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Forests and Forestry:
FORESTS AND FORESTRY—Continued.
Under the law 25 per cent. of the receipts are paid to the States in which the National forests are located, to be expended for roads and schools. The amount to be paid to the States in this way from the receipts in 1914 is about $599,272.17.
By the acts of Congress organizing them as States, Arizona and New Mexico also receive for their school fund an additional share of the receipts based on the proportion that their school lands within the National forests bear to the total National forest area in the States. The approximate amounts due on account of the receipts for 1914 are $30,730.58 to Arizona and $9,890.94 to New Mexico.
Congress has also provided that 10 per cent. of the receipts shall be set aside as an appropriation to be used under the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture for road and trail building in National forests in co-operation with State authorities or otherwise. The amount thus appropriated on account of fiscal year 1914 receipts is $239,708.86. This, added to the amount carried over from the 1913 receipts fund, $112,220.77, and the amount appropriated for improvements, in the regular agricultural bill, $400,000, makes the total available for the construction of roads, trails, cabins, bridges, telephone lines, etc., on the National forests for the fiscal year 1915, $751,929.63.
The total regular appropriation for salaries, general expenses, and improvements for the fiscal year 1913 is $5,548,256.00, as against $5,399,679.00 for 1914, with a further provision of $100,000 available for fire-fighting in cases of extraordinary emergency.
The grazing receipts for 1914 were paid by the holders of 23,757 permits to graze 1,620,261 cattle, horses and hogs, and of 5,188 permits to graze 7,618,802 sheep and goats. The receipts from timber sales were paid by approximately 8.300 purchasers, who cut the equivalent of 626,406,000 board feet of timber. The receipts from special uses were paid by the holders of approximately 5.000 permits. In other words, these receipts represent profitable use of the forests by some 40,000 individuals or concerns. To the use for which payment was made must be added the heavy free use of the forests by the public. Figures for free use of timber are as follows:
FREE USE OF TIMBER ON NATIONAL FORESTS.
Cut. Board Feet. 39,427 120,575,000 $182,774.20 38,264 121,885,000| 191,824.77
In Issuing permits for reservoirs, condults, power-houses and transmission lines for commercial power development the Forest Service has steadfastly Insisted on conditions designed to prevent speculative or perpetual holdings and to secure the full development of available power and the payment of reasonable charges for the use of land.
The total stand of timber on the National forests is estimated at nearly six hundred billions board feet. The following table shows the local cut of timber from the National forests in the fiscal year 1914: TIMBER CUT FROM NATIONAL
Cut Under Cut Under]
6,000 6,000 626,406,000 120,575,000 746,981,000
The value of the public property administered by the Forest Service is estimated at over two billion dollars.
The great areas contained in the National forests have now been brought to a condition where they are beginning to serve the purposes of the West. The conservation of timber and forage through wise use, and the protection of stream flow, are the means of sustaining many industries which have contributed materially to the prosperity of the country.
ORGANIZATION OF THE FOREST SERVICE.
Cut Under Cut Under)
Sale. Free Use. Total Cut.
Board Fect. Board Feet Board Feet.
At the head of the Forest Service are the Forester, Henry S. Graves, and the Associate Forester, A. F. Potter. The work is organized under the following branches: Operation, and also Lands, James B. Adams in charge; Silviculture, and also Products, W. B. Greeley in charge; Grazing, A. F. Potter in charge, and Products Laboratory, Howard F. Welss in charge; Acquisition of Lands Under the Weeks law, William L. Hall in charge.
The 163 National forests are grouped in seven districts, with a District Forester in charge of each, and headquarters as follows: District 1 (Montana, Northeastern Washington, Northern Idaho. Northwestern South Dakota, and Southwestern North Dakota), Missoula, Mont., F. A. Silcox, District Forester: District 2 (Colorado, Wyoming, the remainder of South Dakota, Nebraska, and Western Kansas, Northern Michigan, and Northern Minnesota), Denver, Col.. Smith Riley, District Forester: District 3 (most of Arizona and New Mexico), Albuquerque, N. Mex., A. C. Ringland. District Forester: District 4 (Utah, Southern Idaho, Western Wyoming, Eastern and Central Nevada, and a small portion of Northwestern Arizona), Ogden, Utah, E. A. Sherman, District Forester; District 5 (California and Southwestern Nevada), San Francisco, Cal., Coert Du Bols, District Forester: District 6 (Washington, Oregon, and Alaska), Portland, Ore., Geo. H. Cecil, District Forester: District 7 (Arkansas, Florida, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, New Hampshire), Washington, D. C., Wii lam L. Hall, District Forester.
On July 1, 1914, the force employed by the Forest Service numbered 3,953. Of these 3,352 were employed upon the National forests and 601 were engaged in administrative, scientific and clerical work at the Washington and district headquarters. Of the employés on the National forests the force engaged principally in protective work numbered 2,397 men, as follows: Forest Rangers, 397:
FORESTS AND FORESTRY-Continued.
Assistant Forest Rangers, 856; Forest Guards, 1,143; Game Wardens, 1. was therefore about one man for every 80,000 acres, or 125 square miles. (Prussia has one man for The protective force every 1,700 acres, and Baden one for every 750.).
BRANCH OF SILVICULTURE.
The branch of silviculture directs the management of the National forests as regards both the cutting of mature timber and the work of forest planting; co-operates with States in developing forest policies adapted to their requirements; co-operates with private forest owners who desire to practise forestry on their lands, and carries on investigations of the important species and silvicultural problems of the United States.
The chief problems encountered in the management of the National forests, after fire protection, are to secure the removal of mature timber without cutting more than the forest is actually produc ing, and to replace this timber as it is sold and cut, by young growth of valuable species. Detailed plans are prepared for each forest on the basis of careful estimates of the present stand and its rate of growth, which specify the amount of timber that can be cut safely each year without Impairing the permanent supply. This timber is then advertised for sale at prices which secure to the Government Its full market value and at the same time allow a fair profit to the operator.
The replacement of old stands by new growth is accomplished mainly by regulating the cutting through the Insertion of special provisions in timber sales contracts in such a way as to insure natural reproduction. On completely denuded areas, however, artificial reforestation by planting or sowing is generally necessary for the establishment of a new growth of trees. The object of such work is usually to produce commercial timber, although in a number of cases the reforesting of denuded watersheds is undertaken primarily to control and regulate the flow of streams directly supplying cities and towns. During the year ending June 30, 1914, 20,477.51 acres in National forests were planted or sown to trees, chiefy Douglas fir, Western yellow pine, Western white pine, white pine, and lodgepole pine. There are 29 Government nurseries which supply the National forests. These have a present stock of about 31,000,000 plants and are capable of supplying 15,000,000 a year.
Detalled Investigations of important problems are conducted at eight thoroughly equipped forest experiment stations in order to determine the best methods of forest management to use in the handling of the National forests.
At the request of the States the Forest Service makes examinations of their forest conditions and conducts other studies needed to frame forest legislation and formulate a forest State polley adapted to the special requirements of each State. The cost of such work is shared by the State and the service. The service co-operates with private owners, especially small owners, in States which have no State Forester, by furnishing advice, with or without field examinations, concerning the best methods for managing and protecting their holdings. The cost of such examination is borne by the owner.
BRANCH OF grazing.
The branch of grazing supervises the grazing of live stock upon the National forests, the principal lines of work being the allotment of grazing privileges; the Issuance of grazing permits; the division of the ranges between different classes of stock or their owners, and the regulation of the stock grazed under permit upon the ranges; and the development of the forage-producing capacity of the National forests by the restoration of depleted areas through systematic control of the stock grazed upon them or by artificial means, through the eradication of noxious range-destroying rodents and through the Institution of new methods of range control. By co-operation with Federal and State authorities in the enforcement of quarantine regulations the National forests have been practically freed from Infection or contagious diseases fatal to live stock, and by an active campaign against predaceous animals, destructive to live stock, the annual loss from this source within the National forests has been reduced by several hundred thousand dollars.
The number of stock grazed during the past season (1914), under permit, was 1,620,261 head of cattle, horses and swine, and 7,618,802 head of sheep and goats. The annual productive value of this number of stock is more than $30,000,000. The number of persons holding permits to graze live stock during the past year was about 29,000.
About 15 per cent. of all the sheep in the United States are grazed in the National forests.
BRANCH OF PRODUCTS.
The branch of products carries on studies, tests and demonstrations to further the more complete utilization of the products of the forest, including the timber from the National forests. A forest products laboratory is operated at Madison, Wis., in co-operation with the University of Wisconsin, where experiments are made to determine the physical properties of woods, to ascertain cheap and effective treatments to prevent decay, to test the adaptability of untried woods for specific uses: to develop practical uses for waste in the woods, in the sawmill, and in the wood-working factories, and to discover processes of obtaining valuable chemical by-products for the waste which cannot otherwise be utilized, and to open new supplies. Studies are made to find the kind, quantity, and cost of timber consumed in different States and regions and also where the material comes from, and what amount is lost through waste. The wood-consuming industries are aided in finding the most suitable raw material and in developing methods of utilizing their waste product.
EASTERN NATIONAL FORESTS.
The act of March 1, 1911, commonly known as the Weeks law, provides for the acquisition of forest lands on the watersheds of navigable streams. Its purpose is to promote and protect the navigability of the streams by preserving the forest on the upland portions of their watersheds. Through this act means are afforded of extending the National forest system to regions where the Government has hitherto owned no forest lands and taken no direct part in forest preservation.
The original appropriation was $2,000,000 per year for five and one-half years, beginning with the last half of the fiscal year 1911. The Agricultural Appropriation bill for the fiscal year 1913 made the appropriation for 1912 and subsequent years available until expended.
In order to concentrate the purchases where they will be of the greatest benefit from the standpoint of watershed protection, certain areas in the Appalachian region have been designated, aggregating 6,966,304 acres, to which purchases will be for the present confined. The United States Geological Survey has examined the greater part of this land, as required by law, in order to determine whether or not the forest cover exercises a beneficial influence in regulating the flow of navigable streams. Up to July 1, 1914, 6,013,103 acres were reported upon favorably by the Geological Survey. The Forest Service has been designated as the bureau to receive proposals of land and to examine and value lands for purchase. The National Forest Reservation Commission considers the recommendations of the Forest Service and approves the lands to be purchased and fixes the price to be paid.
From April 1, 1911, to June 30, 1914, proposals were received covering 3,668,120 acres, of which
Forests and Forestry.
FORESTS AND FORESTRY-Continued.
3,063,616 acres were within the general areas which had been selected for purchase in the White Mountains and the Southern Appalachians.
Georgia Area, 60,185 During the same period 1,798,432 acres were examined, and 1,104,529 acres were approved by Massanutten Area, 63,029 acres, in the National Forest Reservation Commission. These are located as follows: Mount Mitchell Area, 66,213 acres, In acres, in Fannin, Union, Gilmer, and Lumpkin Counties, Ga. Nantahala Area, 36,973 acres, in Macon and Shenandoah, Warren, Page, and Rockingham Countles, Va. White McDowell, Buncombe, and Yancey Countles, N. C. Natural Bridge Area, 52,960 acres, in Rockbridge, Bedford, and Botetourt (An additional Swain Counties, N. C. Smoky Mountain Area, 59,213 acres, in Blount and Sevier Counties, Tenn. White Counties, Va. Mountain Area, 133,562 acres, in Carroll, Coos, and Grafton Counties, N. H. Monongahela Ares, 85,617 acres approved September 2, 1914, brought the total at that date to 219,179 aeres.) Top Area, 66,865 acres, in Carter, Johnson, and Sullivan Counties, Tenn., and Washington County, Potomac Area, 74,669 acres, in Hardy Va. Cherokee Area, 124,134 acres, in Polk and Monroe Counties, Tenn. Savannah Area, 94,749 acres, in Rabun 42,887 acres, in Randolph and Tucker Counties, W. Va. Shenandoah Area, 122,634 County, W. Va., Shenandoah and Frederick Countles, Va. County, Ga., Oconee County, S. C., Macon and Jackson Counties, N. C. acres, in Augusta, Highland, Rockingham Countles, Va., and Pendleton County, W. Va. Unaka Pisgah Area, 86,700 acres, in Transylvania, Hender301salg 967 Area, 19,756 acres, in Unicoi County, Tenn. son, Buncombe, and Haywood Counties, N. C. As these lands are acquired they are administered along the same lines as are the National og vilst den of yak forests in the West, and the above-named areas will, as title is obtained and plans for handling them bong ang are prepared, be given formal designation as National forests.
FOREST POLICY OF THE STATES.
The movement for National forestry has been followed by a widespread development of State New York and Pennsylvania, the ploneers in this field, inaugurated State polleles forest activities. before the work of the National Government had awakened general interest in forestry, but in most of the States forest work has been either a direct outgrowth of Federal activities or Indirectly due to them. Ten or twelve years ago few States were giving their forest problems any serious consideratlon; to-day 30 have forest departments, 21 employ professionally trained foresters, and practically all show recognition of the need for a State forest policy.
State work has comprised activities along the lines of (1) education of public sentiment regarding the value of the State's forest resources and importance of their conservation; (2) the giving of technical advice to private owners regarding the application of forestry on their holdings; (3) the development of a systematic State forest fire protective system; (4) the provision of forest planting stock for citizens; (5) the modification of tax systems to lessen the burdens imposed on those who plant forests or otherwise apply forestry with a view to permanent timber production; (6) the forma Each State has developed its own forest movement along its own tion of State forests or reserves. lines, largely determined by varying natural and economic conditions.
Men of professional In general, the Northeastern States have paid most attention to encouraging the actual practice of forestry by private owners, with a view to the production of a new forest crop. training have been employed as State foresters, to give advice to applicants and to carry on educa In the far West tional work; provision for planting material has been made; and in several States tax laws have been modifed. Protection of forests against fire has been advocated and largely provided by State action, with special reference to its need to prevent destruction of young growth. attention has been centred mainly on fire prevention to protect the vast supplies of mature timber now standing in the virgin coniferous forests of the Rocky Mountain and Pacific coast regions. In the lake States fire protection has, on the whole, had first place in importance, but with recognition of the need to protect both young growth and mature timber because of their commercial value. In the lake States also, and in New York and Pennsylvania, State-owned forests take a very prominent place. The South has, on the whole, been slow to see the need for State action, although Louisiana has enacted a State law with some very advanced features, and the States of Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky have State foresters and fire protective systems. he sa
The appropriations for the support of the several State forest departments vary greatly. The Wisconsin $95,000, Maine $71,400, smallest is $500; the greatest $328,000. Those which appropriate over $25,000 are: Pennsyl vania $328,000, Minnesota $233,000, New York $164,000, Michigan $60,000, Massachusetts $55,000, Maryland $42,250, Washington and Oregon $37,500 each, New Hampshire $35,000, California $31,900, New Jersey $31,500, with additional appropriations from time to time for land purchase.
Systematic forest fire protection by the States has been greatly stimulated by the operation of the so-called Weeks law, under which the Federal Government co-operates through the Forest Service with Individual States for protecting the watersheds of navigable streams, the Federal Government bearing in no case more than half the cost nor contributing more than $10,000 to any State in any one year. Under this law more than one hundred million acres of private and Stateowned lands are fairly well protected against forest fires, at an average cost of less than two cents The States which have entered into co-operative agreements under this law are: Maine, per acre, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon.
Tennessee, Alabama, Colorado, and California have organized fire-warden systems, but do not appropriate State funds for fire protection. Maine supports an efficient forest fire service covering The Forest Service of Minnesota covers 20,000,000 acres the unorganized townships in the northern part of the State: in the remaining townships each bears the cost of an ex-officlo warden system. Idaho has adopted a co-operative system of proby systematic patrol and maintains a permanent field force of rangers and patrolmen, with exofficlo town fire-wardens as an auxiliary force. tection with private owners, under which the State pays its pro rata share of the cost, on the basis of State-owned area within the area protected by a privately organized system. Throughout the Northwest an important feature in fire protection is the extensive organization of private timberland owners into associations supported by assessments on an acreage basis and maintaining a system of private protection similar to that maintained on the National forests by the Government; the land thus privately protected is now estimated at approximately 25 million acres of reticles
In the fifty years preceding 1913, forest fires had caused an average annual loss in the United States of about 70 human lives and at least $25,000,000 worth of timber, besides the loss of live stock, crops, buildings, and various kinds of improvements worth many millions more. Added to this are the enormous losses from the destruction of young tree growth, soll deterioration, damage to water courses and water supplies, Interruption of business, and depreciation of property.
New York has a State-owned "Forest Preserve" of 1,825,882 acres in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, under fire protection, but not under forest management, which the State ConThe entire central portion of these two mountain regions, comprising 7,200,000 stitution forbids. acres, is protected from fire by a State ranger system; in the rest of the State, town officers are de Private owners are furnished tree seedlings at cost from the State pended on to keep fires down.
FORESTS AND FORESTRY-Continued.
nurseries, which also grow material for reforesting denuded portions of the reserve. Three laws give forest lands reduction of, or exemption from, tax assessment under certain conditions. Pennsylvania has 980,000 acres of State-owned forests and practises forestry on them, maintaining a State ranger training school at Mont Alto. These forests are chiefly in the mountains of the central part of the State, and protect streamflow as well as supply timber. Additional lands may be purchased at not more than $5 per acre. Private lands are protected under a fire-warden system. The State distributes planting material and gives advice concerning forest management. The same Is true of New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, Kansas, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan have large holdings of State forests. Minnesota has approximately 1,000,000 acres of school lands which are to be retained for State school forests, besides 43,000 acres now in State forests. Wisconsin has 400,000 acres reserved, and Michigan 589,000, of which 312,000 acres are used for exchange to add to the 277,000 acres permanently reserved in several large blocks in different parts of the State. South Dakota has 75,000 acres of State forest in the Black Hills. Massachusetts 15,000 acres, New Jersey 13,720 acres, and New Hampshire, Vermont, California, Connecticut, Indiana, and Maryland from 7,000 to 2,000 acres each.
In Connecticut. New York, Pennsylvania, and Michigan the tax on forest land may be levied chiefly on yield or income.
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES.
THE National Conservation Association, with headquarters in the Colorado Building, Washington, D. C., is now the organiz ed head of the conservation movement in the United States.
In a booklet explaining the objects of the association is the following:
The National Conservation Association is fighting for the prompt and orderly development of our natural resources, for the welfare of ourselves and our children, and for the rights of the plain people. The association is bound neither by political considerations nor official connections. It is free to speak the whole truth.
"That conservation means the use of our natural resources for the benefit of us all and not merely for the profit of a few is already household knowledge. The task which the National Conservation Association has set itself is to get this principle put into practical effect."
The association is maintained by annual dues from membership, ranging from $1.00 to $20.00. Gifford Pinchot, President; Charles W. Ellot, Honorary President; Harry A. Slattery, Secretary
The National Conservation Congress is the National clearing-house for the State conservation commissions and conservation committees of National associations and all organizations concerned In the conservation of the country's natural resources. It is the organized head of the conservation movement in the United States. Its chief object is "to afford an agency through which the people of the country may frame pollicles and principles affecting the conservation and utilization of their resources, to be put into effect by their respective representatives in the State and Federal Governments."
The Congress holds annual meetings "to provide for discussion of the resources of the United States as the foundation for the prosperity of the people." The Congress also undertakes "to furnish definite information concerning the resources and their development, use and preservation." Membership dues range from $1 a year to $100 or more, according to classification.
The Congress is managed by its officers and an Executive Committee, and by an Advisory Board, consisting of one member from each National association having a conservation committee. President, E. Lee Worsham, Atlanta, Ga. Executive Secretary, Thomas R. Shipp, 711 Riggs Building, Washington, D. C. Treasurer, Norman C. McLoud, Cleveland, Ohio.
THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION.
THE American Forestry Association whose headquarters is at 1410 H Street N. W., Washington, D. C., was organized in 1882, and incorporated in January, 1897, with the following objects: 1. The promotion of a businesslike and conservative use and treatment of the forest resources of this country.
2. The advancement of legislation tending to this end both by the States and the Congress of the United States, the inauguration of forest administration by the Federal Government and by the States, and the extension of sound forestry by all proper methods.
3. The diffusion of knowledge regarding the conservation, management, and renewal of forests, proper utilization of their products, methods of reforestation of waste lands, and planting of trees. The association desires and needs as members all who are interested in promoting the objects for which it is organized-all who realize the importance of using the natural resources of the country in such a manner as not to exhaust them, or to work ruin to other interests. In particular it appeals to owners of woodlands, to lumbermen and foresters, as well as to engineers, professional and business men who have to do with wood and its manifold uses, and to persons concerned in the conservation of water supplies for irrigation and other purposes.
The association has a membership of several thousands, residents of every State in the Union, Canada and foreign countries. A magazine, American Forestry, is published monthly and the subscription and membership fees are $3.00 a year. The association also publishes Forestry Quarterly,a technical journal; subscription price, $3.00 a year. The officers of the association are:
President-Dr. Henry S. Drinker, South Bethlehem, Pa.: Treasurer-John E. Jenks, Washington, D. C.; Executive Secretary-P. S. Ridsdale, Washington, D. C.
AMERICAN WOOD-PRESERVERS'. ASSOCIATION.
President-George E. Rex, Topeka, Kan. First Vice-President-Carl G. Crawford, Louisville, Secretary-Treasurer-F. J. Angler, Baltimore, Md.
The objects and purposes of the association shall be to advance the wood-preserving industry in all its branches; to afford its members opportunities for the Interchange of ideas with respect to Improvements in the wood-preserving industry, and for the discussion of all matters bearing upon the industry of wood preserving; to maintain a high business and professional standard in all respects, and to standardize specifications for wood preservatives and their introduction into the materials to be preserved.
The means to be employed for this purpose shall be meetings for the presentation and discussion of appropriate papers, and for social and professional intercourse; the publication of such papers and discussions as may be deemed expedient; co-operation with other societies, associations and organizations in the work of standardizing specifications affecting the wood-preserving industry. and all other things Incidental or conducive to the attainment of the objects of the association or any of them, and as the members may from time to time consider advisable.
Next annual convention will be held in Chicago, January 19, 20 and 21, 1915.
THE PUBLIC LANDS OF THE
(Prepared for THE WORLD ALMANAC by the General Land Office.) TABULAR statement showing area of public lands vacant and subject to entry and settlement in the public land States and Territories, June 30, 1914.
STATE OR TERRITORY.
The Public Lands of the United States.
AREA UNAPPROPRIATED AND
9,890,583 317,972 16,183,344 16,979,843
Acres. 22,237,660 270,162 55 502,439 30,104,843 672,949 42,353 15,969,846
"The unreserved lands in Alaska are not included herein. They approximate 367,900,000 acres and are mostly unsurveyed and unappropriated.
Cash receipts of the General Land Office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914: From sales of public lands, 84,256.102.95; sales of Indian lands, $1,844,802.77; leases of power sites, etc.. $2,681.28; depredation on the public lands, $21,913.95; copies of records and plats, $22,866.77. Total receipts for the year, $6,148,367.63.
Ares of public and Indian lands originally entered during the fiscal year, 15,925,179.52 acres; area of lands patented, 14,391,071,853 acres. The total number of entries made, acres sold and amount received therefor under the Timber and Stone acts of June 3, 1878, and August 4, 1892, were: From June 3, 1878, to June 30, 1914: Entries, 101,272; acres, 13,224,279.54; amount, 833,410,909.54
STATE OR TERRITORY.
868,972 New Mexico..
AREA UNAPPROPRIATED AND
Acres. 11,648,232 265,642 29,523,553 20,062,529 672,949 42,353
Harrison... B. B. Hudgins.. W. F. Eatman.