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Metric System of Weights and Measures.

THE METRIC SYSTEM has been adopted by Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, etc., and except Russia and Great Britain, where it is permissive, by all European nations. Various names of the preceding systems are, however, frequently used: In Germany, kilogram 1 pound; in Switzerland, 3-10 of a metre-1 foot, etc. If the first letters of the prefixes deka, hecto, kilo, myria, from the Greek, and deei, centi, mili, from the Latin, are used in preference to our plain English, 10, 100. etc., it is best to employ capital letters for the multiples and small letters for the subdivisions, to avoid ambiguities In abbreviations: 1 dekametre or 10 metres - 1 dm.; 1 decimetre or 1-10 of a metre 1 dm.

The METRE, unit of length, is nearly the ten-millionth part of a quadrant of a meridian, of the distance between Equator and Pole. The International Standard Metre is, practically, nothing else but a length defined by the distance between two lines on a platinum-iridium bar at 00 Centigrade, deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, Paris, France.

The LITRE, unit of capacity, is derived from the weight of one kilogram pure water at greatest density, a cube whose edge is one-tenth of a metre and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a metric ton.

The GRAM, unit of weight, is a cube of pure water at greatest density, whose edge is one-hundredth of a metre, and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a kilogram, and the one-millionth part of a metric ton.

The Metric System was legalized in the United States on July 28, 1866, when Congress enacted as follows:

**The tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized in the construction of contracts, and in all legal proceedings, as establishing, in terms of the weights and measures now in use in the United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the metric system, and the tables may lawfully be used for computing, determining, and expressing in customary weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system.

The following are the tables annexed to the above:

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Centilitres |

Names.

Fluid Ounces.

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METRIC DENOMINATIONS AND VALUES.

72.367

82.705

Metric System.

METRIC SYSTEM Continued. juna

WEIGHTS,

Number of Grams.

1,000,000 100,000 10,000

1,000

1 0.155 1-10.764 1 1.196 1 2 0.310 221,528

3 0.465 332,292 40.620

443,055 4- 4.784

553.819

5 0.775
60.930 664.583
7-1.085
7-75.347
8-1.240 8 86.111
9-1.395 9 96,874

Litres Quarts.

LIQUID MEASURE.

100

10

1

1-10

1-100 1-1000

METRIC TO CUSTOMARY.

TABLES FOR THE CONVERSION OF METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES INTO

CUSTOMARY UNITED STATES EQUIVALENTS AND THE REVERSE,

From the legal equivalents are deduced the following tables for converting United States weights and measures:

Me

Me

Kilometres Ins. Metres Fect. tres- Yards. tres- Miles. 139.371 3.28083 11.093611 10, 62137 2 78.74 2 6.56167 2 2. 187222 2-1, 24274 3 118.11 3 9.84250 3 3.280833 3 1.86411 4157.48 413. 12333 44.374444 42, 48548 5 196.85 5 16,40417 5 5.468056 5 3.10685 6236, 22 6 19,68500 6-6, 561667 6 3,72822 7-275.59 722,96583 7-7.655278 4,34959 8 314.96 826,24667 8 8.748989 84,97096 9354,33 9-29, 52750 9 9,842500 9-5, 59233

SQUARE MEASURE.

22.392 33.588

10.338 11.0567 10.26417 20.676 22.1134 20.52834 31.014 3-3.1700 30.79251 41.352 44.2267 41.05668 51.691 55.2834 5.1.32085

6.2.028

66.3401 61.58502

77.3968 7-1.84919 8 8.4534 82.11336

9 3.043 9 9.5101 9-2.37753

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LINEAR MEASURE,

35,314 2 70,629 3105, 943 4 141, 258 5- 5,980 5176.572 6 7.176 | 6-211.887 7- 8.372 7247. 201 8 9.5688-282. 516 910.764 9-817.830

CUBIC MEASURE,

1-0.02832 20.05663 30.08495 40.11327 5-0.14159 60. 16990 7 0.19822 80, 22654 9-0,25485

DRY MEASURE,

EQUIVALENTS IN DENOMINATIONS IN USE,

Ins. Cen

Yards - Me-Miles Kilotimetres Feet Metres. tres. metres. 1 2.54 10.804801 1-0,914402 1 1,60935 2 5.08 20.609601 2-1, 828804 2 3.21869 3 7.62 3 0,914402 32.743205 3 4,82804 4.10.16 4 1,219202 4-3.657607 4 6.43739 5 12.70 5-1,524003 54.572009 5 8.04674 615.24 61.828804 | 65, 486411 6 9,65608 7-17.78 7-2.13360476, 400813 7-11.26543 820.32 8 2.438405 87.315215 8 12.87478 922, 86 9 2.743205 9_8, 229616 9-14, 48412

SQUARE MEASURE,

10.35239 20.70479 31.05718 41.40957 51.76196 6.2.11436 7-2.46675 822.7019 82.81914 925.5396 93.17154

1- 2.8377 25.6754 38.5132 4-11.3509 514. 1887 617.0264 7-19.8642

Avoirdupois Weight.

2204, 6 pounds. 220.46 pounds. 22.046 pounds. 2. 2046 pounds. 3.5274 ounces. 0,3527 ounce. 15.432 grains. 1.5432 grains, 0.1543 grain. 0.0154 grain.

16.452 2-12, 903 319,354 4-25, 806 5 32.257 638.709 745. 160 8_51.612 9 58,063

CUSTOMARY TO METRIC.

10.09290 20. 18581 30.27871 4 0.87161 50. 46452 6-0.55742 7-0.65032 8_0.74323 90.83613

LIQUID MEASURE,

10.94636 21.89272 32.83908 43.78544 5.-4.73180 6567816 720.701 7-662452 823.659 8 7.67088 9 26.6169,8. 51724

1- 2.957 2am 5.914 38.872 411.829 5-14.786

617.744

1-0.836 2-1.672 32.508 4-3.344 5 4.181 5.017 7-5.853 8-6.689

6

9-7.525

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1 0.15431 35.274 1-2, 20462 10, 9842 20.3086 2 70.548 2 4.40924 2-1.9684 30.4630 3-105,822 3 6.61386 3-2,9526 40.6173 4141, 096 4 8,81849 43,9368 5 0.77165-176,3705_11.02311 54,9210 6 0.9259 6-211,644 6–13; 22773 65, 9052 71.08037-246, 918 7-15, 43235 76,8894 81.2346 8-282, 1928_17,63697 87,8736 91.3889 9-317.4669–19, 841599_8,8578

1 acre.........
1 bushel...
1 centimetre.
1 cubic centimetre
1 cubic foot......
1 cubic inch.......
1 cubic metre..
1 cubic metre..
1 cubic yard..
1 foot...
1 gallon.........
1 grain.
1 gram..
1 hectare..
1inch..
1 kilo..
1 kilometre.
1 litre..

1 litre
1 metre....

TAMETRIC SYSTEM Conthined, EPZAJM

THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED.

The following tables of the metric system of weights and measures have been simplified as much as possible for THE WORLD ALMANAC by omitting such denominations as are not in practical, everyday use in the countries where the system is used exclusively.

30
3.8

- TABLES OF THE SYSTEM.REM.

1

Length.-The denominations in practical use are millimetres (min.), centímetres (cm, ), metres (m.), and kilometres (km.). 1 km. NOTE. -A decimetre is 10 cm. Weight. The denominations in use are grams (g.), kilos* (kg.), and tons (metric tons). 1,000 g.1 kg.; 1,000 kg. 1 metric ton.

10 mm. 1 cin. 100 cm.1 m.; 1,000 m:

Capacity. The denominations in use are cubic centimetres (c. c. ) and litres (1.).. 1,000 c. c. 11. NOTE-A hectolitre is 1001. (seldom used).

Relation of capacity and weight to length: A cubic decimetre is a litre, and a litre of water weighs a kilo.

APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS.

A metre is about a yard; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a litre is about a quart; a centimetre is about. inch; a metric ton is about same as a ton; a kilometre is about mile; a cubic centimetre is about a thimbleful; a nickel weighs about 5 grams.

15 2.5 25 2.2

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WEIGHT (AVOIRDUPOIs).~

PRECISE EQUIVALENTS.

4 0471 mile...
litres...........35. 24 1 millimetre.....

35

.40 hectare.....
.39 inch...... ...
3937 1 ounce (av'd)...
.061 cubic inch... 0610 1 ounce (Troy).
.028 cubic metre, 02831 peck.................... ...........................

cubic cent. † 16.39

.............................

16
35
1.3

1 pint...
cubic feet.....35.31 1 pound..
cubic yards... 1.308 1 quart (dry)......
.76 cubic metre....7645 1 quart (liquid)..
centimetres 30.48

BROD

1 sq. centimetre.

litres............ 3.785 1sq. foot......

.065 gram.......
0648 1 sq. inch.
grains..........15, 43 1 sq. metre.........

acres......
millimetres, 25.40

2.471 1 sq. metre.
1 sq. yard.
2,205 1 ton (2.000 lbs.
6214 1 ton (2,240lbs.

1.1
3.3

.91 quart (dry).. .9081 1 ton (metric).....
quarts (liq'd) 1.057 1 ton (metric).....

feet

3.281 1 yard.

*Contraction for kilogram, † Centimetres.

pounds .62 mile..

Per Bushel.

..60 lbs.

.70

44
44

.56

Peas...

White Beans...
Castor Beans............

16.4799 128, 3495 10, 45359
2-12.9598 2 56,6991 20,90719
3-19.4397 3 85,0486, 31.36078
425.91964-113,3981 4-1.81437
5-32.3995 5141.7476 5 2.26796
6-38.8793 6-170.0972 6 2.72156
7-45.35927-198 4467 73.17515
8-51.8391 8-226.7962 83,62874 9 8.1284
9 58,3190 9255, 1457 94.08233 9-9.1445

.56

44

.48 44

.48

"1

32

44

.60

16

66

..60 ...46

44

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Per Bushel,
White Potatoes......... .60 lbs.
Sweet Potatoes.
..55
Onions......................... .............. .........57
Turnips.........

44
44
**

.55
..33
.26

64

.60
56

.50

Dried Peaches...
Dried Apples.
Clover Seed.
Flax Seed

Millet Seed...

1-1.0161 22.0321 33.0482

44.0642 5 5,0803 66,0963 7-7.1124

28
31
8.8
.47
.45
1.1
.95 litre...
.15 sq. inch.
093 sq. metre...

6.5 1.2 11 .84 .91

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1.1
.98
.91

MINIMUM WEIGHTS OF PRODUCE.

THE following are minimum weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the United States:

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1.6 kilometres......
.039 inch..................................
grams.........
grams.............31.10
litres................. 8,809
litre........
kilo....conn.
litres................ 1.101

.4732
4536

9464 .1550 .0929

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1,609 .0394 .28.35

sq. c'timetr's, 6.452
sq. yards....
sq. feet........

1.196. .10.76 .8361 .9072 1.017

metric ton......
metric ton.....
ton (2,000 lbs.) 1.102
ton (2,240 lbs.) .9842
metre........... ..............

.9144

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SALT.-Weight per bushel as adopted by different States ranges from 50 to 80 pounds. Coarse salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 80 pounds, and in Illinois at 50 pounds per bushel. Fine salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 62 pounds, in Kentucky and Illinois at 55 pounds per bushel.

Domestic Weights and Measures.

MEASURES AND WEIGHTS OF GREAT BRITAIN.

THE measures of length and the weights are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the United States. The English ton is 2,240 lbs, avoirdupois, the same as the long ton, or shipping ton of the United States. The English hundredweight is 112 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long hundredweight of the United States. The English stone is usually equal to one-eighth hundredweight of 112 lbs., or 14 lbs, avoirdupois. The metre has been legalized at 39. 37079 inches, but the length of 39. 370432 inches, as adopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Russia, is frequently used. The Imperial gallon, the basis of the system of capacity, involves an error of about 1 part in 1,836: 10 lbs. of water 277. 123 cubic inches. (A late authority gives the weight of the Imperial gallon as 10.017 pounds and of the United States gallon as 8.345 pounds.) The English statute mile is 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet. The following are measures of capacity:

80

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26,000,000 1,000,000 25,000,000 12,500,000

8,333,333 6,250,000 7,225,600 3,612,800 1,806, 400 903, 200 451,600

225,800

Cubic Inches.

34.66

69.32

1 gantah

1 caban

138.64

277.27
554.55

2218. 19 8872.77 17745.54

1 pulgada (12 linea) 1 pie

1 vara

A cubic foot of pure gold weighs 1,210 pounds; pure silver, 655 pounds; cast iron, 450 pounds; copper, 550 pounds; lead, 710 pounds; pure platinum, 1,920 pounds; tin, 456 pounds; aluminum, 163 pounds.

DOMESTIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains 1 scruple; 3 scruples-1 dram; 8 drams-1 ounce; 12 ounces 1 pound. Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 27 11-32 grains - 1 dram; 16 drams➡ 1 ounce; 16 ounces- 1 pound; 25 pounds 1 quarter; 4 quarters 1 cwt.; 20 ewt. - 1 ton. Avoirdupois Weight (long ton): 27 11-32 grains-1 dram; 16 drams 1 ounce; 16 ounces — 1 pound; 112 pounds 1 cwt.; 20 cwt. - 1 ton.

I

Troy Weight: 24 grains-1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights-1 ounce; 12 ounces- 1 pound Circular Measure: 60 seconds - 1 minute; 60 minutes-1 degree; 30 degrees -1 circle or circumference.

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Litres.

0.56793
1. 13586
2.27173
4.54346
9.08692
36.34766
145.39062,
290.7813

Cubic Measure: 1,728 cubic inches1 cubic foot; 27 cubic feet-1 cubic yard. Dry Measure: 2 pints 1 quart; 8 quarts1 peck; 4 pecks 1 bushel. Liquid Measure: 4 gills-1 pint; 2 pints-1 quart; 4 quarts-1 gallon; 31 gallons - 1 barrel; 2 barrels 1 hogshead.

Long Measure: 12 inches-1 foot; 3 feet-1 yard; 5 yards-1 rod or pole; 40 rods - 1 furlong; 8 furlongs-1 statute mile (1,760 yards or 5,280 feet); 3 miles 1 league.

Mariners Measure: 6 feet-1 fathom; 120 fathoms1 cable length; 7 cable lengths - 1 mile; 5,280 feet 1 statute mile; 6,085 feet 1 nautical mile.

Paper Measure: 24 sheets-1 quire; 20 quires - 1 ream (480 sheets); 2 reams-1 bundle; 5

bundles 1 bale.

square varas (square of 5,099 square varas (square of 1,000 square varas (square of 5,000 square varas (square of 3,535, 5 square varas (square of 2,886.7 square varas (square of 2,500 square varas (square of 2,688 square varas (square of 1,900.8 square varas (square of 1,344 square varas (square of square varas (square of square varas (square of 5,645.376 square varas (square of

Square Measure: 144 square inches-1 square foot; 9 square feet 1 square yard; 304 square yards-1 square rod or perch; 40 square rods-1 rood; 4 roods-1 acre: 640 acres 1 square mile; 36 square miles (6 miles square) - 1 township.

Time Measure: 60 seconds week; 365 days 1 year; 366 days

United States
Equivalents.

1. 20032 liquid pints.
1.20032
quarts.

44

12 40064
1. 20032
gallons.
1.03152 dry pecks.
bushels.

1.03152
4.12606
18, 2521

MEDICAL SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

B (Lat. Recipe), take; ãã, of each; b, pound; 3. ounce; 3, drachm; ., scruple; m, minim, or drop; O oro, pint; f3. fluid ounce; f3. fluid drachm; as, 388, half an ounce; 31, one ounce; 3iss, one ounce and a haif; 3ij, two ounces; gr., grain; Q. S., as much as sufficient: Ft. Mist., let a mixture be made; Ft. Haust., let a draught be made; Ad., add to: Ad lib., at pleasure; Aq., water; M., mix; Mac., macerate; Pulv., powder; Pil., pill; Solv., dissolve; St., let it stand; Sum., to be taken; D., dose; Dil., dilute; Filt, filter: Lot., a wash: Garg., a gargle; Hor. Decub., at bed time; Inject., injection; Gtt., drops; ss, one-half; Ess., essence.

TEXAS LAND MEASURE.

(Also used in Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.)
varas) 1 league and 1 labor-
varas) 1 labor
varas) 1 league
varas)

1 minute: 60 minutes-1 hour; 24 hours-1 day; 7 days-1 1 leap year.

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varas)

varas)

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varas)

950.44 varas)

44

league
league
league

1 section

section
section
section

acres.

acres.

80

acres acres

$40
1

acre.

To find the number of acres in any number of square varas, multiply the latter by 177 (or to be more exact, by 177), and cut off six decimals.

1 vara 33 inches.

672

varas) varas)

475

1-16 section

75. 137 varas) - 4,840 square yards

1,900.8 varas = 1 mile.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE PHILIPPINES.
.927 inch.
11.125 inches.
33.375 inches.
.8796 gallon.
21.991 gallons.

1 libra (16 onzo)
1 arroba

1 catty (16 tael)
1 pecul (100 catty)

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1.0144 lb. av. 25.360 lb. av. 1.894 lb. av. 139.482 lb. av.

Foreign Moneys.

KNOTS AND MILES.

THE Statute Mile is 5,280 feet.

The British Admiralty Kuot or Nautical Mile is 6,080 feet.

The Statute Knot is 6.082, 66 feet, and is generally considered the standard. The number of 21,600 divided feet in a statute knot is arrived at thus: The circumference of the earth is divided into 360 degrees, each degree containing 60 knots or (360x60), 21,600 knots to the circumference. into 131,385,456-the number of feet in the earth's circumference-gives 6,082,66 feet-the length of a standard mile.

-1 cable

1 knot 2 knots 3 knots

4 knots
1. 151 miles
2.303 miles 5 knots
3.454 miles 10 knots

The Roman modus
The Attic choenix
The Attic medimnus

ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN WEIGHTS
WITH AMERICAN EQUIVALENTS.

Olim

LIQUID MEASURE. The cotyle & little over 12 pint. The cyathus a little over 1 pints. The chus a little over 6% pints.

LONG MEASURE.
The Roman foot 11 3-5 inches.
The Roman cubit 1 ft. 5% inches.
The Roman pace 4 ft. 10 inches.
The Roman furlong - 604 ft. 10 inches.
The Roman mi'e- 4,835 feet.

The Grecian cubit 1 ft. 6 inches.

Ampère

Volt

The Roman libra or pound
The Attica mina or pound
The Attica talent (60 min)

DRY MEASURE,

MONEY.
The quadrans 11-10 mills.
The as 13-10 mills,
The sestertius 3.58+ cents.

The sestertium (1,000 sestertii)- $35. 80+.

The denarius 14.85 + cents.

The Attic obolus 2.39 + cents.

The drachma - 14.35 + cents.

The mina (100 drachmæ) - $14.35+.

The talent (60 min) -861, 00+.

The Greek stater aureus (same as the Roman †)
-$3.58,79.
The stater➡daricus

$7.16,66.

"The modern drachma equals 19.3 cents. † Did not remain, at all periods, at this value, but this is the value indicated by Tacitus.

BIBLICAL WEIGHTS REDUCED TO TROY WEIGHT.

The Gerah, one-twentieth of a Sheket
The Bekah, half a Shek ...

The Shekel...

XAME. Symbol.

R

The Maneh, 60 Shekels.

The Talent, 50 manehs, or 3,000 Shekels.

Coulomb

Farad

Jou

1 pk. 2-9 pint. nearly 1 pints.

Microfarad
Watt

C

4.606 miles | 20 knots - 23.030 miles | 600 feet
5.757 miles 25 knots 28.787 miles
-1 fathom
11. 515 miles

10 cables

6 feet

4 pk. 61-10 pints.

E

Q

K

Unit of

Resistance

Current

Quantity

Capacity

WEIGHTS.

10 oz. 18 pwt. 13 5-7 gr., Troy.
11 oz. 7pwt. 16 2-7 gr., Troy.
56 lbs. 11 oz. O pwt. 171-7 gr., Troy.

How Obtained.

CGS*

The electrical resistance of a col- 109
umn of mercury 106 centimetres
long and of 1 square millimetre
section.

Is that current of electricity that
decomposes .0 009324 gramme of
water per second,

Electromo- One ampère of current passing
tive force through a substance having 1 oùm
of resistance 1 volt.

A current of 1 ampère during 1
second o time.

".

Pw. Power
w.j. Work

AND MEASURES.

The Grecian furlong 504 ft. 41-5 inches.
The Grecian mile 4,030 ft.

ELECTRICAL UNITS.

The capacity that á current of 1
ampère for 1 second (-1 coulomb)
charges it to potential of 1 volt.
1-millionth of farad.

Power of 1 ampère current pass-
ing through resistance of 1 ohm.
Is the work done by 1 watt o:
electrical power tu 1 second.

C. G. 8. Electro-magnetic units. Consult technical works in electricity.

Lbs.
0

101

108

101

109

2

125

Oz.

1015
107

107

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Pwt.

0
5

10

0

O

Equivalent.

1 true ohm-1. 0112 Britishi Association ohms,

Gr.

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12

Deposits 1.118 milligrams of silver per second.

.926 of a standard Daniel cell. <

Deposits 1.118 milligrams of silver.

2.5 knots of D. U. S. cable.

(or 1) o

1 krone.

Value of Foreign Coins in U, S. Money."

of a

0013405

horse power.

.238 unit of heat (Therm).

FOREIGN MONEYS.

English Money: 4 farthings-1 penny (d); 12 pence-1 shilling (s); 20 shillings➡1 pound (£).
21 shillings one guinea; 5 shillings one crown.
French Money: 100 centimes 1 franc.
German Money: 100 pfennig-1 mark.
Russian Money: 100 copecks 1 ruble.
Austro-Hungarian Money: 100 heller
For United States equivalents, see table of

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