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talent can readily be procured to meet, remore, and overcome any that may possibly be presented. And while from the nature of my engagements and avocations I must necessarily decline any participation in its accomplishment, should any such expectation be entertained in consequence of my being the projector, yet I shall feel pleasure in communicating at my leisure opportunities to those you may select (should you determine so to do) to inquire into the merits of the invention, the practicability of its execu

tion, and the advantageous prospects which its performance may offer, the several modes, means, and resources which I have devised for its commencement and completion; and should the result of my appeal to you cause the adoption of the plan, the endeavour to carry it into effect, and the appointment of a competent person to accomplish the work, I shall feel pleasure in rendering him assistance as my leisure may permit, and offering him such suggestions as it may be in my power to furnish, should they be required.”

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Mechanical draughtsmen have long instrument which should, without any required the assistance of some simple previous complicated adjustment, enable

them at once to strike the ellipses, which form, and at a price, that will enable all would correctly represent the perspective parties to avail themselves of its imof wheels and other circles.

portant advantages. Such an instrument has been designed by Mr. Henry Davies, already well known as the author of several other useful and highly important inventions, and we have much pleasure in adding to the list,

ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH that which is represented in the prefixed


** Patentees desirous of fuller ab. This ingenious little instrument con

stracts of their specifications than the presists of an upright stem or axis, which ter sent regulations of the Registration Offices minates at its lower end in two points a a, will admit of our giving, are requested to to give it the required stability in a per favour us with the loan of their Specifica. fectly vertical position. On the upper tions for that purpose. part of this axis a compass head b re GEORGE HENRY PAIPPS, OF DEPTFORD, volves, having attached to it, by a joint ENGINEER, for improvements in the conat с, the pen or compass limb c d. A struction of wheels for railway and other square horizontal shaft is jointed into the

carriages. Enrolment Office, January 1st, latter at e, and maintained in its position

1842. by the parallel rod f. Upon the central

The object of these improvements is to shaft or axis a, there is pivoted a cir

avoid the injurious effects of heating the tyre cular steel plate with bevilled edges 9,

in the ordinary process of "shrinking on,' which may be set at any required angle

by superseding that process. For that purto the horizon by the quadrant and set

pose the patentee proposes to construct a

railway wheel in the following manner. A screw h. A T-shaped guide i, has its

bar of wrought iron, is prepared of a proper longer stem k passed through the hori.

form by rolling, in the usual manner, with zontal shaft, and held by the set screw an outer flange at one edge, and an inner m; the face of the guide i is constantly flange in the centre of the bar ; this bar is kept in close contact with the edge of the bent into a circular form and welded. A circular disc y, by means of a small suitable number of wrought iron spokes spring l.

(sixteen) are prepared, with an extended end A glance at this arrangement will al or palm, which may be drawn out by hammost suffice to show its operation ; sup

mering, or may be welded on; the inner end pose, in the first place, that the dise i is

of each spoke is jagged, or perforated, in set perfectly horizontal, and the instru.

order that the cast metal may embrace and ment applied to describe a figure upon

hold it fast. Eight of these spokes are then

laid in a mould, and one portion of the boss paper ; on turning round the compass limb and pen c d, a transcript of the disc

or nave of iron, cast upon their inner ends;

the other eight spokes have the correspond9, that is, a circle will be delineated, be

ing portion of the boss or nave cast upon cause the pen has been guided round it

them. The two parts of the nare are then in a circular path by the spring l. Let brought together, and secured by screw bolts, the disc g, be now set at any angle, say and the enlarged ends or palms of the spokes 45°, and the instrument applied to paper strongly secured to the alternate sides of the and turned round; the pen will again be inner flange by screw bolts, or by riveting. guided round the disc g, but no longer in Another method consists in placing all the a circular path ; an ellipse will be de spokes in their respective positions around scribed, which will be the correct per

the wheel, and casting the boss or nave in spective of a wheel or circle viewed at one piece; the palms of the spokes being an angle of 45°; and so of circles viewed

afterwards riveted to the inner flange. In at any other angles, of a size within the

the wheels thus constructed, the position and powers of the instrument.

appearance of the spokes strongly resemble The set screw mn allows the compass to

the suspension wheels of Messrs. Jones and be set to the size of the circle required;

Co.; but the patentee also proposes to con

struct wheels on the foregoing principle with at the same time the guide i is always

a single row of spokes lying in the same maintained in contact with the disc.

plane. Wheels for common road carriages We hope and trust that this convenient

may also be sin

ilarly constructed, by omitand ingenious little instrument will be ting the outer flange, which is essential to speedily brought before the public, in a the wheels of railway carriages.


75 The claim is, to the construction of a face within the glass chimney, having a large wheel with a cast iron boss or nave, with hole in its centre, and a number of smaller wrought iron armıs or spokes cast in it: the holes around its inner edge for regulating the arms or spokes being attached to the wrought supply of air around the flame. The sixth iron tyre by riveting or bolting.

improvement consists in the introduction GEORGE ONIONS, OF HIGH-STREET, of air intermediately of the length of the SAOREDITCH, ENGINEER, for improved chimney, by means of perforations in the glass cheels and rails for railroad purposes. chimney, or by making the glass chimney in Enrolment Office, January 7, 1842.

two or more parts, and introducing the air This invention of improved wheels for at the joints. The seventh improvement railroad purposes consists in casting such consists in making the glass chimneys of wheels, of iron made from Cumberland or lamps in two parts, and applying a deflecting Lancashire ores, which is afterwards made plate between them, or by forming the plate malleable by annealing, and subsequently on one of the parts of such chimneys. The case-hardened. The improvements in rails eighth improvement consists in a provision for railroad purposes consist of an arched for raising or lowering the glass chimney, so base, manufactured of common cast-irod, as to adjust it to the most advantageous with a groove running along the centre height for obtaining the best kind of flame; thereof, and into which groove a rail, made this is effected in one case, by making the of iron cast from Cumberland or Lancashire gallery in two parts, one of which screws up ore, and afterwards annealed, is affixed. or down within the other, Snch base is to be made either singly or The claim is--1. To the mode of making doubly—if doubly, by connecting surfaces hand lamps; also the mode of applying of iron.

woven wire surfaces to argand lamps. The claim is, 1. To the casting of wheels, 2. To the mode of conducting air from for railway purposes, of iron made from above into the interior of an argand burner. Cumberland or Lancashire ore, afterwards 3. To the mode of supplying carriage made malleable by annealing, and case lamps with air from within the carriage, and bardened ; 2. As well the mode of construc so arranging the parts as to retain the lamp ting bases, as casting the rail of iron made in a vertical position. from Cumberland or Lancashire ore, and 4. To the mode of retaining the lamp in made malleable by annealing.

a vertical position at sea, by applying the THOMAS Young, OF QUEEN-STREET, apparatus above described to a table or other LONDON, MERCHANT, for improvements in fixed surface. lamps. Enrolment Office, January 8, 1842. 5. To the mode of applying a plate or

The first of these improvements,which are surface within the glass chimney of lamps eight in number, relates to hand lamps with by suspending the plate from above. small argand burners, and consists in the ap 6. To the introduction of air intermediate plication of fine wire gauge or perforated metal of the length of the chimney, by applying plates, through which the air is admitted, so perforated chimneys--or chimneys made of as to prevent the flame being affected by a two or more parts. rush of air while in rapid motion. The 7. To the making of chimneys of two second improvement consists in the applica, parts, and applying a plate between them, or tion of tubes to an argand lamp, by means forming the plate on one of the parts of the of which a supply of air is carried down chimney. from above to supply the passage through 8. To the mode described of regulating and around the burner. The third improve the height of the chimney and plate. ment consists in a mode of attaching carriage CHARLES PAYNE, OF SOUTH LAMBETH, lamps, so that they draw their supply of air CHEMIST, for improvements in preserving from within the carriage, thereby ventilating vegetable matters where metallic and earthy the same; at the same time preserving their solutions are employed. Enrolment Office, perpendicular position without being in any January 8, 1842. way affected by the inclination or motion of These improvements consist in impreg. the carriage. The fourth improvement re nating the vegetable matters to be preserved lates to ship's lamps, the stem of which is with any suitable metallic or earthy solution, composed of a number of sliding telescope and afterwards decomposing the same, theretubes, so as to admit the lamp to be set at by precipitating the insoluble substance so any required and admissible height, while formed, in the substance of the preserved matthe lower tube, or socket, fits into a cylindrical ter. Thus, for instance, a piece of wood which hole in the centre of a weight of a hemi. is to be preserved by this process, is placed spherical form, which is supported flush with in a suitable vessel and a vacuum produced the surface of the table, &c. upon gimbals. therein by an air pump, or by any other conThe fifth improvement consists in a mode venient means. "A strong solution of sulof applying a metal plate or deflecting sur phate of iron is then admitted, which enters

entering the bath, prepares himself by first subjecting his body to the shower from one or more of the rose heads gradually increas. ing the temperature ; steam is then gradually admitted, until the bath attains a temperature of 80° or 100°. The floor is of wood, perforated with a number of holes for the escape of the water from the rose heads, and provision is made for the bather to sit or lie down ; flexible tubes are also attached to the steam pipes, by means of which jets of steam may be directed to any part of the body. The steain bath having been continued long enough, the hot shower bath is again resorted to, gradually decreasing the temperature till it approximates to that of the external atmosphere.

The claim is, 1. To the mode of producing a steam bath by the applicatiou of steam (generated under considerable pressure) within a room so arranged as to allow of a sufficient circulation of fresh atmospheric air, as above explained ; 2. To the mode of combining the use of a high-pressure steam bath in a ventilated room, with a rain douche, or water bath, whereby the skin is prepared before and after a steam bath, as above er. plained ; 3. The mode of regulating the temperature of douche baths, “ whether rain or voluminous."

into the interstices of the wood; when saturated, the wood is either, in its wet state, or after being dried, treated with a carbonated alkali, (carbonate of soda being preferred) by which the salt of iron is decomposed, and becomes converted into an insoluble preci. pitate within the substance of the wood. The saturation of the wood may be assisted by pressure or not, as found to be best.

Another process consists in the employment, in like manner, of a solution of alum, the decomposition of which is also to be effected by the same agent as before-carbo. nate of soda. The patentee observes, that the processes of injection, by vacuum and compression, as well as the employment of metallic and earthy solutions, have before been applied to effect the object in view, the mere use of which he disclaims; but what he claims is, the mode of preserving woods and other vegetable substances, by causing them to be impregnated with a solution of metallic or earthy matters, and then by chemical decomposition to retain the matters employed, in an insoluble state, in the substance of the vegetable matter, when such effects are obtained by the combined processes of exhaustion, compression, and decomposition, as above described.

Moses PoolE, OF LINCOLN'S INN, GENTLEMAN, for improvements in steam baths and other baths. (A communication,) Enrolment Office, January 13th, 1842.

A room is constructed in a steam-tight manner, by being lined with sheets of lead or zinc ; on one side, near the floor, there is an opening, furnished with shutters, by which the admission of atmospheric air can be regulated at pleasure, while on the oppo. site side of the room, near the top, another opening, similarly fitted, is placed for the escape of the impure heated air and steam. Light is admitted at the top by a double sky-light. A boiler (of copper is preferred) is furnished with a safety-valve, and also an apparatus for supplying it with filtered soft water. Steam is generated in this boiler under a pressure of from 10 to 20 lbs. upon the inch, for the purpose of supplying steam to the bath, and also for heating a quantity of water contained in an elevated cistern. Another elevated cistern contains a supply of cold water. Within the room or bath there are three rose heads, one above the other, connected with the hot and cold water cisterns in such a manner, that by regulating the cocks, a shower of hot or cold water, or of any intermediate temperature, may be obtained from either of these rose heads; so that a person may apply a shower of cold water to the head, warm to the stomach, and hot to the feet. The mode of using this improved bath is as follows :—The bather, on

RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS. [Selected and abridged from the Franklin Journal.]

IMPROVEMENT IN SMELTING FURNACES. W. H. Phillips. The patentee introduces the specification of this improvement with the fol. lowing general remarks.

“ For the purpose of economizing fuel, it is a point of consider. able importance to be able to use the waste heat for supplying the blast to the smeltingfurnace, and this has been done in numerous instances, and under various modifications of the apparatus employed. It has been found, however, that in all cases the air so heated is subjected to great variation in its temperature, and that from causes incident to the employment of such furnaces, when dependence is had upon the waste heat alone to accomplish the intended purpose. Whatever produces a diminution of heat in the interior of the furnace must produce a cor. responding effect in the air-heating apparatus, and that at a time when it is most desirable to keep up, or increase, the temperature of the hot blast, in order the more rapidly to restore the wanted temperature in the furnace. One of the most general causes of the temporary diminution of heat in the furnace is the introduction of the charges of coal, and flux. The quantity of gas emitted from the fuel also varies considerably, in different stages of its combustion, and with


77 it, of course, the quantity of flame in the internal diameter of said wedges being coni. heating apparatus; other sources of such cal, and as much larger at one end than at variation of heat are well known to those the other, as may be deemed necessary, said conversant with the use of smelting-fur wedges being cut longitudinally into four or naces.” This difficulty it is the object of more parts, so that each part may be forced the improvement now patented to obviate. out from the centre against the two rings The method adopted by the patentee is as afore-mentioned. I make another cylindrifollows. “ On the sides of, or otherwise cal wedge in the form of the frustrum of a close to, the heating apparatus on the tunnel cone, and about seven-tenths as long as the head, I place one, two, or more small fur. one last named, the external diameter and naces, for the express purpose of heating a taper of which corresponds with, and fits portion of air, which is to pass from them into the internal diameter of the large end of into the heating oven, and to co-mingle with the other, the thickness of which I make that arising through the chimney of the sufficient to admit of screws being tapped smelting-furnace. To these auxiliary fur into it, to move it longitudinally on the barnaces I make close-fitting doors, in order rel of the piston. To keep said wedge in that no air shall pass into them, excepting its place, I put in four, or more, screws,with that which is forced to pass through the collars on them, to be let into the followers, burning fuel which they are to contain. Into two on one side, and two on the other. Two the ash-pit of these auxiliary furnaces I in with the collars on the inside shove the troduce a pipe, through which air, either hot wedge ahead, and the other two hold it, or or cold, may be blown from any suitable part draw it back. I construct my packing for of the blowing apparatus, which, by passing piston rods, &c., by making two rings of through the ignited fuel, and thence directly brass, or other metal, of a diameter that will into the heating-oven, may be made to com just admit them on the rod, and so wide as municate a very high degree of heat to the just to fill the space between the bottom, or pipes contained therein ; I, of course, regu. the bushing, and the cap, when ground tolate the supply of air to be blown into the gether, and of a thickness of about oneheating-oven, and to pass from the blowing eighth of the diameter of the piston rod, apparatus into the auxiliary furnaces, by which I cut open, and place on the rod, so means of cocks, valves, or dampers, applied as to break joints. I make a cylindrical in the ordinary way, which devices are well wedge of a width and internal diameter, corknown to all machinists." The patentee

responding with the width and external dia. adds, that when it is not requisite to employ meter of the two rings afore-mentioned. I the heat from the auxiliary furnace, or fur make said wedge thicker at one end than at naces, by closing the valves in the passages the other, to give it the proper taper, and leading into and from them, the contained cut it longitudinally, into four, or more parts, fuel will merely remain ignited, scarcely un so that each part may be forced in towards dergoing any combustion, until urged by the the centre against the two rings afore-men. blast.

tioned. I make another cylindrical wedge STEAM ENGINE Pistons, C. F. Pike. about seven-tenths as wide as the last named, The nature of this invention consists in the the internal diameter and taper of which coruse of cylindrical metallic wedges, within responds with, and fits on the external diaside of metallic rings when used for the meter of the small end of the other. The packing of pistons, and without side of thick end I make of a proper thickness to metallic rings when used for the packing of admit of four set screws, made in the same piston rods, or valve stems. " To enable manner as described for the piston, the exothers," says the patentee, “ skilled in the ternal diameter of which is the same as the art to make and use my invention, I will internal diameter of the head, or stuffing proceed to describe its construction and op box; I fit on a cap with set screws therein, eration. I construct my packing for steam to adjust the last named wedge, so as to keep engines, or other pistons, by making two the two rings snug to the rod." rings of cast iron, or other metal, turned as IMPROVEMENTS THE MACHINERY large as the diameter of the cylinder, and so FOR MAKING RIVETS ; Oliver Edes and wide that the rings will just fill the space Andrew Holmes. The claim refers through. between the head and follower of the piston out to the drawings, and could not be underwhen ground together. I saw said rings stood without them ; we will therefore merely open, so that they may expand to fill the attempt to give a general idea of the imcylinder. I make a cylindrical wedge as wide provements claimed. as the two rings afore-mentioned, the exter The first improvement consists in the connal diameter of which will just admit it to struction of the cutting apparatus, the dies slide within the afore-mentioned two rings of which are semi-circular, so that in the when they are placed in the cylinder. The operation of cutting the wire shall not be


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