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MECHANICAL CHIMNEY SWEEPING.

83 presented in figs. 1 and 2, the former over slightly at the top, and fitted at the of which shows the machine in a closed bottom on to four iron plates, each turned state, and the latter a section of it through in the centre to a right angle, and made the line 1 2 of fig. 1. a is a leathern bag to closely run over each other, as defor catehing the soot scraped off the

sides picted in fig. 3. The steel scrapers, of the flues by the scrapers b b. These which will join at the edges, are to be scrapers are to be formed of thin steel fixed on the outside of the inmost plate spring hoop, of, say, 1 inch width, turned and on the inside of the outmost, so that Fig. 5.

Fig. 6.

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they may run closely over each other. Within the scraper plates sufficiently strong springs, cccc, are to be fixed, so that the scrapers may be forced and kept out to every side of the flue. Under the turn-down edges of the scrapers I propose fitting leather cushions, d d, to prevent any soot getting down into the chimney, when the scrapers may be

pressed down on coming into contact with any rough surface in the flue. The edges of the scrapers are turned down, in order to facilitate their getting over any projection that may occur in the passage up the flue of the machine. To have particular cleanliness, there should be a chain down each flue, to be hooked up out of sight of the fire-place when not

in use, so that the before described ma steel springs to cause it to collapse when chine might be at once attached and the air is emitted therefrom ; at the top drawn up, instead of letting a chain down of the bag is placed a flexible feeler f, the chimney each time, which would of made of whalebone, or any such material, course carry with it some portions of with a round knob of any hard substance soot. A small windlass, capable of being at top. To use this machine, first conmoved to each of the flue-doors, would dense air into the vessela; when deemed be requisite, in order to get the machine sufficiently powerful, having the hose up the chimney, with the soot it might ready to project up the chimney, turn collect. The way to sweep a flue with the tap c, which will allow the compressthis machine should be ihis:-Attach ed air to flow up the hose and give it the machine at the bottom of the flue to considerable stiffness, yet retaining great the hook on the chain, then wind it up flexibility ; on the air passing up the the chimney till it arrive at the door, hose it will (the string being slack) force then sweep the upper part of the flue as the valve to the top of its seat, where it before described; the machine being al will remain so long as the pressure in the lowed to remain at the place to which it hose shall last, and the string be untouchwas drawn till this be accomplished, and ed; thereby preventing any air getting into which would, of course, catch the soot the bag b, which, therefore, in consefalling from the action of the broom. quence of the outside springs, will be in Any soot which may hang around the a closely collapsed state, and offer no scrapers should be swept into the leather impediment to the free passage of the bag; and then, having stopped the action hose up the chimney. When the hose of the springs in the inside of the machine has been forced sufficiently high up the by means of the screws e e e e, (fig. 3,) chimney, the string communicating with withdraw it out of the door-way, remove the valve is to be drawn till the side the soot, take it down to the next fire aperture of the valve, and the one lead. place, the flue of which is to be swept, ing into the bag correspond, where it is and proceed as before. At the enlarged to be kept by means of any small appapart of the flue, round the fire-place, a ratus fixed in the air vessel. On the small hand-brush should be used to re condensed air being admitted to the bag, move the soot. A machine of the nature it (the bag) will of course distend, and here described might be kept in every fill the aperture of the flue. When it is house of good size, and worked by the to be drawn down, the soot, (if the edges servants, who, for their own sakes, would of the bag, which are to be made of tough be as cleanly as possible in its use. flexible leather, have sufficient hold of

The next and last method I have to the sides of the flue,) of course coming propose, is perhaps more for the sake of before it, should the bag stick in the flue exhibiting a very novel mode which has at any part, or should it be necessary to occurred to me of effecting the object in go over any place a second time, or more, question, than as a means likely to be the valve string is to be further pulled of good use or general adoption ; but if down and there retained, till the whole not of use itself, it may in the minds of of the air in the bag becomes excluded; others suggest some plan of greater utility the bag, from the pressure of the springs, than any yet described. a a, Figs. will then again collapse, and permit the 5 and 6, is a metal vessel capable of sus upward motion of the hose to any height taining a considerable pressure of air, in the fue required; by then letting the forced into it by the pumps b b bb; cc, valve go, it will, by pressure of the comis a stop cock or valve for shutting off pressed air, resume its position opposite from, or regulating the pressure of air in the aperture into the bag, if the string the leathern hose d d. This hose must communicating with it, be set, for its be made perfectly air tight, and sufficiently assuming that station ; otherwise, it will strong to resist a considerable pressure go to the top of the valve seat, and prefrom within ; e e is a leathern bag, at the clude the emission of air in any direction, throat of which a valve is placed, as when the bag will again become filled shown enlarged in fig. 7, and from which with air, and the process for bringing the to the air-vessel a, is a strong string of soot down the chimney may be conany tough material for regulating its ac tinued. tion. Round the leathern bag are placed Here I beg, for the present, to con

PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS FROM FIRE.

85

clude my suggestions under this head, HARTLEY'S FIRE-PROOF BUILDING-FIRE and to hope,

that the plans I have sub PREVENTIVE COMPANY'S CEMENT. mitted to you may meet with immediate Sir,- I am sorry that the shortness of consideration from your numerous read Col. Macerone's memory should have beers, and if approved of, speedy adoption. trayed him so much into error on the Let the barbarous plan of employing subject of fire-prevention, as at this time little children in the most humble of oc to recommend it to my attention. I cupations (viz. chimney sweeping) stop. really imagined that, so far as I was conLet us not even wait for the arrival of cerned, that topic, if not altogether exthat time, however short it may be, which hausted, was certainly threadbare. our legislators have fixed on for doing I have already repeatedly denounced this justice to humanity; but let us put our present highly inflammable mode of it down with one accord immediately. house-building—have constantly advoWhy, for a single moment beyond what cated the general employment of fireis absolutely necessary shculd we protract guards, incombustible draperies, and the sufferings of these poor infants ? other preventives--and have more than Even should my plans not succeed, where once suggested the “sure preventive,” can be our boasted acquirements in me (alum solution) for rendering cotton chanics, if there is not another, ay, and similar fabrics partially incombusttwenty other plans forthcoming for ef ible. Mr. Hartley's method of protectfeeting this object? And surely from ing buildings, with all the other intersome of these, something like an efficient mediate projects for preventing the ocprocess could be obtained—some cheap currence or extension of fires, down to and simple process—some such process the introduction of the Patent Fireas the occupants of houses, or their ser

preventive Cement,” have each, at difvants, could use with facility-some pro ferent times, been advocated by me in cess which, from its cheapness, would your by-gone volumes. cause its adoption—if nothing else could The old motto, of “Prevention better work on the feelings—and this attained, than cure," has been conspicuously set Necessity, a law stronger than the wisest forth and illustrated upon many occa. of us could frame-would cause master sions. sweeps to desist from their wanderings, I am truly sorry to find that the gallant and to withdraw from suffering, and Colonel entertains such incorrect notions from the pitying eyes of every walker of with regard to the fire-preventive cethe public streets, the wretched objects ment, which he deridingly describes as of our commiseration, the “poor little “plaster made of Roman cement and chimney sweeps."

size.” Had he witnessed any of the Should this be accomplished from my highly satisfactory trials and experiments suggestions, my gratified feelings will which have been made with this cement, indeed amply reward me.

in London and in some of the provincial I am, Sir,

towns, most of which stand recorded in Your most obedient servant,

your journal, he would have been conJAMES A. EMSLIE.

vinced of the antiphlogistic powers of

this preparation, and of the vast benefits P.S.-Sir,- Allow me to add, with which must attend its extensive employrespect to the rope and weight-brush ment. Col. Macerone states that “beams mode of sweeping chimneys, that the of wood may be charred by fire through weight may be inserted in the heart of iron plates, but will not break into flames the brush, which it can readily be, by without a current of air is admitted." having the whalebone or cane fixed on The cement in question is still more to strong leather, and this sown round efficacious in this respect; the iron being the weight. The injury the pargetting a good conductor of heat, the charring of the flue is said to derive from the ac, process goes on very rapidly beneath it; tion of the weight in the method at pre the cement, on the other hand, being an sent in use, will, I think, by thesc means excellent non-conductor, the charring be entirely obviated.

goes on much more slowly. In fact, under circumstances where charring would inevitably take place beneath iron plates, it would be completely prevented by the cement.

Colonel Macerone confounds this “ce extraordinary, and even discriminating ment” with “common plaster ;" he faculty, not only of separating the gases, might almost as well compare iron to but of distinguishing those which are wood.

useful and combustible from the useless I beg it to be distinctly understood, and incombustible! This, indeed, would that I am not at all disposed to cavil be “ extraordinary-if true.” Thus we about which is really the best fire-pre find that, according to the new version, ventive process ; right glad should I be " the lighter gases, which constitute the to see any protective plan, (even though most valuable part of the smoke, have, it were the least efficient,) generally according to Dr. Dalton's law of the adopted. I am only vexed to see so diffusion of gases,' before referred to, a much apathy prevailing with regard to natural tendency

(not to mingle and this subject, that no preventive measures become diffused, as Dr. Dalton thought whatever are adopted; and even the cure and wrote, but, hear reader,) " to leave is left entirely to those whose sole busi the carbonic acid gas," (itself the heaviest ness it is supposed to be.

of them all,) and rush into the ash-pit, So thoroughly incorrigible have we as into a vacuum ; at the same time carnow become, that all the legislative en rying the light carbonaceous matter with actments—which, if carried out, would them.” Mr. Armstrong may well say do much to prevent the spread of fire of Mr. Cheetham's plan, which brings are become dead letters on the statute such impossibility-working into action, book. Any such preventive law as that “ I believe it to be one of the greatest suggested by Col. Macerone, at page 60, discoveries of modern times." He might would be denounced as an outrageous with the greatest safety have said, the infraction of the “liberty of the sub very greatest. ject."

But he describes another peculiarity, The general employment of incom with respect to the diffusive faculty of bustible stairs, whether of stone, iron, atmospheric air, which the great Dalton slate, or even wood effectually protected himself never even dreamed of, and by cement, would, I have often asserted, which is thus referred to. " The atmoand again repeat, completely change the spheric air, which is essential to support character of London fires. Beyond this, the combustion of those gases, not having any protection afforded to the partitions, this diffusive tendency to so great an exceilings, &c., either by Mr. Hartley's, or tent, (how this curious fact has been any other effectual process, could not fail ascertained does not appear,) requires to to be highly advantageous.

be supplied by artificial means, and for In several recent instances, public that purpose a very small fan is necesbuilui 178 have been constructed in a sary." Hear that, Dalton and Graham, fire-proof, or partially fire-proof manner, whose names are pressed into the service and it is devoutly to be wished that the of this new theory of diffusion. Mr. A., same principle may be adopted in do with great sagacity and penetration, that mestic uwellings, where, although pro- is, the penetration which enables him to perty to an equal amount is not at stake, see farther into the mill-stone than the there are lives to be preserved, which are man who picks it,) observes, “ Here the of far greater consequence.

question will no doubt occur to many, as I remain, Sir,

to what is the probable effect of this neYours respectfully,

cessary strong draught, or blast, against

W. BADDELEY. the boiler bottom,”. (from the very London, January 24, 1842.

small fan !) This, we are told, is an important question; but he adds that,

i fortunately, it admits of being easily ON MR. R. ARMSTRONG'S NEW THEORY

answered by any chemist who duly BY C. W. WILLIAMS, considers, (and understands,) the ratioESQ.

nale of the process as above given." (Continued from page 68.)

Undoubtedly--for any chemist who can But this Daltonian system of separa understand, not the rationale, but, in tion-diffusion, meaning Mr. R. Årm- plain English, the absurd nonsense of strong's new version of it,) appears to be * the process as above given," can have miraculously endowed with the still more no difficulty in answering any question.

OP DIFFUSION.

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MR. ARMSTRONG'S NEW THEORY OF DIFFUSION.

87 But we have a still more curious de ye advocates for hot air and cold air, and velopment of the new theory, by which the introduction of crude air,” hitherto we find, that the hitherto supposed in erroneously, no doubt, called “ pure air.jurious consequence of a mixture of in Behold this new recipe to make your furcombustible with combustible gases, (as nace burn well,--dilute your "crude air" Davy had accurately shown,) is actually with nitrogen and steam, and thus you converted into a most salutary and useful will obtain that valuable result, viz. the one, and by virtue of a diluting" process. deoxydizing effect of the mineralogist's Let the theory, however, speak for itself. blow-pipe. This is true by the mass ! “ Moreover, as these changes and com For we are now told that, “ according to binations are being continually and rapidly Mr. Cheetham's plan, when the smoke iteffected, and are, in this case, carried on self is actually made, in part, the medium in an atmosphere, (so to speak,) sur for blowing the fire, the draught procharged with a certain portion of nitrogen duces a totally different result,” (not a and steam, which, being neither sup doubt of it,) “ while the manner of porters nor combustibles, but being pro effecting it is as complete and simple as pelled by the fan," (oh, this magic little it is unique, in its application to steamfan!")" in uniform mixture with other engine furnaces.” Unique, in truth, elastic fluids that possess these properties it is. Unquestionably this process may in an eminent degree, there can be no well be described as one by which the doubt," (I ask, will any one take the smoke itself shall be made the medium trouble" to doubt” on the subject ?) But of blowing the fire so as

to produce in this process of double combustion (!) that great desideratum, the unique, dithese two incombustible substances, (ni- luting, and deoxydizing effect, of modi. trogen and steam) effect the very im fying the injurious action of “crude air." portant purposes of diluting and modify In sober earnest, Mr. Editor, I ask, is ing the oxydating property of the blast.” it not lamentable to think how real imModifying the oxydating property of the provements in the arts may be retarded blast!!! This certainly is enough to how business men may be led astray, and take away a man's breath. Nitrogen many gulled by such seeming.wise, but performing the very important purpose utterly nonsensical, theories as this? of diluting the oxydating property of at The paper, too, which I have just mospheric oxygen!

reviewed comes from that very indiviBut let us hear the expounder of this dual who, in a letter in the Mechanics' rare theory out. In fact, the peculiar Magazine, last year, elaborately conmixture of elastic fluids thus effected,' demned the principle recommended in my (by the diluting process,) "produces Treatise on Combustion, as being chewhat is, I believe, called by some mi mically and practically wrong. That he neralogists, and others, conversant with should have come to that conclusion apthe blow-pipe, the "deoxydizing flame." pears natural, seeing that the principle I This identity between the “ deoxydizing advocated was in accordance with the Alame” of the blow-pipe, and the useful hitherto received notion, that Dr. Dalton's “ diluting process," of mixing atmosphe diffusion meant the intimate intermingling ric air with nitrogen and steam to effect of gases whereas, Mr. Armstrong's cona double combustion, and modify the demnation of the principle was on the wicked strength of "crude air," is truly idea, that the Daltonean diffusion meant ingenious.

"separation," and the one class of gases Be this, however, high Dutch, or low “ leaving” the other. Dutch, we are told that, “At any rate, I may also state another fact, proving a similar result is characteristic of Mr. that Mr. Armstrong sees what no other Cheetham's process, in contradistinction man can see, and which is the only way I to the ordinary process of blowing the can account for his new theory of diffire with crude air,” (crude air! too fusion-namely, that before there was a strong by half for either mortals or com single furnace erected by me or by my bustibles, until diluted with nitrogen and direction, for carrying out my principle, steam,) “which latter method, whene sive my own and that at the Liverpool resorted to, has always effected the rapid Water Works, (neither of which he had oxydation of the grate bars, and the de seen,) he sat down and deliberately penstruction of the furnace." Attend to this, ned the following passage, in a report by

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