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Forests and Forestry. OUR forests now cover 550,000,000 acres, or about one-fourth of the United States. Forests publicly owned contain one-fifth of all timber standing. Forests privately owned contain at least Sour-fifths of the standing timber. The timber privately owned is not only four times that publicly owned, but it is generally more valuable.

The original forests of the United States contained timber 1n quantity and varlety far beyond that upon any other area of simllar size in the world. They covered 850,000,000 acres, with a stand of not less than 5,200,000,000,000 feet of merchantable timber, according to present standards of use. There were five great forest regions—the northern, the southern, the central, the Rocky Mountain and the Pacific.

The present rate of cutting Is three times the annual growth of the forests of the United States. The great plneries of the lake states are nearlog exhaustion

and heavy Inroads have

been made upon the supply of valuable timber throughout all parts of the country.

The heavy demands for timber have been rapidly pushing the great centres of lumber Industry toward the South and West. In consequence, the State of Washington has led for several years in lumber, production, now followed in order by Loulslana, Mississippl, Oregon, and Texas. Among the soft woods in 1913 the production of yellow plne lumber amounted to about atteen billion

feet: the Douglas flr of the Northwest held second place, with nearly five and one-hall billion feet; while white plne with two and one-hall blillon feet ranked third, though less was produced than in the preceding year; oak came first among the hardwoods with three and one-orth billion feet, and was followed in order by maple, red gum, tulip poplar, chestnut, beech, and birch.

We take from our forests yearly, including waste in logging and in manufacture, more than 30,000,000.000 cubic feet of wood, valued at about $1,875,000.000.

We use in a single year 90,000,000 cords of firewood, nearly 40,000,000,000 board feet of lumber. 135,000,000 tles, nearly 1.700.000,000 staves, 440.000.000 board feet for veneer, over 130,000,000 sets of heading, over 350.000.000 barrel hoops, over 3,300,000 cords of native pulp wood, 165,000.000 cubic feet of round mine timbers, nearly 1,500,000 cords of wood for distillation, over 140,000 cords for excelsior, and nearly 3,500,000 telegraph and telephone poles.

About 4,330,000 cords of wood are used in the manufacture of paper, of which about 1,000,000 cords are imported malnly from Canada. The demand for wood pulp is making a severe drain on the spruce forests, which furnish the principal supply, though a number of other woods, such as poplar, hemlock, pine, and balsam, are now being used in considerable quantities. The Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture is conducting

Investigations to determine what other woods, such as Western white and red ør, lodge pole pine, Western hemlock, tupelo and the like. can be successfully used.

A larger drain upon our forest resources is made by the demand for rallroad tleş. white oak, hitherto the chief source of supply, and in many parts of the country the supplies of chestnut, cedar, and cypress are dwindling. In place of these highly durable woods cheaper and more plentiful ones, such as Southern pine, Douglas Ar, tamarack, and hemlock, are coming into use, largely in consequence of the introduction of treatment by preservatives which retard decay. A great saving has been effected in the naval stores industry, also largely through the work of the Forest Service, by the Introduction of the so-called "cup' systems of turpentining in place of the old destructive system of "boxing." The new systems Insure a larger product of better quallty and prolong the Ile of the longleai pine forests upon which the industry depends.

UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE. The Forest Service is one of the bureaus of the Department of Agriculture. It has charge of the administration and protection of the National forests and also promotes the practice of forestry generally through investigations and the diffusion of Information.

The work of the Government in forestry was initiated by the appointment of Dr. Franklin B. Hough in 1876 as special agent in the Department of Agriculture. In 1881 a division of forestry was created in that department. In 1901 this division became the Bureau of Forestry, and in 1905, when the care of the National forests was given to this bureau, Its name became the Forest Service.

Previously the care of the National forests had been in the hands of the Department of the Interior.

A law authorizing the President to set apart forest reserves was passed in 1801, but no provision for their administration and use was made until 1897. Previous to 1905 the Bureau of Forestry merely gave expert advice, on request, to the Department of the Interior concerning the application of forestry to the forest reserves. The change of name from "forest reserves" to "National forests" was made in 1906 to correct the impression that the forests were, as "reserves," withdrawn from use. Since the Forest Service took charge of them the fundamental alm has been to open them to the widest use consistent with their proper protection.

The National forests were set aside as follows: By President Harrison, 13,416,710 acres: by President Cleveland, 25,686,320 acres; by President McKinley, 7.050,089 acresby President Roosevelt, 148,346,924 acres. Since early in 1909 careful readjustment of the boundaries has been going on. In consequence President Taft added to the National forests 4,333,847 acres and ellminated from them 11,080,578 acres, while down to July 1, 1914, President Wilson has added 418.745 acres and eliminated 1,973,839 acres. Acts of Congress prohibit any additions by the President to the National forest area in Washington, Oregon, Californla, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.

The present gross area of the National forests, including Alaska and Porto Rico, Is 185,321,202 acres, with an additional 190,755 acres acquired by purchase in the White Mountains and Southern Appalachlan regions for National forest purposes.

The following tables show the National forest expenditures and receipts for the fiscal years 1914 and 1913: EXPENDITURES FOR ADMINISTRATION AND PROTECTION, AND PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS DURING FISCAL YEAR 1914, COMPARED WITH 1913.

ADMINISTRATION AND

PERMANENT
FISCAL YEAR.

PROTECTION.

IMPROVEMENTS.
Total.
Per Acre.

Total Per Acre. 1014.

$4.748, 422.48 $0.0256 $617,980.35 $0.0033 1913

4,653,560.48 0.0249 470.825.50 0.0025 COMPARISON OF RECEIPTS FROM THE SEVERAL SOURCES FOR THE FISCAL YEARS

1914 AWD 1913. FISCAL TIMBER.

GRAZING.

SPECIAL USES, ETC. ALL SOURCES. YEAR. Total. (Per Acre. Total. Per Acre. Total. Per Acre. Total Per Acre.

$1,304,053.56 $0.0070 $1,002,347.59 $0.0054 $131,309.06 $0.0007 $2.437.710.21 $0,0132 1913....1 1.275,566.48 0.0068 999,369.16 0.0053) 116,995.21 0.0006 2,391,920.85 0.0128

1914...

FORESTS AND FORESTRY-Continued. Under the law 25 per cent of the receipts are paid to the States in which the National forests are located, to be expended for roads and schools. The amount to be pald to the States in this way from the recelpts in 1914 is about $599,272.17.

By the acts of Congress organizing them as States, Arizona and New Mexico also recelve for their school fund an additional share of the recelpte based on the proportion that their school lands within the National forests bear to the total National forest area in the States. The approximate amounts due on account of the recelpts for 1914 are $30,730.58 to Arizona and $9,890.94 to New Mexico.

Congress has also provided that 10 per cent. of the recerpts shall be set aside as an appropriatlon to be used under the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture for road and trall bulding in National forests in co-operation with State authorities or otherwise. The amount thus appropriated on account of fiscal year 1914 recepts Is $239,708.86. This, added to the amount carried over from the 1913 recelpts fund, $112,220.77, and the amount appropriated for improvements, in the regular agricultural bill, $400,000, makes the total avallable for the construction of roads, tralls, cabins, bridges, telephone lines, etc., on the National forests for the fiscal year 1915, $751,929.63.

The total regular appropriation for salaries, general expenses, and improvements for the fiscal year 1913 is $5,548,256.00, as against $5.399,679.00 for 1914, with a further provision of $100,000 available for fire-fighting in cases of extraordinary emergency:

The grazing receipts for 1914 were paid by the holders.of 23,757 permits to graze 1,620,261 cattle, horses and hogs, and of 5,188 permits to graze 7,618,802 sheep and goats. The recelpts from timber sales were paid by approximately 8.300 purchasers, who cut the equlvalent of 626,406,000 board feet of timber. The receipts from special uses were paid by the holders of approximately 5.000 permits. In other words, these receipts represent profitable use of the forests by some 40,000 individuals or concerns. To the use for which payment was made must be added the heavy free use of the forests by the public. Figures for free use of timber are as follows: FREE USE OF TIMBER ON NATIONAL FORESTS.

Number of
FISCAL YEAR.

Permittees. Cut.

Value,

Board Feet 1914.

39,427 120,575,000 $182,774.20 1913..

38,2641 121,885,000 191,824.77 In Issuing permits for reservoirs, conduits, power-houses and transmission lines for commercial power development the Forest Service has steadlastly, Insisted on conditions designed to prevent speculative or perpetual holdings and to secure the full development of avallable power and the payment of reasonable charges for the use of land.

The total stand of timber on the National forests is estimated at nearly six hundred billons board feet. The following table shows the local out of timber from the National forests in the Oscal year 1914:

TIMBER CUT FROM NATIONAL FORESTS.
Cut Under Cut Under

Cut Under Cut Under
STATE.

Sale.
Free Use. Total Cut.

STATE.

Sale.

Free Use. Total Cut. Board Fect. Board Feet Board Feet.

Board Feet. Board Feet. Board Fert. Montana. 120.655,000 19,559,000 140,214,000 Arkansas.

14,072.000 177,000 14,249.000 Idaho. 92,548,000 21,183,000 113,731,000 Nevada,

3,308,000 1,563.000 4.871.000 Oregon. 75,034,000 12,277,000 87,311,000 Virginia.

490,000 35,000 525,000 Arizona. 58,136,000 4,600,000 62.736,000 Minnesota

351,000 98,000 449,000 Washington. 59,456,000 2,347.000 61,803,000 North Carolina. 383,000

383.000 Colorado, 47,025,000 12,726,000 59,751.000 Oklahoma.

369,000 369,000 California. 49,191,000 8,416,000 57,607.000 Florida..

10.000 310,000 320,000 Alaska... 45,061.000 45,061.000 Michigan

27,000 135,000 162,000 New Mexico 21,766,000 12,285,000 34,051.000 North Dakota..

56,000 56,000 Utah. 13,059,000 10,285,000 23,344.000 Nebraska.

6,000

0,000 Wyoming

12,337,000 8,513,000 20,850,000 South Dakota..] 13,497.000 5,635,0001 19,132.000 Totals. 1626,406,000 120,575,000/746,981.000

The value of the public property administered by the Forest Service is estimated at over two billion dollars.

The great arcas contained in the National forests have now been brought to a condition where they are beginning to serve the purposes of the West. The conservation of timber and forage through wlee use, and the protection of stream flow, are the means of sustaining many Industries which have contributed materially to the prosperity of the country.

ORGANIZATION OF THE FOREST SERVICE. At

the head of the Forest Service are the Forester, Henry S. Graves, and the Associate Forester, A. F. Potter. The work is organized under the following branches: Operation, and also Lands, James B. Adams in charge: Silviculture, and also Products, W. B. Greeley in charge; Grazing. A. F. Potter in charge, and Products Laboratory, Howard F. Weiss in charge; Acquisition of Lands Under the Weeks law, William L. Hall in charge.

The 163 National forests are grouped in seven districts, with a District Forester in charge of each, and headquarters as follows: District 1 (Montana, Northeastern Washington, Northern Idaho, Northwestern South Dakota, and Southwestern North Dakota), Missoula, Mont., F. A. Silcox, District Forester; District 2 (Colorado, Wyoming, the remainder of South Dakota, Nebraska, and Western Kansas, Northern Michigan, and Northern Minnesota), Denver, Col., Smith Riley, District Forester; District 3 (most of Arizona and New Mexico), Albuquerque. N. Mex., A. C. Ringland, District Forester; District 4 (Utah, Southern Idaho, Western Wyoming, Eastern and Central Nevads, and a small portion of Northwestern Arizona), Ogden, Utah, E. A. Sherman, District Forester: District 5 (California and Southwestern Nevada). San Francisco, Cal., Coert Du Bols, District Forester; District 6 (Washington, Oregon, and Alaska), Portland, Ore., Geo. H. Cecil, District Forester: District 7 (Arkangas, Florida, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginla, New Hampshire), Washington, D. C., Wii lam L. Hall, District Forester.

On July 1, 1914, the force employed by the Forest Service numbered 3,953. Or these 3,352 were employed upon the National forests and 601 were engaged in administrative, scientific and clerical work at the Washington and district headquarters. Or the employés on the National forests the force engaged principally in protective work numbered 2,397 men, as follows: Forest Rangers, 397;

FORESTS AND FORESTRY--Continued.

Assistant Forest Rangers, 856; Forest Guards, 1,143; Game Wardens, l. The protective force was therefore about one man for every 80,000 acres, or 125 square miles. (Prussia has one man for every 1,700 acres, and Baden one for every 750.)

BRANCH OF SILVICULTURE. The branch of silviculture directs the management of the National forests as regards both the cutting of mature timber and the work of forest planting: co-operates with States in developing forest policies adapted to their requirements; co-operates with private forest owners who desire to practise forestry on their lands, and carries on investigations of the important species and silvicultural problems of the United States.

The chlet problems encountered in the management of the National forests, after Are protection, are to secure the removal of mature timber without cutting more than the forest is actually producIng, and to replace this timber as it is sold and cut, by young growth of valuable species. Detailed plans are prepared for each forest on the basis of careful estimates of the present stand and Its rate of growth, which speclly the amount of timber that can be cut safely each year without

Impalring the permanent supply. This timber is then advertised for sale at prices which secure to the Government Its full market value and at the same time allow a falr pront to the operator.

The replacement of old stands by new growth is accomplished mainly by regulating the cutting through the Insertion of special provisions in timber sales contracts in such a way as to insure natural reproduction. On completely denuded areas, however, artificlal reforestation by planting or sowing is generally necessary for the establishment of a new growth of trees. The object of such work is usually to produce commercial timber, although in a number of cases the reforesting of denuded watersheds is undertaken primarily to control and regulate the flow of streams directly supplying cities and towns. During the year ending June 30, 1914, 20,477.51 acres in National forests were planted or sown to trees, chley Douglas fir, Western yellow pine, Western white pine, white plne, and lodgepole pine. There are 29 Government nurseries which supply the National forests. These have å present stock of about 31,000,000 plants and are capable of supplying 15,000,000 a year.

Detalled investigations of important problems are conducted at elght thoroughly equipped forest experiment stations in order to determine the best methods of forest management to use in the handling of the National forests.

At the request of the States the Forest Service makes examinations of their forest conditions and conducts other studies needed to frame forest legislation and formulate a forest State polley adapted to the special requirements of each State. The cost of such work is shared by the State and the service. The service co-operates with private owners, especially small owners, in States which have no State Forester, by furnishing advice, with or without feld examinations, concerning the best methods for managing and protecting their holdings. The cost of such examination is borne by the owner.

BRANCH OF GRAZING. The branch of grazing supervises the grazing of Ilve stock upon the National forests, the principal llnes of work being the allotment of grazing privileges; the Issuance of grazing permits; the division of the ranges between different classes of stock or their owners, and the regulation of the stock grazed under permit upon the ranges; and the development of the forage-producing capacity of the National forests by the restoration of depleted areas through systematic control of the stock grazed upon them or by artificial means, through the eradication of noxlous range-destroying rodents and through the Institution of new methods of range control. By co-operation with Federal and State authorities in the enforcement of quarantine regulations the Natlonal forests have been practically freed from infection or contagious diseases fatal to live stock, and by an active campaign agalnst predaceous animals, destructive to Hve stock, the annual loss from this source within the National forests has been reduced by several hundred thousand dollars.

The number of stock grazed during the past season (1914), under permit, was 1,620,261 head of cattle, horses and swine, and 7,618,802 head of sheep and goats. The annual productive value of this number of stock is more than $30,000,000. The number of persons holding permits to graze live stock during the past year was about 29,000. About 15 per cent. of all the sheep in the United States are grazed in the National forests.

BRANCH OF PRODUCTS, The branch of products carries on studies, tests and demonstrations to further the more complete utilization of the products of the forest, including the timber from the National forests. A forest products laboratory is operated at Madison, Wis., in co-operation with the University of Wisconsin, where experiments are made to determine the physical propertles of woods, to ascertain cheap and effective treatments to prevent decay, to test the adaptabiuty of untried woods for specific uses; to develop practical uses for waste in the woods, in the sawmill, and in the wood-working factories, and to discover processes of obtaining valuable chemical by-products for the waste which cannot otherwise be utilized, and to open new supplies. Studies are made to find the kind, quantity, and cost of timber consumed in different States and regions and also where the material comes from, and what amount is lost through waste. The wood-consuming industries are aided in finding the most suitable raw material and in developing methods of utilizing their waste product.

EASTERN NATIONAL FORESTS. The act of March 1, 1911, commonly known as the Weeks law, provides for the acquisition of forest lands on the watersheds of navigable streams. Its purpose is to promote and protect the navigability of the streams by preserving the forest on the upland portions of their watersheds. Through this act means are allorded of extending the National forest system to regions where the Government has hitherto owned no forest lands and taken no direct part in forest preservation.

The original appropriation was $2,000,000 per year for five and one-hall years, beginning with the last half of the fiscal year 1911. The Agricultural Appropriation bill for the fiscal year 1913 made the appropriation for 1912 and subsequent years avallable until expended.

In order to concentrate the purchases where they will be of the greatest benefit from the standpoint of watershed protection, certain areas in the Appalachian region have been designated, aggregating 6,966,304 acres, to which purchases will be for the present confined. The United States Geological Survey has examined the greater part of this land, as required by law, in order to determine whether or not the forest cover exercises a beneficial influence in regulating the flow of navigable Btreams. Up to July 1, 1914, 6,013,103 acres were reported upon favorably by the Geological Survey.

The Forest Service has been designated as the bureau to receive proposals of land and to examine and value lands for purchase. The National Forest Reservation Commission considers the recommendations of the Forest Service and approves the lands to be purchased and fixes the price to be paid.

From April 1, 1911, to June 30, 1914, proposals were recelved covering 3,668,120 acres, of which

Va.

FORESTS AND FORESTRY-Continued. 3,063,616 acres were within the general areas which had been selected for purchase in the White Mountains and the Southern Appalachians.

During the same period 1,798,432 acres were examined, and 1,104,529 acres were approved by the National Forest Reservation Commission. These are located as follows: Georgia Area, 60,185 acres, in Fannin, Union, Gllmer, and Lumpkin Countles, Ga. Massanutten Area, 63,029 acres, in Shenandoah, Warren, Page, and Rockingham Countles, Va. Mount Mitchell Area, 66,213 acres, in McDowell, Buncombe, and Yancey Counties, N. C. Nantahala Area, 36,973 acres, in Macon and Swain Countles, N. C. Natural Bridge Area, 52,960 acres, in Rockbridge, Bedford, and Botetourt Counties, Va. Smoky Mountaln Area, 59,213 acres, in Blount and Sevler Counties, Tenn. White Mountain Area, 133,562 acres, in Carroll, Coos, and Grafton Countles, N. H. (An additional 85,617 acres approved September 2, 1914, brought the total at that date to 219,179 aeres.) White Top Area, 66,865 acres, In Carter, Johnson, and Sullivan Counties, Tenn., and Washington County,

Cherokee Area, 124,134 acres, in Polk and Monroe Countles, Tenn. Monongahela Area, 42,887 acres, in Randolph and Tucker Counties, W. Va. Potomac Area, 74,669 acres, in Hardy County, W. Va., Shenandoah and Frederick Countles, Va. Savannah Area, 94,749 acres, in Rabun County, Ga., Oconee County, s. C., Macon and Jackson Counties, N. C. Shenandoah Area, 122,634 acres, in Augusta, Highland, Rockingham Countles, Va., and Pendleton County, W. Va. Unaka Area, 19,756 acres, in Unicol County, Tenn. Pisgah Area, 86,700 acres, in Transylvanla, Hender son, Buncombe, and Haywood Counties, N. c.

As these lands are acquired they are administered along the same lines as are the National forests in the West, and the above-named areas will, as title is obtained and plans for handling them are prepared, be given formal designation as National forests.

FOREST POLICY OF THE STATES. The movement for National forestry has been followed by a widespread development of State forest activities. New York and Pennsylvania, the ploneers in this feld, inaugurated State policies before the work of the National Government had awakened general Interest in forestry, but in most of the States forest work has been elther a direct outgrowth of Federal activities or Indirecuy due to them. Ten or twelve years agn few States were giving their forest problems any serious consideratlon; to-day 30 have forest departments, 21 employ professionally trained foresters, and practically all show recognition of the need for a State forest policy.

State work has comprised activities along the lines of (1) education of public sentiment regarding the value of the State's forest resources and importance of their conservation; (2) the giving or technical advice to private owners regarding the application of forestry on their holdings; (3) the development of a systematic State forest fire protective system; (4) the provision of forest planting stock for citizens; (5) the modifcation of tax systems to lessen the burdens imposed on those who plant forests or otherwise apply forestry with a view to permanent timber production; (6) the formation of State forests or reserves. Each State has developed its own forest movement along its own lines, largely determined by varying natural and economic conditions.

In general, the Northeastern States have paid most attention to encouraging the actual practice of forestry by

private owners, with a view to the production of a new forest crop. Men of professional tralning have been employed as State foresters, to give advice to applicants and to carry on educa. tional work;

provision for planting materlal has been made: and in several States tax laws have been modided. Protection of forests against Are has been advocated and largely provided by State action, with special reference to its need to prevent destruction of young growth. In the far West attention has been centred mainly on fire prevention to protect the vast supplies of mature timber now standing in the virgin coniferous forests of the Rocky Mountain and Pacific coast regions. In the lake States fire protection has, on the whole, had first place in importance, but with recogaltion of the need to protect both young growth and mature timber because of their commercial value. in the lake States also, and in New York and Pennsylvania, State-owned forests take a very promi. nent place. The South has, on the whole, been slow to see the need for State action, although Louisiana has enacted a State law with some very advanced features, and the States of Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky have State foresters and fire protective systems.

The appropriations for the support of the several state forest departments vary greatly. The smallest is $500; the greatest $328,000. Those which appropriate over $25,000 are: Pennsylvania $328,000, Minnesota $233.000, New York $164,000, Wisconsin $95,000, Maine $71,400. Michigan $60,000, Massachusetts $55,000., Maryland $42.250, Washlngton and Oregon $37,500 each, New Hampshire $35,000. Callfornia $31,900, New Jersey $31,500, with additional appropriatlons from time to time for land purchase.

Systematic forest fire protection by the States has been greatly stimulated by the operation of the so-called Weeks law, under which the Federal Government co-operates through the Forest Service with individual states for protecting the watersheds of navigable streams, the Federal Government bearing in no case more than half the cost nor contributing more than $10,000 to any State in any one year. Under this law more than one hundred million acres of private and State owned lands are fairly well protected against forest fires, at an average cost of less than two cents per acre. The States which have entered into co-operative agreements under this law are:

Malne, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon.

Tennessee, Alabama, Colorado, and Callfornia have organized fire-warden systems, but do not appropriate State funds for fire protection. Malne supports an emclent forest fire service covering the unorganized townships in the northern part of the State; In the remaining townships each bears the cost of an ex-ofclo warden system The Forest Service of Minnesota covers 0,000,000 acres by systematic patrol and maintains a permanent field force of rangers and patrolmen, with exoinclo town fire-wardeng as an auxiliary force. Idaho has adopted a co-operatlve system of protection with private owners, under which the State pays Its pro rata share of the cost, on the basis of State-owned area within the area protected by a privately organized system. Throughout the Northwest an important feature in fire protection is the extensive organization of private timberland owners Into associations supported by assessments on an acreage basis and maintalning & system of private protection similar to that maintained on the National forests by the Government; the land thus privately protected is now estimated at approximately 25 million acres

In the pity years preceding 1913, forest fires had caused an average annual loss in the United States of about 10 human Ilves and at least $25,000,000 worth of timber, besides the loss of live stock, crops, buildings, and various kinds of improvements worth many millions more. Added to this are the enormous losses from the destruction of young tree growth, soll deterioration, damage to water courses and water supplies, Interruption of business, and depreciation of property.

New York has & State-owned '"Forest Preserve' of 1,825,882 acres in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, under fire protection, but not under forest management, which the State Constitution forbide. The entire central portion of these two mountain regions, comprising 7,200,000 acres, is protected from Are by a State ranger system; in the rest of the State, town omcers are de pended on to keep fres down. Private owners are furnished tree seedlings at cost from the State

FORESTS AND FORESTRY--Continued.

nurseries, which also grow material for reforesting deruded portions of the reserve. Three lawg give forest lands reduction of, or exemption from, tax assessment under certain conditions. Pennsylvania has 980,000 acres of State-owned forests and practises forestry on them, malntalning & State ranger training school at Mont Alto. These forests are chiefly in the mountains of the central part of the State, and protect streamflow as well as supply, timber. Additional lands may be purchased at not more than $5 per acre. Private lands are protected under a fire-warden system, The state distributes planting material and gives advice concerning forest management. The same Is true of New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, Kansas, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan have large holdings of State forests. Minnesota has approximately 1,000,000 acres of school lands which are to be retained for state school forests. besides 43,000 acres now in State forests. Wisconsin has 400,000 acres reserved. and Michigan 589,000, of which 312,000 acres are used for exchange to add to the 277,000 acres permanently reserved in several large blocks in different parts of the State. South Dakota has 75,000 acres of State forest in the Black Hills. Massachusetts 15,000 acres, New Jersey 13,720 acres, and New Hampshire, Vermont, California, Connecticut, Indiana, and Maryland from 7,000 to 2,000 acres each.

In Connecticut. New York, Pennsylvania, and Michigan the tax on forest land may be levied cbledly on yleld or Income.

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES. THE National Conservation Association, with headquarters in the Colorado Bullding, Washington, D. C., Is now the organiz ed head of the conservation movement in the United States.

lo a booklet explaining the objects of the association is the following:

"The National Conservation Association is fighting for the prompt and orderly development of our natural resources. for the we llare of ourselves and our children, and for the rights of the plain people. The association is bound neltber by political considerations nor omclal connections. It is free to speak the whole truth.

*That conservation means the use of our natural resources for the benefit of us all and not merely for the proat of a few is already household knowledge. The task which the National Conservation Association has set itself is to get this principle put into practical effect."

The associatfon Is maintained by annual dues from fremhership, ranging from $1.00 to $20.00. Gigord Pinchot, President; Charles W. Ellot, Honorary President; Harry A. Slattery, Secretary

The National Conservation Congress Is the National clearing-house for the State conservation commissions and conservation committees of National associations and all organizations concerned in the conservation of the country's natural resources. It is the organized head of the conservatlon movement in the United States. Its chlef object is "to afford an agency through which the people of the country may frame policies and principles affecting the conservation and utilization of their resources, to be put into effect by their respective representatives in the State and Federal Governments."

The Congress holds annual meetings “to provide for discussion of the resources of the United States as the foundation for the prosperity of the people." The Congress also undertakes "to furnish defnite Information concerning the resources and their development, use and preservation."

Membership dues range from $1 a year to $100 or more, according to classifcation.

The Congress is managed by Its omcers and an Executive Committee, and by an Advisory Board, consisting of one member from each National association having a conservation committee.

President, E. Lee Worsham, Atlanta, Ga. Executive Secretary, Thomas R. Shipp, 711 Riggs Building, Washington, D. C. Treasurer, Norman C. McLoud, Cleveland, Ohio.

THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION, THE American Forestry Association whose headquarters is at 1410 H Street N, W., Washington, D., C., was organized in 1882, and incorporated in January, 1897, with the following objects:

1. The promotion of a businesslike and conservative use and treatment of the forest resources of this country,

2. The advancement of legislation tending to this end both by the States and the Congress of the United States, the inauguration of forest administration by the Federal Government and by the States, and the extension of sound forestry by all proper methods.

3." Thediffusion of knowledge regarding the conservation, management, and renewal of forests, proper utilization of their products, methods of reforestation of waste lands, and planting of trees.

T'he association desires and needs as members all who are interested in promoting the objects for which it is organized-all who realize the importance of using the natural resources of the country in such a manner as not to exhaust them, or to work ruin to other interests. In particular it appeals to owners of woodlands, to lumbermen

and foresters, as well as to engineers, professional and business men who have to do with wood and its manifold uses, and to persons concerned in the conservation of water supplies for irrigation and other purposes.

The association has a membership of several thousands, residents of every State in the Union, Canada and foreign countries, A magazine, American Forestry, is published vionthly and the subscription and membership fees are $3.00 a year, The association also publishes Forestry Quarterly, a technical journal: subscription price, $3.00 a year. The officers of the association are:

President-Dr. Henry $. Drinker, South Bethlehem, Pa.: Treasurer-John E. Jenks, Washington, D. C.; Execuive Secretary-P. S. Ridsdale, Washington, D. C.

AMERICAN WOOD-PRESERVERS' ASSOCIATION. President-George E. Rex, Topeka, Kan. First Vice-President-Carl G. Crawford, Louisville, Ky. Secretary-Treasurer-F. J. Angler, Baltimore, Md.

The objects and purposes of the association shall be to advance the wood-preserving Industry in all its branches; to afford its members opportunities for the interchange of ideas with respect to improvements in the wood-preserving industry, and for the discussion of all matters bearing upon the industry of wood preserving: to maintain a high business and professional standard in all respects, and to standardize specifications for wood preservatives and their introduction Into the materlals to be preserved.

The means to be employed for this purpose shall be meetings for the presentation and discussion of appropriate papers, and for social and professional intercourse; the publication of such papers and discussions as may be deemed expedient; co-operation with other socletles, associations and organisations in the work of standardizing specifications affecting the wood-preserving industry, and all other things incidental or conducive to the attainment of the objects of the association or any of them, and as the members may from time to time consider advisable.

Next annual convention will be held in Chicago, January 19, 20 and 21, 1915.

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