 69 2.88 8.08 3. 27 3.46 3. 65 3.8.3 2.31 2. 54 2,77 3.00 3.23 3.46 3. 69 3.92 4.15 4.38 4.62 2.69 2.96 3. 23 3.501

3.77

4.04 4.31 4,58 4 85 5.12 5.38 8 8.08 3. 38 3.69 4.00 4.31

4.62

4.92 5. 23 5.54 5.85 6.15 9

3.46 3.81 4.15 4.50 4.85 5.19 5.54 5.88 6. 23 6.58 6,92 10

3.85 4. 23 4.62 5.00 5.38 5. 77 6.15 6.54 6.92 7.31 7.69 11 4.23 4. 65 6.08 5. 60

5.92 6.35 6.77 7.19 7.62 8.04 8. 46 12 4.62 5. 08 5.44 6.00 6. 46 6.92 7.38 7.83 8. 31

8.77

9.23 13.

6.00 5. 50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8. 00 8. 50 9.00 9.50 10.00 14

5.38 5.92 6.46 7.00 7.51 8.08 8.62 9.15 9. 69 10,23 10.77 15.

6.77
6.35
6.92

7.50 8.08 8.65 9. 23 9.81 10.38 10.96 11.54 20

7. 69 8. 46 9.23 10.00 10.77 11.54 12.31 13.03 13.85 14.62 15. 38 1 mouth.

10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 2.

20.00 22.00 24.00 26.00 28.00 30.00 32.00 34.00 36.00 38.00 40.00 3.

30.00 33.00 86.00 39.00 42.00 45.00 48.00 51.00 54.00 57.00 60.00

40.00 44.00 48.00 52.00 56.00 60.00 64,00 68.00 72.00 76.00 80.00 5

50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 60.00 66.00 72.00 78.00 84.00 90.00 96.00 102.00 108.00 114.00 120.00

70.00 77.00 84.00 91.00 98.00 105,00 112. 00 119.00 126.00-133.00 140.00 8.

80.00 88.00 96.00 104.00 112.00 1:20.00 128, 00 136.00 144.00 152.00 160.00 9.

90.00 09.00 108,00 117.00 126,00 135,00 144. 00:153.00 162.00 171 00 180.00 10

100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 140.00 150.00'160 00 170,00 180.00 190.00 200.00 11

1 0.00 121.00 132.00 143.00 151.00.165.00 176.00 187.00 198 00 209.00 220.00 1 year .........

120.00 132.00 144,00 156.00 168.00 180.00 192.00 204.00 216 00:28 00 240.00 "Slx workiug days lu the week.

ROMAN AND ARABIC NUMERALS,

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1

3

SPECIFIC CRAVITY.*
Liquids.

Timber.

Soundrier

Metails and Stones. Water 100 Cork. 24 Indigo..

77 Granite

278
Sex-water.
.103 Poplar

38 Ice..
92 Diamond ............

353
Dead Sea...
.124 Fir

55 Gunpowder
93 Cast iron...........

721
Alcohol
84 Cedar.
61 Butter

729

94|Tin.... Turpentine 99 Pear 66 Clay 120 Bar iron.....

779
Wine
.100 Walnut..

67 Coal
130 Steel

783
Urine..
101 Cherry
72 Opium

840

134 Brass... Cider .102 Maple 75 Honey

895

.146 Copper.
Beer...
..102 Ash....

84 Ivory.
.183 Silver

.1.047 Woman's milk... ...102 Beech

85 Sulphur

203 Lead

.1.135 Cow's .103 Mahogany .106 Marble

270 Mercury

.1.357 Goat's ....104.Oak. 117 Chalk

279 Gold

.1,926 Porter.............. 104 Ebony.. .133 Glass

.289 Platina

.2, 150 The weight of a cubic foot of distilled water at a temperature of 600 F. is 1,000 onnces Avoir. dupois, very nearly, therefore the weight (in ounces, Avoirdupois) of a cubic foot of any of the substances in the above table is found by multiplying the specific gravities by 10, thus:-une cubic foot of oak weighs 1,170 ounces; one cubic foot of marble 2.700 ounces, and so on.

* Compared with water.

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FREEZING, FUSING, AND BOILING POINTS.

Fabrea

heit. 1,8320

904 239

Keau Centl. Fahren-
SUBSTANCES,
mur.

SUBSTANCES.

grade. heit. Bromine freezes at.

17.60

7.00 Silver fuses at..... Olive oil freezes at.....

8 10 50 Sodium fuses at..... Quicksilver freezes at..... - 31.5 -- 39.4 89 Sulphur fuses at. Water freezes at

0
0

32 Tin fuses at ... Bismuth metal fuses at. 211 264

Zinc fuses at..... Copper fuses at...........

963 1,304 12,200 Alcohol boils at.. Gold fuses at....

1,105 1,380 2,518 Bromine boils at..... Iron fuses at............

1,230 1,539 2,800 Ether boils at..... Lead fuses at..

260 325

617 Iodine boils at Potassium fuses at

50 62.5 144.5 Water boils at.. Authorities vary on some of these points. The best are given.

Resu Centl
mur.

grade.
8000 1,0000
76.5 95.6
92 115
182 228
329.6 412
63
50

63
38.4 36.5
140
80 100

507

773 167 145

96 347 212

175

HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF MEN.
TABLE OF AVERAGE HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF MALES, BASED ON ANALYSIS OF 74,162 ACCEPTED
APPLICANTS FOR LIFE INSURANCE AS REPORTED TO THE ASSOCIATION

OF LIFE INSURANCE MEDICAL DIRECTORS.

Ag.

155

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HEIGHT.
Axe. Age. Age. Age. Age.

Age. Age. Age. Age.
15-24 95-29 3034 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60.64 65-69

Pounds.Pounds. Ponds. Poud is. Pounds. Pounis, Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Potnes. 5 feet

120 125 128

131

133 134 134 134 131 5 feet 1 inch

122
126
129 131 134

136 136 136 134
5 feet 2 inches.
124 128 131 133 136

138

138 138 137 5 feet 3 inches,

127 131 134 136 139 141 141 141 140 140 5 feet 4 inches..

131 135
138 140 143

144 145 145 144 143 5 feet 5 inches.

134 138 141 143 146 147 119 149 148 147 5 feet 6 inches.

138
142 145 147 150

151 153 153 153 151 5 feet 7 inches.

142 147 150 152 155 156 158 158 158 156 5 feet 8 inches.

146
151 154 157 160

161 163 103 163 162 5 feet 9 inches..

150

159 162 165 166 167 168 168 168 5 feet 10 inches.

154 159 164 167 170 171 172 173 174 174
5 feet 11 inches.
159 164 169 173

175
177 177

178 180 180
6 feet
165 170 175 179 180

183 182 183 185 185 6 feet 1 inch 170 177 181 185 186 149

189 189 189 6 feet 2 inches.. 176 184 188 192 194 196 104 194 192

192 6 feet 3 inches.

181

190 195 200 203 204 201 198
A Height and weight Table compiled by a Committee of the Medical Section of the National
Fraternal Congress, 1900. which is the analysis of 133,940 applications of selected risks, in a few
instances differed very slightly from the above.

HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF WOMEN.
The following table gives the relative height and weight of women, all ages. The weight of
ordinary clothing, however, is iucluded:
HEIGHT.

Average.
Mini-
Mari-
ILKIGUT.

Average.

Mint. Madmnum.

mum. 5 feet...

115

98
132 5 feet 7 inches

145
123

167 5 feet 1 inch......

120
102
138 5 feet 8 inches

148
126

170 5 feet 2 inches .......... 125 106 144 5 feet 9 inches .......... 155 131

179 5 feet 3 inches

130
111
150 5 feet 10 inches........

160
136

184 5 feet 4 inches

135
115
1). 5 feet il inches

165
138

190 5 feet 5 inches ........

140
119
161 6 feet......

..... 170

141

196 5 feet 6 inches .......... 143 121

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165

WATER MEASURES.

WEIGHT OF WATER.
cubic incu.........
03617 pound.

1

cylindrical foot.... 6.0 U.S. gals. 12 cabic inches..

434
pound. 2. 292 cylindrical feet.... 112.0

pounds, 1 cubicfoot

62.5 pounds. 45.64 cylindrical feet....2240.0 pounds. 1 cubicfoot.

7. 48052 U. S. gals. 1 Imperial gallon.... 10.0 pounds. 1.8 cubic feet. 112.0 pounds. 11.2 imperial gallous... 112.0

pounds, 35. 84 cubic feet... 2240.0 pounds. 224 imperial gallous... 2240. O pounds. 1 cylindrical inch...

02842 pound.
1 U. S. gallon

8.355 pounds. 12 cylindrical inches

341
pound. 13. 44 U.S. gallons.. 112.0

pounds. 1 cylindrical foot.... 49, 10 pounds. 268,8 U. S. gallons ......2240.0

Pounds. NOTE=The centre of pressure of water against the side of the containing vessel or reservoir is at two-thirdsthe depth from the surface. One cubic foot salt water weighs 64. 3 pounds.

THEORETICAL VELOCITY OF WATER IN FEET PER SECOND.

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PRESSURE OF WATER PER SQUARE INCH AT DIFFEREYT DEPTHS.

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TEMPERATURE OF STEAM. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 1.47 LBS.

DEGREES IN FAHRENHEIT SCALE.

PRESCRK De rees

PRESSUES Desrees PREASURE Dexrees TER of T'ER or l'ER

of SQ. INCH. Temperature. SQ. ICH. Temperature.

82. Inch.

Temperature.
216.3

12
244.3

32

277.0
2
219.4

14
248,3

34

279.6
222.4

16
252.1

40

286.9
225. 2

18
255.7

45

292.5
227.9

20
259,2

50

297.8
230.5

22
262.5

302.7
233.0

24
265.6

60

307.4
235.4

26
268.6

65

311.8
9
237.7

28
271.5

316.0
10
210.0

30
274.3

320.0 Steam flows into atmosphere at the rate of 650 feet per secoud.

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METALS.
METALS.
MKT ALS.

WOODS.
Aluminum castings, 15,000 Soft copper wire.
35,000 Nickel vanadium steel 99,700 Spruce....

14,500 sheels.. 24,000 Hard

60,000 Chrome nickel vanad

White pine

15,000
wire..
50,000/ Cast iron..

20.00
ium steel.....
129,100 Yellow

11.000 bars...

2,000
16 stel
68,000 Manganese steel cast).90.000 Red fir....

10,000 Nickel aluminum... 40,000 | Wroarht iron.... 50.000

“ (roll'a) 140,000 Yellow tir..... .... 19,000 Aluminum bronze 70,000 oft steel

58,000
WOODS.
Teak....

14,000 Marguese 60,000||Carbon steel (not ad

14,000 Phosphor 46.000 lealed) 75,000 Black walnut..

19.000 MISCELLANEOUS Tobin 66,000 Carbon steel annealed) 80,000Beech.

14.500 Blue Stone..

1,400 Bronxe gun metal. 35,000

oil tem-
Cedar.....
10,00 Granite...

600 Platinurn wire (an

Pered.

85.00
Chestnut.......
10,000 Limestone

1,000 nealed). 32,000 Nickel steel (annealed 80,000

13,400 Marble

700 Platinnm wire (Dot AD

oil tein-
Hemlock..
8,709 Sandstone..

100 Desled).

56,000
pered
90.00 Hickory

200

15,040 Bricks (common).... Tio 3.50 Rivet steel... 53.000 1.cust...

92,000

(best hand
Gold (cast).
20.000||Steel for bridges... 60.40lgnum vitae

11,00
pressed)

400 Silver{ cast) 10,000 Medium steel 65.000 Maple.

10.500 Ordinary single
9,000 Vanadiain steel (cast), 70.000

Whlte onk
14.00 leather belting....

3,000 Zine... 3,400 Chronium niekel at 81.400 Tive

13,000 Ordinary double Brags (cast)

21,000
VADS m
Poplar

7.000
leather belting..

6,000 Copper (rast),

1.00011
steel...
100.000 Redwnod..

300 Cotton belling...

6,000 Tenslle Strength is the resistanre of the fibrer or particles of a borly to separation. It is therefore proportional to their number, or to the are of its transverse seetion. The fibres of wood are strongest near the centre of the trunk or limb of #tree. * Tensile strength in pounds per square inch.

Lead......

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