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flattened, there being a standard, or gauge, naturally ascend, and that with considerable against which the wire is forced by the ope rapidity, towards the upper part, where they rator, to regulate the length of the rivet. will give out their steam, and, by the action The second is in the combination of the of the water circulating through them, they moving cutter, which separates the blank will necessarily draw the water in the lower from the rod, with a spring arm for “pinch. part of the boiler towards them, and effect ing, or nipping, the piece of wire separated the required circulation," by the cutters, and conveying it downwards IMPROVED POWER LOOM; Erastus B. to the aperture” of the leading apparatus ; Bigelow.* The patentee describes his imand also in the arrangement of parts which provement as follows:withdraw the arm above mentioned from the “My improvements consist principally in blank after it has been carried to the heading the manner in which the shuttles are thrown; apparatus. The third is in the combination the manner of raising and depressing the of levers, &c., for forcing, or pushing, out shuttle boxes, and the manner in which the the rivet from the aperture, after the head picker is relieved from the shuttle. ing machinery has performed its office.

“ In throwing the shuttles I cause the two MOVEABLE LOADING MUZZLE

picker staves to operate simultaneously, so Rifles ; Alvan Clark. The object of this that the shuttle may be thrown from whichimprovement is, to facilitate the loading of ever of the boxes is presented to their action. the rifle, and to preserve the calibre of pre This is effected by the use of one picker cisely the same diameter to the very point of treadle only, which is acted upon by a cam delivery of the ball, and this is to be effected ball, in the usual way of working such by means of what the inventor calls a treadles. From this treadle two bands are “moveable loading muzzle," which is put extended, and pass around the two picker on to the end of the barrel for loading, and pulleys, in such a manner that when the removed when the rifle is to be fired. The treadle is depressed, both the picker staves bore of this loading muzzle, where it meets will be set in action at the same moment. the barrel, is of the same diameter with it, By this arrangement two or more shuttles and is enlarged towards the mouth, so as to may be successively thrown from the same receive the ball with ease, and gradually pre end of the loom by the action of one treddle. pare it to be received by the barrel. The “ The shuttle boxes are raised and lowered rifling of the barrel and muzzle should cor in the following manner. A shaft extends respond. The muzzle may be fitted on by along under the race beam, from one shuttle means of pins projecting from it, and fitting box to the other, and carries pinions which into holes made for that purpose in the end of take into racks attached to the shuttle boxes; the barrel. The claim is confined to this device. it will be manifest, therefore, that by causing

IMPROVEMENT STEAM BOILERS ; this shaft to revolve, the shuttle boxes may John Penniman. We will merely quote the be raised. The revolving of this shaft is claim appended to the specification, as it effected by the action of a spiral or other gives a sufficiently clear idea of the improve. spring, one end of which is attached to the ment to bring it within the comprehension frame of the loom at its back, and said of any one, viz. :-"Having thus fully de spring extends forwards towards the lathe ; scribed the nature of my improvement, and from this forward end a band, attached to the manner in which I carry the same into it, passes around guide pulleys, and also operation, what I claim therein as my in around a pulley upon the above named shaft, vention, and desire to secure by letters pa to which latter the said band is attached. tent, is, the placing a series of circulating The action of the spring, by its drawing tubes on the front plate of the boiler, in upon the band, will cause the pinion shaft to such a manner as that they shall, at their revolve, and will consequently raise the shutlower ends, communicate with the water in tle boxes. Should this spring be thrown out the lower part of the boiler, and at their of action, and the band by which the shuttle upper ends with the water in said boiler a boxes are raised be relaxed, they will then little below the water line, whilst they are, descend by their own gravity. To take off along their whole length, exposed to the di. the tension of the spring there is a cam rect action of the heat in the fire-box, in the upon the main shaft of the loom, which cam, manner, and for the purpose, above set forth." as the shaft revolves, depresses a treadle, to

In pointing out the effect produced by the end of which a band is attached which thus placing the tubes, the patentee says, operates in such a way as to relieve the shut“ as these tubes open below into the lower tle boxes from the action of the spring, and part of the boiler, and at their upper ends they then descend. into the upper part of it, below the water. line, the water, which will become highly

Abstract of English Patent, given at page 29 of heated in the lower parts of the tubes, will our 35th volume.



79 “In relieving the picker from the point of Each branch, at the edge, is provided with a the shuttle, I make use of the protection rod projection, which slides against the side of constituting a part of the apparatus em the box opposite to the valve seat. When ployed in the ordinary power loom for stop the screw is turned with the view of shutting ping the loom when the shuttle does not the valve, the two branches of the wedge are arrive home in the shuttle box. From the resting on the top of the projections on the protection rod, which extends along below back of the valve plate, and thus as the the shuttle boxes, I allow a small arm, or wedge descends it carries the valve with it, finger, to descend, which finger, as the lathe without pressing it against its seat; but comes up towards the breast beam, strikes when the valve has reached the bottom, the against a stop, or pin, attached for that pur two projections on the back of the branches pose to the frame of the loom, causing the of the wedge have reached two notches in protection rod to rock or revolve to a short the side plate of the box, which perinit the distance. This gives motion to two arms,

branches of the wedge to slide over the prowhich extend out from the extreme ends of jections on the back of the valve, and thus the protection rod, opposite to the outer wedge it to its seat—the slot in the piece ends of each of the shuttle boxes; from these which projects from the upper part of the arms motion is communicated to a lever, valve allowing the wedge to descend after which works on a fulcrum over the outer the valve has reached the bottom. The bot. ends of each of the shuttle-boxes, said arms tom of the chamber is provided with a seat being connected to the levers by rods, or for a conical valve, which works up and wires. By depressing the outer ends of these down by means of a lever passing through lerers, their inner ends are raised, and to the casing for that purpose—when the valve these ends are appended rods which carry is lifted up, the dirt passes out. pieces of wood or metal, which when down rest on and embrace the picker rod, and in that position they serve to hold the picker at a short distance from the end of the shuttlebox, and to stop the shuttle ; the picker is

NOTES AND NOTICES. then removed from the point of the shuttle by the raising of the lever, the picker being

Ornamental Engraving.–The new Austrian bank made to pass home to the end of the box, notes, which made their appearance with the new thus leaving the shuttle and shuttle-box free year, are exceedingly beautiful, indeed far too beauto be raised or lowered without obstruction,

tiful for bills of credit. They resemble the steel

plate engravings in the English Annuals. They inthe picker being also ready again to act on a crease in beauty and elegance in proportion to the shuttle. The picker is removed from the magnitude of the sums they represent. These new point of the shuttle, after the block has been notey have created quite a sensation in our capital;

and for several days after they were issued, the naraised by a rod, actuated by a spring, which

tional bank was besieged by persons anxious to obrod is connected with the picker stave by a tain them. They are for 5 forins, 10 fiorins, 20 cord, in order that the stave may, by its

florins, 50 forins, 100 florins, and 1,000 florins. The

principal artists in Vienna have been employed in motion, move the rod, also that it may not

preparing the designs and executing the engravings. impede the motion of the picker.

The paper employed for these bank notes is of a most STOP-COCK FOR WATER AND GAS Pipes;

superior kind, and manufactured for the purpose.

or its strength an idea may be formed from the fact James Robertson. This stop-cock has a

that a strip of it half a yard long will bear the sussliding valve, resembling others which have

pension at its extremity of 35 pounds weightbeen used, and it is so constructed as to ad.

Vienna Paper.

Effects of Frost on Railways.-Such was the slipmit of the easy sliding of the valve, and, at

pery state of the rails upon the Eastern Counties the same time, of its being pressed against line on Thursday last, that the evening train was its skat after it is in its place; and also to with difficulty conveyed from Romford to the Brentadmit of the cleansing of the chamber from

wood terminus at a very recluced rate of travelling,

with the aid of three engines. The same difficulty any dirt that may accumulate within it.

has presented itself, more or less, upon all the lines, The box is constructed as usual, with two the engincs being at times only made to progress at sirle pieces, which fit into the pipe, and a top

starting by the application of manual labour.

Government Fire Engines.-The defective state of piece in which works the screw, which moves the fire-extinguishing materiel in the Tower, at the the valve up and down. The valve has three late conflagration, has at last attracted the notice of projections, one at top, with a vertical slot,

the government authorities. The LordsCommission

ers of the Admiralty have issued instructions that in which plays a projection from the nut

all the fire-engines in the Woolwich Dockyard should that fits on the screw, and one ear at each be worked with water by the police force every ten side. The valve is pressed to its seat by

days, to ascertain that all the apparatus continues

in proper order, and to ensure their efficiency in what the patentee calls a “wedge,” which is

case of their services being required. One of the attached at top to the nut, and works up inspectors of police is to be present at such trial, and down with it-it branches off, and each

and to be responsible for the engines being in good

working order. An examination of the fire-engines, branch acts upon two projections on the

&c., in all the dockyards is being made, with a view back of the valve, one towards each edge. to their being put into an efficient state.

Clay Buttons. -At the Annual Meeting of the Liverpool Polytechnic Society, held last week, it was stated that 5,000 gross of buttons are now made weekly at Messrs. Minston and Boyle's, Stoke-uponTrent, according to Mr. Prosser's dry powder process, described in our 23rd Vol. p. 592. The demand for them becomes greater than can be supplied by the present number of presses.

Supposed Spontaneous Combustion on board Her Majesty's Steamer Aron. - The Avon had been to Cork and Liverpool to embark volunteers for the navy, and had left the latter port for Plymouth. While in the St. George's Channel, about 20 miles off the Bishop's Light, and 30 from land, about half-past 4 in the morning, the stokers at the furnaces complained of an unusual quantity of smoke, when it was observed that it came from the door of the larboard coal-bunker. The scuttle over this bunker was opened, and some water poured down on the coals, but the water not reaching the flames, it aided rather than retarded their progress. The scuttle over the after coal-box, five feet from the end of the boiler, was then opened, and the flames bursting forth, displayed the head quarters of the enemy. The scutile was immediately replaced to prevent a current of air from assisting the flames, and the deck opened further forward, where the coals were moved and lifted, that the water might penetrate to the centre. This had the desired ef. fect, for after throwing down a large quantity of water, the fire was got under. By the most ardous and incessant exertions for six hours and a half, the ship was saved, and got into Milford, where she had pieces of elm plank fastened to her outside, and a portion of her deck renewed, before she ventured again to sea. On an oflicial investigation of the Avon, it is found that on her larboard side the ends of four beams are so burnt as to require new; the shelve-piece and water-way are partly destroyed; the internal plank is entirely consumed, and the outer burnt nearly through. Nothing could have saved the vessel had she burnt through at this place, it being 18 inches below the water line. The deck is burnt fore and aft, from 12 to 14 feet, and in a transverse direction from the side nearly 6 feet. It is supposed the fire commenced about 6 or 7 feet below the deck, on the upper part of the coal boxes, and must have done serious damage before it was discovered, exposing the persons on board to the most imminent danger.Newspaper. (We see no evidence in all this of the alleged spontaneous combustion. Ed. M. M.]

Coal in Borneo.-A recent expedition to Borneo has ascertained that this island is likely to prove of vast importance to the commerce of the Indian seas, large beds of coal having been discovered in it. Many of the specimens prove to be of superior quality. The coal inines of Borneo are stated to be easy of access, and they extend along the coast of Pulo Cheremin, an island at the mouth of the Borneo river running out towards the sea, and also extending inland, but how far, or to what depth, has not yet been discovered, though both are evicently considerable. In Pulo Kain Arrang, another island about half a mile distant, coal had been found on the surface, the quality of which, however, was not equal to that of the former, although there was every reason to believe that veins of a superior description existed there. The main land of Borneo itself afforded excellent samples, which the natives described as existing in large quantities : and some of them, whose intelligence and veracity could be relied on, stated that there were mountains of coal, and that hundreds of ships might be laden with it."

Proposed Junction of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocrans.--In Mr. Stephens's “ Travels in Central America," he advocates the bold design of joining the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean by means of % canal between the Gulf Nicoya and the harbour of San Juan, 3 distance of only about sixteen miles. From the lake of Nicaragua to the harbour of San Juan on the Pacific, the distance is less than sixteen miles; and this slender line of earth is the only important obstacle which impedes what would, undoubtedly, be the greatest, the most important alteration, ever effected by man in the physical ar. rangement of the globe. The proud mountains of Central America here bend themselves down-as if to permit and sanction the enterprise-to the trivial elevation of 600 feet; and through this hill it is contemplated to cut a tunnel of one mile in length, at the height of almost 72 feet above the water of the lake, and 200 feet above the low-water level of the Paci. fic; the distance from the lake to the tunnel being about 10 miles, and from the tunnel to the Pacific about 4 miles; whilst the difference of level could easily be overcome by lockage. The only engineering difficulty in the execution of the work would be the tunnel; and we must confess that the idea of an excavation, lofty enough to permit ships of 600 tons to pass through, with their lower masts standing, is, to us, even in these days, when engineers take all manner of liberties with mountains and valleys, somewhat startling; but Mr. Stephens speaks of it with perfect coolness. —

- Quarterly Review.

Rules for Walking in Frosty Weather.-1. Take short, quick steps at all times, and in all situations. 2. If descending any inclined road, take care to put down the toe first. 3. If ascending, plant the heel firmly. 4. In all cases, keep the body in rather a stooping position, with the knee joints playing loosely. If you attempt the stately, ten to one but you measure your lengih upon the ground. Better io toddle awkwardly home, than be carried on a shutter, with a leg or arm broken.-R. A. B.

New Locomotive.-d mechanician named Macdinger, residing at Newbourg, on the Dauube, bas constructed a carriage on three wheels, which, by the effect of some internal mechanism, was impelled at the rate of four leagues an hour. A child may set the machine in motion, and the inventor is at present constructing a machine on a larger scale, which he expects will render the construction of railroads no longer necessary.-- Augsburgk Gazelte.

Postage Envelopes.-A correspondent requests us to call the attention of persons who, in writing letters of business, use envelopes, to the importance of their writing the address upon the sheet enclosed. The address being written upon the envelope only, the document cannot be made available in malters of legal proof, which is frequently the object of both the sender and the receiver.--Times.

Intending Patentees may be supplied gratis with Instructions, containing erery particular necessary for their safe guidance, by application (post-paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT, (from 1617 to the present time). Patents, both British and Forcign, solicited. Specifications prepared or rerised, and all other Patent business transacted.

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.



Edited, Printed and Published by J. C. Robertson, No. 166, Fleet-strect.

[Price 3d.


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Newcastle-on-Tyne, January 12, 1842. Sir,-Parliament having enacted that as to shut perfectly tight, and to open the use of children in the cleansing of outwards, to be fixed solidly into the chimneys shall terminate in June next, brick or stone work of the chimney, as I beg therefore to submit you, for the the case may be ; and on the bottom part perusal and consideration of your nu of the frames, inside of the doors, have merous readers, some plans and sugges pulleys, sufficiently long to project over tions which have occurred to me recently, into the centre of the flue, and to shut for effecting by machinery that necessary up, when not in use, in a line with the object-a clean chimney.

doors when they are closed. After havIn many places in Scotland, and pro ing swept that part of the flue between bably in England likewise, it has been the iron doors and the top of the chimney usual to cleanse chimneys from the sum with a long flexible handled brush made inits of the flues, by working up and on purpose, place the weight and brush down therein, by means of a rope, a through the door-way down into the flue, whalebone or cane brush, weighted suf and the rope over the pulley, and work ficiently to carry it over any impediments it up and down in short lengths, till the it may meet with in its descent. That flue is judged to be sufficiently cleansed. this mode is effectual is well known; but All the soot will, of course, fall down as it is attended with very great danger into the fire-place, as usual, from whence to the persons employed, and

as consider it can be removed. In the accompanying able damage to the roofs, chimney-pots, sectional view of a flue, fig. 4, f d repre. &c., frequently results therefrom, it has sents the flue-door ; a the damper, and not been of such general adoption as I p the pulley: A more simple, safe, and feel assured it would have been, had efficacious plan for effecting the object in these objections to its use been removed. view, I think, it will be difficult to find. It has been said, that the insides of the As in all the plans for sweeping I shall flues receive considerable damage from here lay before you, I purpose using the the action of the weights attached to the same kind of doors and pulleys, the prebrush; I allow this—but at the same vious description of my plans in respect time think that the difference between thereto will suffice. I beg to add here, this mode and others in use for the same however, that in connection with the iron purpose is but trifling. Glass's machine, door-frames I propose placing dampers, and that most inhuman of appliances, a so that on any flue taking fire, it may be human being, are continually bringing extinguished by the mere closing of the down with them pieces of the pargetting, same, and before any danger to the in too great quantities, often, to escape building, or to the surrounding buildour most casual observation. As the rope ings, could accrue. and weight-brush mode is capable of If the small emission of smoke which cleansing any flue, however intricate may would generally take place from the be its construction, if it has descent suf edges of the dampers were obnoxiousficient in its angles, (that is, if the angles as it would be if placed in a sleeping of the flues be any thing more than right apartment, such as the garret frequently angles,) and if the first-named difficulties is—this might be avoided by making the to its use can be overcome, I think it damper to work in close cases, with air. will be judged one of the most useful of tight glands. means - embracing efficacy, simplicity, The offensive smell of soot, and other and economy, in a very great degree. discomforting circumstances peculiar to The impediments to its use I hope to set "chimney-sweeping days," induce, no aside in the following manner :

doubt, frequent delays in cleansing, At the highest accessible part of the which are the cause of many destructive chimney breasts, (which, in most cases, conflagrations. I therefore suggest the will be just under the roof of the build following remedy. ing, or outside the roof, if it be flat and As before stated, let the flue-sweeping easily got at,) let tin frames with doors, doors and pulleys be fixed; then have a one door for each flue, be constructed, so machine constructed on the plans re

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