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Cost of
CANALS.

Construc

Lea's Depth tlon,

Location.

Miles/ Feet.t Minois and Michigan

$6,339,098 96 5 Chicago, m., to La Salle, II. Illinois & Mississippi (Hennepin) 7.320.000 75 7 Ellinois River to Miss. River near Rock I., III. Lake Drummond.

2,800,000/ 22

9 Connects Chesapeake Bay with Albemarle Sound. Lake Landing.

25,000 4

5 Lake Mattamuskeet to Wysocking Bay, N. C. Lake Washington-Puget Sound 5,000,000 6% 36 Connects Lake Washington and Puget Sound. Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co. 4,455,000 108 6 Coalport, Pa., to Easton, Pa. ||Lewes....

356,000 11% 6 Connects Rehoboth and Delaware Bays. Louisville and Portland.

5,716.686 23 9 At Falls of Ohio River, Louisville, Ky. 1 Mattamuskeet Out Fall...

500,000 7

Hyde County, N. C. Mlaml and Erle.

8,062,680 274

Cincinnati, Ohto, to Toledo, Ohio. Morris.

5,100,000 103 5 Jersey City, N, J., to Phillipsburg, N. J. Muscle Shoals and Elk R. Shoals 3,156,919 16 5 Big Muscle Shoals, to Elk River Shoals. Tenn. |North New River.

Lake Okeechobee to Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.
N. J. Coastal Inland Waterway 450,000/114 6 Cape May to Bay Head, N. J.
Ohio.

8)4,695,204 70

Cleveland, Ohio to Dresden, Ohio. Oswego..

5,239,526 38

Oswego, N. Y., to Syracuse, N. Y. Pennsylvanla.

7,731,750 193

Columbia, Northumberland, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Portage Lake and Lake Superior 1.725,000 25 20 From Keweenaw Bay to Lake Superior. Port Arthur (ship canal).

7 26 Port Arthur, Tex., to Gull of Mexico. Sabine-Neches..

1,081,000 16 26 Port Arthur Canal to mouth Sabine River, Tex. Salem...

2

Salem River to Delaware River, 4 miles below

Penn Grove, N. J. Santa Fé.

70,000 10

Waldo, Fla., to Melrose, Fla. Sault Ste Marie (ship canal). 4,000,000 1% 18 Connects Lakos Superior and Huron at St.

Mary's River. Schuylkill Navigation Co.. 12,461,600 108 6% MUI Creek, Pa., to Philadelphia, Pa. 1 South New River.

75

Lake Okeechobee to Mlaml, Fla. Sturgeon Bay and Lake Mich'n 287,000 1% 20 Between Green Bay and Lake Michigan. St. Clair Flats..

1,180,000 3 20

Canal through delta at mouth of St. Clair River. St. Mary's Falls.

9,400,000 1% 18% Connects Lake Superlor and Huron at Sault Ste

Marle, Mich.
St. Mary's Falls (parallel cana 9,475,000 1%! 24% Connects Lakes Superior and Huron.

CANALS IN CANADA.
Chambly

728,999) 12 6% This

canal overeomez the rapids between

Chambly and St. Johns. Cornwall.

7.242.804 11 14 Cornwall to Dickinson's Landing. Lachine.

13,404,970 8% 14-18 Montreal to Lachine. Rideau

5,531,332 133 5 Connects River Ottawa with Lake Ontario, Sault Ste Marle (ship canal) 5,000,000 1% 18% Connects Lake Superior and Huron at St. Mary's

River. Soulanges.

8,000,000 14 15 Cascade Point to Coteau Landing. || Trent

12,464.651 155

Trenton to Lake Huron. Welland (ship canal)

$29,250,951 264 14-22 Connecte Lake Ontarlo and Lake Erle. tt Williamsburg. ....

10,490,1841 1271 9-14 lalong St. Lawrence River. . And improvements. Navigable depth. || Under construction. $ Not including cost of Improvements and changes in locks, etc.. now under way. It consisting of the Farrans Point, Rapide Plat and Galops Canals. (a) Original cost of canal extending from Cleveland to Portsmouth, 317 miles, but now abandoned between Portsmouth and Dresden.

The Erle Canal, Oswego Canal and Champlain Canal are now being enlarged by the State of New York to a depth of 12 feet, and with locks of a capaelty to pass barges having a net tormage capacity of 2.000 tons each. The enlarged Champlain Canal between Northumberland and Whitehali, a distance of thirty-Ave mlles, was completed and placed in commission in May, 1914 Several large sections of the Erle Barge Canal already have been completed and are in commission. At the time the ALMANAC went to press no definite date had been fixed for the opening of the Barge Canal throughout its entire length. The type of boat which may best navigate the new canal has not as yet been determined, but inasmuch as the lock-chambers will have an avallable length of 310 feet and a width of 45' feet, in all probability

craft 150 feet in length by 30 or 35 feet 10 width will be best adapted for the new waterway. The estimated cost of enlarging the Erle, Champlain and Oswego Canals was $101,000,000.

** The cost of enlarping the Cayuga and Seneca Canal to the same capacity as the improved Erle Canal is estimated at $7.000.000.

Bottom

Length,
SOME FOREIGN CANALA.

Depth,

Estimated
Miles.

Width,
Teet.
Feet.

Cost. Suez-Mediterranean and Red Seas.........

103

35

108 8127,000,000 Cronstadt-St. Petersburg.. ...,

16
20%

10,000,000 Manchester-Mauchester and Liverpool

35%
28

120 85,000,000 Kaiser Wilhelm (Kiel Canal)-Baltic and North Seas 61

36

72 40,000,000 Elbe and Trave ............

10

72

6.000.000 Berlin-Stettin...

120

25,000,000
TONNAGE ON CANALS.
CANALS,
Year. Tonnige.

CANALA.

Year.

Tonnage. Suez 1913 20,033,884 Sault Ste Marie...

1913 79,718,344 Manchester 1913 5,780,161 Erie.

1913 1,798, 453 Kaiser Wilhelm

1912 9,924,2371|AllN. Y.Canals, incl. Erie.. 1913 2.602,036

PASSING OF THE SAILING SHIP.
The London Economist supplies the following table. showing the net tonnage of steamships and
salling vessels on the register of Great Britain and Ireland from 1840 to 1912:
YEAR. Steam.

Sail.
Total.

YEAR.
Steam.

Sall.

Total. 1840. 87,930 2,680,330 2,768,260|| 1909..

10,284.810 1,301,060 11,585,870 1860. 454,330 4,204,360 4.658,690 1910.

10,442.719 1,112,944 11,555,663 1880. 2,723,470 3.851,040 6,574,510|| 1911..

10,717,511 980,997 11.698,508 1900, 7,207,610 2,096,490 9,304,100|| 1912..

10,992,073 902,7181 11,894,791

Metric System of weights and Measures.

THE METRIC SYSTEM has been adopted by Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, etc., and except Russia and Great Britain, where it is permissive, by all European nations. Various names of the

preceding systems are, however, frequently used : In Germany, 5 kilogram - 1 pound ; in Switzerland, 3-10 of a metre - 1 foot, etc. If the first letters of the prefixes deka, hecto, kilo, myria, from the Greek, and deei,centi, mili, from the Latin, are used in preference to our plain English, 10, 100, etc. , It is best to employ capital letters for the multiples and small letters for the subdivisions, to avoid ambiguities in abbreviations: 1 dekametre or 10 metres - 1 dm. ; 1 decimetre or 1-10 of a metre -1 dm.

The METRE, unit of length, is nearly the ten-millionth part of a quadrant of a meridian, of the distance between Equator and Pole. The International Standard Metre is, practically, nothing else but a length defined by the distance between two lines on a platinum-iridium bar at 00 Centigrade, deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, Paris, France.

The LITRE, unit of capacity, is derived from the weight of one kilogram pure water at greatest density, a cube whose edge is one-tenth of a metre and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a metric ton.

The Gram, unit of weight, is a cube of pure water at greatest density, whose edge is one-hundredth of a metre, and, therefore, the one-thousandth part

of a kilogram, and the one-millionth part of a metric ton.

The Metric System was legalized in the United States on July 28, 1866, when Congress enacted as follows:

**The tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized in the construction of contracts, and in all legal proceedings, as establishing, in terms of the weights and measures now in use in the United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the metric system, and the tables may lawfully be used for computing, determining, and expressing in customary weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system,

The following are the tables annexed to the above:

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Kilolitre or stere. 1,000 1 cubic metre..

1. 308 cubic yards... 264.17 gallons Heciolltre............

1001-10 of a cubic metre....... 2 bush, and 3.35 pecks... 26.417 gallons. Dekalitre. 1010 cubic decimetres. 9. 08 quarts....

2.6417 gallons. Litre 11 cubic decimetre... 0.908 quart.

1.0567 quarts. Decilitre.. 1-10 1-10 of a cubic decimetre. 6. 1022 cubic inches.

0.845 gill. Centilitre 1-100 10 cubic centimetres........ 0.6102 cubic inch...

0.988 fluid ounce. Mililitre 1-1000 i cubic centimetre............ 0.061 cubic inch.

0.27 fluid dram.

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TABLES FOR THE CONVERSION OF METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES INTO

CUSTOMARY UNITED STATES EQUIVALENTS AND THE REVERSE, From the legal equivalents are deduced the following tables for converting United States weights and measures:

METRIC TO CUSTOMARY.

CUSTOMARY TO METRIC.

LINEAR MEASURE,

Me

Me-
Kilome Ins. CN-

Yards - Me- Milesa KilotregIns Metres -- Feet tres-Yards, tres. Miles. timetrex Feet-Metres.

tres. metres, 139.37 1-3.28083 1.1.0936111 0.62137 1. 2.54 1_0.304801 1.0.914402 1. 1. 60935 278.74 2. 6.66167 2_2. 187222 21.24274 25.08 2.0.609601 2.1.828804 23.21869 3.118.11 39.84250 33,280833 3.1.8641137.62 3.0,914402 32.743205 3.-4.8:2804 4_157.48 4.13. 12333 44.374444 4-2.48548 4-10.16 4.1.219202 4.3.657607 46.43739 6.196.85 516.40417 5_5.4680565_3. 10685 5_12.70 5.1.524003 5_4.57-2009 5 8,04674 6236, 22 619.68500 66.56 1667 63.72822 6_15.24 6.1.8288046_5.486411 6 9.65608 7.276.597 22.96583 77.655278 7_4.34959 7.17. 78 7_2. 133604 7_6.400813 7_11, 26543 8_314.96 8_26.24667 88.7489898_4.970968..20.32 8.2.438405 8.7.315215 8 12.87478 9354.33 9 29,5275099.84250095,592339_22, 86 92.743205 9.8. 229616 9-14, 48412

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THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED. The following tables of the metric system of weights and measures have been sinplified as much as possible for Tax WORLD ALMANAC by omitting such denominations as are not in practical, everyday use in the countries where the system is used exclusively.

A. TABLES OF THE SYSTEM., Length:-The denominations in practical ase are millimetres (mm.), centímetres (cm.), metres (m.), and kilometres (km.).

10 mm. 1 cm. ; 100 cm. - 1 m.; 1,000 m. - 1 km. NOTE. - A decimetre is 10 cm."
Weight. The denominations in use are grams (8.), kilos* (kg.), and tous (netric tops).
1,000 g. -1 kg.; 1,000 kg. 1 metric ton.
Capacity. - The denominations in use are cubic centímetres (c. c.) and litres (1.).
1.000 c. c. 11. Nore -A hectolitre is 100 I. (seldom used).

Relation of capacity and weight to length: A cubic decimetre is a litre, and a litre of water weighs a kilo.

! APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS. A metre is about a yard; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a litre is about a quart; a centimetre is about Xinch; a metric ton is about same as a ton; a kilometre is about mile; a cubic centimetre is about a thimbleful; a pickel weighs about 5 grams.

PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 1 acre.........

.40 hectare.....
4 047 1 mile.........

1.6 kilometres 1.609 1 bushel...... 35 litres ...........35.24" i millimetre

039 inch.............. : 0394 1 centimetre. .39 inch............. 3937 1 ounce (av. d). - 28

grams...............28.35 lcubic centimetre .061 cubic inch... 0610 1 ounce (Troy).

31

grams............31.10 1 cubic foot.... .028 cubic metre, 0283 1 peck....

litres....ve ....... 8. 809 1 cubic foch....

16
cubic cent. t 16.39 1 pint...

.47
litre.............

.4732 l cubic metre. 35 cubic feet.....35.31 1 pound..

.45

kilo.............. .4536 1 cubic metre.

1.3
cubic yards... 1. 308 1 quart (dry)....

1.1
litres........

1.101 1 cubic yard.... .76 cubic metre... 7645 1 quart (liquid).. .95 litre..

.9464 1 foot... 30 centimetres 30.48 1 sq. centimetre. .15

sq. inch

.1550 1 gallon........ 3.8 litres...... 3.785 1 sq. foot.....

.093 sq. metre..

.0920 1 grain.......... .065 gram.. 0648 1 sq. inch....

6.5 sq. e'tiinetr's, 6.452 1 gram....

grains 15.43 1 sq. metre......... 1.2 sq. yards......... 1. 196 1 hectare.

2.5 acres...... 2.471 1 sq. metre.. 11 sq. Teet..............10.76 linch. 25 millimetres. 25. 40 1 sq. yard.

.84 sq. metre........ .8361 1 kilo..

2.2

pounds 2. 205 1 ton (2.000 lbs. 191 metric ton...... .9072 1 kilometre......

.62 mile..

.6214 1 ton (2.240 lbs.) 1 metric ton....... 1.017 1 litre..... .91 quart (dry)... .9081 1 ton (metric).....

1.1

ton (2,000 lbs.) 1.102 llitre 1.1 quarts (liq'd) 1.057 1 ton (metric).. .98 ton (2, 240 lbs.)

9842 1 metre. 3.3 3.281 Ji yard...

91 metre..........

.9144 * Contraction for kilogram, t Centimetres.

8.8

15

feet ....

MINIMUM WEIGHTS OF PRODUCE. The following are minimum weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the United States : Per Bushel. Per Bushel.

Per Bushel. Wheat..

.60 lbs. White Potatoes............... .60 lbs Hungarian Grass Seed.....50 lbs. Corn, in the ear. 70 Sweet Potatoes

.55
Timothy Seed...

45 Corn, shelled..

.56
Onions................

.57 Blue Grass Seed .........44 Rye.....

56
Turnips......

55
Hemp Seed...

44 Buckwheat........

48
Dried Peaches.

Salt (see note below).
Barley

48
Dried Apples.
26 Corn Meal.

48 Oats.

32
Clover Seed..

60
round Peas

24 Peas.. .60 Flax Seed 56

34 White Beans..

Millet Seed..
50 Bran.....

20 Castor Beans...

46

Malt...

SALT. - Weight per

bushel as adopted by different states ranges from 50 to 80 pounds. Coarse salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 80 pounds, and in Illinois at 50 pounds per bushel.

Fine salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 62 pounds, in Kentucky and Illinois at 55 pounds per busbel.

MEASURES AND WEIGHTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. THE measures of length and the weights are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the United States. The English ton is 2, 240 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long ton, or shipping, ton of the United States, The English hundred weight is 112 lbs, avoirdupois, the same as the long hundred weight of the United States, The English stone is usually equal to one-eighth hundred. weight of 112 lbs., or 14 lbs, avoirdupois. The metre has been legalized at 39. 37079 inches, but the length of 39. 370432 inches, as adopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Russia, is frequently used. The Imperial

gallon, the basis of the system of capacity, involves an error of about 1 part in 1.836: 10 lbs, of water - 277. 123 cubic inches. (A late anthority gives the weight of the Imperial gallon as 10.017 pounds and of the United States gallon as 8.345 pounds.) The English statute mile is 1,760 yards or 5, 280 feet. The following are measures of capacity : NAMES, Pounds of

United States
Cubic Inches. Litres.
Water.

Equivalents. 4 gills 1 pint

1. 25

34.60

0.56793 1. 20032 liquid pints. 2 pints 1 quart

2.5

69.32
1.13586 1.200032

quarts. 2 quarts 1 pottle

138.64

2.27173 2 40064 2 pottles 1 gallon

10

277.27

4.54346 1. 20032 gallons. 2 gallons - 1 peck......

20

554. 55

9.08692 1.03152 dry pecks. 4 pecks a 1 bushel..

80
2218. 19

36.34706 1.03152 " bushels. 4 bushels -- 1 coomb.

820

8872.77 145.39082 4. 12606 2 coombs - 1 quarter. 640

17745.64 290.7813 18. 2521 A cubic foot of pure gold weighs 1,210 pounds; pure silver, 655 pounds ; cast iron, 450 pounds; copper, 550 pounds ; lead, T10 pounds ; pure platinum, 1,920 pounds; tin, 456 pounds ; aluminumn. 163 pounds.

Dry m'sure

DOMESTIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains 1 scruple; 3 scruples -1 dram; 8 drams-1 ounce; 12 ounces - 1 pound.

Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 2711-32 grains -1 dram; 16 drams-1 ounce; 16 ounces - 1 pound; 25 pounds - 1 quarter; 4 quarters -lcwt. ; 20 ewl=1 ton.

Avoirdupols Weight (long ton): 2711-32 grains - 1 dram; 16 drams-1 ounce; 16 ounces-1 pound; 112 pounds -1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. -1 ton.

Troy Welght: 24 grains -1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights-1 ounce; 12 ounces- 1 pound

Circular Measure: 60 seconds – 1 minute: 60 minutes - 1 degree; 30 degrees -l sign; 12 signs -1 circle or circumference.

Cubic Measure: 1,728 cubic inches-l cubic foot; 27 cubic feet-1 cubic yard.
Dry Measure: 2 pints -1 quart; 8 quarts - 1 peck; 4 pecks m 1 bushel.

Liquid Measure: 4 gills - 1 pint; 2 pints - 1 quart; 4 quarts - 1 gallon; 31% gallons - 1 barrel; 2 barrels 1 hogshead.

Long Measure: 12 inches - 1 foot; 3 feet-1 yard; 5% yards – 1 rod or pole; 40ʻrods -1 furlong; 8 furlongs - 1 statute mile (1,760 yards or 5, 280 feet); 3 miles - 1 league.

Mariners Measure: 6 feet = 1 fathom; 120 fathoms -l cable levgth; 7% cable lengths - 1 mile; 5,280 feet-1 statute mile; 6,085 feet i nautical mile.

Paper Measure : 24 sheets -1 quire; 20 quires - 1 ream (480 sheets); 2 reams-lbundle; 5 bundles - 1 bale.

Square Mensure: 144 square inches - 1 square foot; 9 square feet - 1 square yard ; 304 square yards-1 square rod or perch; 40 square rods-1 rood; 4 roods-1 acre: -640 acres - 1 square mile; 36 square miles (6 miles square) -1 township.

Time Measure: 60 seconds -1 minute; 60 minutes - 1 hour; 24 hours -1 day; 7 days - 1 week; 365 days - 1 year; 366 days - 1 leap year.

MEDICAL SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS. B (Lat. Recipe), take; ää, of each; 1. pound; 3, ounce; 3, drachm; ), scruple; m. minim, or drop: 0 oro, pint; 13. fluid ounce; 13. fluid drachm; as, 3 ss, half an ounce; 31, one ounce; } iss, one ounce and a hair; sij, two ounces; gr., grain; Q S., as much as sutricient; Ft. Mist., let a mix ture be made; Ft. Haust., let a draught be made; Ad., add to; Ad lib. , at pleasure; Ag., water; M., mix; Mac., macerate; Pulv., powder; Pll., pill; Solv., dissolve; St., let it stand; Sum., to be taken; D., dose; Dil., dilute; Filt., filter: Lot., a wasb: Garg., a gargle; Hor. Decub., at bed time; Inject. , injection; Gti., drops; ss, one-half; Ess., essence.

TEXAS LAND MEASURE.

(Also used in Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. ) 26,000,000

square varas (square of 5, 099 varas) -1 league and I labor - 4,605.5 acres 1,000,000 square varas (square of 1,000 varas) -1 labur

177.136 ucres. 25,000,000 square varas (square of 5,000 varas) -1 league

4,428.4 acres, 12,500,000 square varas (square of 3, 535.5 varas) my league

2, 214, 2 acres. 8, 3,333 square varas (square of 2 36.7 varas) = y league

1.476. 13 acres. 6, 250, 000 square varas (square of 2,500 varas) - 4 league

1, 107.1 acres, 7,225,600 square varas (square of 2,688 varas)

1,280 acres. 3,612, 800 square varas (square of 1,900.8

1 section

640 1,806, 400 square varas (square of 1,344 Varas) y section

320

acres. 903, 200 square varas (square of 950.44 varas) y section

160

Acres, 451, 600 square varas (square of 672 varas) may seetion

acres 225,800 square varas (square of 475 varas) - 1-16 section

40

acres 5,645.376 square varas (square of 75.137 varas) - 4,840 square yards

1

acre. To find the number of acres in any number of square varas, multiply the latter by 177 (or to be more exact, by 1774), and cut off six decimals. 1 vara - 3343 inches.

1,900.8 varas - 1 mile. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE PHILIPPINES, 1 pulgada (12 línea)

.927 inch.
1 libra (16 onzo)

1.0144 lb. av. 1 pie 11.125 inches. 1 arroba

25. 360 lb. av. 1 vara 33.375 inches. 1 catty (16 tael)

1.394 lb, av. 1 gantah .8796 gallon. 1 pecul (100 catty)

139.482 lb. av. 1 caban

21.991 gallous.

varas)

acres

80

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