Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

DESCRIPTION OF CLIPF-CRANE FOR

To R. Creed, Esq.
INVENTED BY JOHN JI

London and Birmingham Railway Office,

Wolverton Station, May 25, 1842.

(For the A My Dear Sir,-I send, for the information The machine which is the subject

of the Board, the particulars of an experithe present notice is especially app

ment which was made on Monday and Tuez. cable to such parts of our coasts as c

day last, at this station, on engine No. 18; sist of abrupt and perpendicular cli

and as the result proves that a fracture may

occur in the fore-axle, without any serious washed by the waves, which preclude

consequence to engines of the description possibility of rescuing any ill-fated r

used by the company, I doubt not that it riners that may be stranded at their fa

will be found exceedingly interesting at a except by mechanical means from abo

time when the public mind is so much ex. A most important consideration with cited by the recent accident on the Paris and spect to any machine contrived for suc Versailles Railway. purpose is the absence of all that is co I must premise, that engine No. 18 was plicated; simplicity of construction beii selected for the experiment because she had doubtless, the surest guarantee for su

been sent to Wolverton to undergo a thorough cessful operation.

This will appear i repair ; and it was further decided to sub. more evident, when it is borne in mir stitute for her fore-axle one which, having that if ever called into action, it wou

been erroneously made a quarter of an inch probably be amidst scenes of confusi less in diameter than the prescribed dimen. and distress-perhaps too in the

darkni sions, had been long since laid aside.

The axle thus selected was cut circularly of the night. ' In such cases it too fr through, by a tool three-eighths of an inch quently happens that more zeal is sho wide, close to one of the journals, and to than discretion--all are eager to lend within half an inch of the centre of the diahelping hand, but few aware how assis meter, leaving, therefore, an intervening ance may best be rendered; and und thickness of one inch of metal connecting such circumstances, complicated tack the partially severed parts. of any description might not only rend The engine, in this state, was sent from abortive the means of relief intends the station towards Roade; the fore-axle bùt in all probability lead to fatal r broke in two as intended, at the point where sults. Against these fearful continge it had been divided, but the occurrence had cies, the inventor of the present apparat

no apparent effect on the movement of the appears. to have effectually provide engine, which continued its course till it

reached Roade, when it was crossed from Simplicity and power are at once cui bined in this machine. There is nothi the down to the up line, and returned in

safety to Wolverton. to adjust, which can lead to confusion

On Tuesday, at half-past one p.m., the failure, while no less than four indi' engine, with its divided fore-axle in preduals at a time, may with ease be rais cisely the state in which it had been left the or lowered in the carefully.construct day preceding, was started from Wolverton, cradle attached to the machine. Nor with six waggons of wheels and axlesit in saving life alone, that Mr. Johnsto making a gross load of 32 tons, exclusive of apparatus may be rendered availab engine and tender. With this load the enProperty as well as human beings m gine attained a speed of 25 miles per hour, and be rescued from destruction by its simp arrived safely at the Watford station, distant but effective machinery.

34 miles. Soon after leaving Watford, and The accompanying perspective vi when it was again running at a speed of 25 and plan (fig. I and 2,) which are copi miles per hour, one of the front wheels slipfrom the Report of the Royal Huma ped off the rails, and the engine was delayed Society for the present year, exhibit t.

seven minutes until it was replaced. The construction of the apparatus and 11

engine again proceeded towards London ; but

at about two miles beyond the Harrow sta. mode of working it so clearly as to r tion, where the line is on transverse sleepers, quire but little explanatory descriptio the wheels once more slipped off the rails, A is a box or well for rocket or mort and the engine, in that state, ran upwards apparatus, if required. B, pin-bolt f of 200 yards before it was stopped. "In 20 securing or adjusting the beam. C, spa minutes it was again lifted on to the rails, shores or stays. }), catch-wheels attach and started for Camden Town, where it ar. to roller. E, ballast-box; f f, hooks f rived in safety before five o'clock. attaching hand-ropes to assist in tl This experiment, tried as it purposely was

THE BROKEN AXLE EXPERIMENT.

485 on an engine thoroughly out of repair, with was led, in consequence, to inspect the ena divided axle reduced three-eighths of an gine very minutely. inch in length, and more likely, therefore, to The engine No. 18 is mounted on four slip off the rails, may be considered to have wheels; diameter of the driving wheels 5 feet established the important fact that the com 6 inches ; that of the others (or fore-wheels) pany's engines are not liable to fall down 4 feet; the framings and bearings are inside because a fore-axle may by possibility break. the wheels. I found the fore-axle cut through

The circumstances connected with the about 3 inches inside the bearings of the experiment are not likely to occur in ordi. near wheel; the longer section of the axle nary practice, for the following reasons : had dropped about half an inch below the

Ist. The engine was in a state to require shorter one. As I had expected that the that it should be taken off the road.

bearing was sufficiently broad to retain the 2nd. The fore-axle was below our standard axle in its truly horizontal position, even size. And,

when cut through, I made particular in3rd. It was cut in two in the place most quiries as to the state of the brasses, and likely to cripple the engine if a fracture were was informed that they were much worn; in to happen, but not where it would probably fact, the engine had been sent into the shops take place.

for the express purpose of having them reIn conclusion I have to observe, that from newed, but that it had been determined to July, 1837, when the line was opened, to try the experiment before the execution of the present period, there has not been a any repairs. single instance of an accident to our fore After satisfying myself on these points, I axles; that where crank axles have broken, went to Pinner Park gate, to inspect the pothe engine has invariably been driven on its sition of a proposed new station ; whilst own wheels to Wolverton for repair, and in there No. 18 came up, with a train of six most instances has taken its train to a sta loaded goods' waggons. I got on the ention; and I may add, that of the few cases of gine, and when we had proceeled about six fractured cranked axles tro only have oc miles, we ran off the road ; the speed at the curred to passenger engines.

time was from 15 to 20 miles an hour. The Thus the following important facts may engine went about 200 yards before it was be regarded as established :

brought to a stand, striking, in its passage, First-That of the engines in use on the against the chairs and sleepers with great London and Birmingham Railway the fore violence. It was evident from the motion axles have never been broken.

that for some considerable portion of this Second-That when experimentally broken distance, the engine was fairly forced forunder the most unfavourable circumstances, ward by the momentum of the train behind, the engine was not disabled. And,

none of the waggons of which, or the tender, Third-that in the only two cases where having followed the engine off the road. the crank axles of passenger engines have On examining the engine after the acci. been broken the engines were not disabled. dent, there was no appearance of any deI am, dear Sir, yours, faithfully,

rangement of the machinery; the tires of the (Signed) EDWARD BURY. wheels were deeply indented by coming in

contact with the chairs. To E. Bury, Esq.

The engine maintained her vertical posi. London and Birmingham Railway, tion, was replaced upon the rails in about 20

Camden Town, May 30, 1842. minutes, and proceeded to her destination. My Dear Sir,- I was at Wolverton on Whilst upon the journey, I did not notice Tuesday the 24th instant, and saw engine any unusual motion; and had I not seen No. 18 preparing to start on an experimental that the fore-axle was severed, I should not trip to Camden station.

have been aware of the fact. Mr. Parker, foreman of the shops, in On the whole, I consider the experiment formed me, that by your directions the fore as highly satisfactory, for although I did not axle of the engine had been cut through, for expect that the engine would have gone off the purpose of ascertaining, 1st, whether the the road, yet her having done so was a much engine would, in that state, keep the road; more satisfactory test of its safety as a pasand 2nd, in case the engine did get off, whe senger engine, than could otherwise have ther it would roll over, or retain its vertical been attained. position.

Had there been anything in the construcAlthough I had myself no doubt as to the tion which would render it liable to upset, I results of the experiment, yet being aware feel persuaded that the violent action of the that they would, in all probability, have an train against the foot-board must have proimportant effect in establishing or condemn. duced that result. And as this point could ing the use of engines of this construction, I never have been determined until an engine

DESCRIPTION OF CLIPF-CRANE FOR THE RESCUE OF PERSONS SHIPWRECKED. INVENTED BY JOHN JOHNSTON, ESQ., OF BRIGUTON.

(For the Mechanics' Magazine.) The machine which is the subject of the present notice is especially applicable to such parts of our coasts as consist of abrupt and perpendicular cliffs, washed by the waves, which preclude the possibility of rescuing any ill-fated mariners that may be stranded at their feet, except by mechanical means from above. A most important consideration with respect to any machine contrived for such a purpose is the absence of all that is complicated; simplicity of construction being, doubtless, the surest guarantee for successful operation. This will appear the more evident, when it is borne in mind, that if ever called into action, it would probably be amidst scenes of confusion and distress-perhaps too in the darkness of the night. In such cases it too frc. quently happens that more zeal is shown than discretion—all are eager to lend a helping hand, but few aware how assistance may best be rendered; and under such circumstances, complicated tackle of any description might not only render abortive the means of relief intended, but in all probability lead to fatal results. Against these fearful contingen. cies, the inventor of the present apparatus appears to have effectually provided. Simplicity and power are at once combined in this machine. There is nothing to adjust, which can lead to confusion or failure, while no less than four indivi. duals at a time, may with ease be raised or lowered in the carefully constructed cradle attached to the machine. Nor is it in saving life alone, that Mr. Johnston's apparatus may be rendered available. Property as ell as human beings may be rescued from destruction by its simple, but effective machinery.

The accompanying perspective view and plan (fig. 1 and 2,) which are copied from the Report of the Royal Humane Society for the present year, exhibit the construction of the apparatus and the mode of working it so clearly as to require but little explanatory description. A is a box or well for rocket or mortar apparatus, if required. B, pin-bolt for securing or adjusting the beam. C, spar. shores or stays. 1), catch-wheels attached to roller. E, ballast-box; f f, hooks for attaching hand-ropes to assist in the

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

Fig. 2.

[ocr errors]

AF 1.1 1035

MUTILATION NOTED
PURIFICATION OF THE WE EXPERIMENT.

485
draught if necessary. 00, roller over
which the crane-beam runs.

was led, in consequence, to inspect the en

G, press- gine very minutely. lever. The wicker cradle, the dimen The engine No. 18 is mounted on four sions of which are 3 feet 6 inches, by wheels ; diameter of the driving wheels 5 feet 2 feet 8 inches at top, and the depth 2 6 inches ; that of the others (or fore-wheels) feet 4 inches, is fitted with light iron 4 feet; the framings and bearings are inside grating for the bottom, as offering less

the wheels. I found the fore-axle cut through resistance to the upward current of wind about 3 inches inside the bearings of the in its descent Canvass fenders, stuffed

near wheel ; the longer section of the axle with cork shavings, pass round the sides.

had dropped about half an inch below the A strong net-work protects the heads of bearing was sufficiently broad to retain the

shorter one.

As I had expected that the the occupants. The seats are placed low andare moveable at pleasure. Ropes to pre

axle in its truly horizontal position, even vent falling over the cliff are added.

when cut through. I made particular inthe machine is adjusted in the engraving

As quiries as to the state of the brasses, and

was informed that they were much worn ; in on the front page, the rope will clear the fact, the engine had been sent into the shops face of the cliff about 6 feet, but by run for the express purpose of having them re. ning out the beam to the last boli-hole, newed, but that it had been determined to it would clear the cliff 12 feet. On the try the experiment before the execution of cradle or basket being drawn to a level

any repairs. with the surface, the machine is intended After satisfying myself on these points, I to be drawn backwards bodily ; so as to

went to Pinner Park gate, to inspect the poland the rescued in safety; and then

sition of a proposed new station; whilst again moved forward for further opera

there No. 18 came up, with a train of six tions.

loaded goods' waggons. I got on the enThe cost of the apparatus, which, by gine, and when we had proceedled about six order of the Committee of the Brighton

miles, we ran off the road ; the speed at the Branch of the Royal Humane Society, engine went about 200 yards before it was

time was from 15 to 20 miles an hour. The has been established there, amounted to scarcely 401., including the crane-rope,

brought to a stand, striking, in its passage,

against the chairs and sleepers with great and the whole of the auxiliary append violence. It was evident from the motion ages ; but this sum is exclusive of

that for some considerable portion of this the shed prepared for its reception. The distance, the engine was fairly forced formachine itself has been built in a most ward by the momentum of the train behind, masterly and workmanlike manner, and none of the waggons of which, or the tender, is braced with iron in every part i

where having followed the engine off the road. greater strength is required; the main On examining the engine after the acci. beam especially being strengthened

dent, there was no appearance of any dethroughout, by an iron band, or plate,

rangement of the machinery; the tires of the screwed to its upper surface to prevent

wheels were deeply indented by coming in the possibility of its yielding in the

contact with the chairs. event of any extra weight being imposed

The engine maintained her vertical posi

tion, was replaced upon the rails in about 20 Let us venture to hope that in a mari

minutes, and proceeded to her destination.

Whilst upon the journey, I did not notice time country, such as the United King

any unusual motion; and had I not seen dom, around the coasts of which the

that the fore-axle was severed, I should not most appalling shipwrecks are of such fre

have been aware of the fact. quent occurrence, the excellent example On the whole, I consider the experiment set by the philanthropists of Brighton in as highly satisfactory, for although I did not the erection of this useful apparatus will expect that the engine would have gone off not be lost sight of; and that wherever the road, yet her having done so was a much similar local circumstances exist, and mora satisfactory test of its safety as a pas. under the favoring auspices of berevolent senger engine, than could otherwise have and influential individuals, Associations

been attained. may happily lave been formed with a

Hail there been anything in the construc

tion which would render it liable to upset, I view to the preservation of the lives of our brave mariners, the Cliff Crane will,

feel persuaded that the violent action of the ere long, be in universal use.

train against the foot-board must have proS.

duced that result. And as this point could Note.- We are requisted to notice a small im

never have been determined until an engine

upon it.

DESCRIPTION OF CLIFF-CRANE FOR

To R. Creed, Esq.
INVENTED BY JOHN JI

London agd Birmingham Railway Office,

Wolverton Station, May 25, 1842.

(For the A My Dear Sir,- I send, for the information The machine which is the subject

of the Board, the particulars of an experithe present notice is especially app

ment which was made on Monday and Tuese cable to such parts of our coasts as c

dıy last, at this station, on engine No. 18; sist of abrupt and perpendicular cli

and as the result proves that a fracture may washed by the waves, which preclude

occur in the fore-axle, without any serious

consequence to engines of the description possibility of rescuing any ill-fated n

used by the company, I doubt not that it riners that may be stranded at their fi

will be found exceedingly interesting at a except by mechanical means from abo

time when the public mind is so much es. A most important consideration with cited by the recent accident on the Paris and spect to any machine contrived for suc Versailles Railway. purpose is the absence of all that is co I must premise, that engine No. 18 Fas plicated; simplicity of construction beii selected for the experiment because she had doubtless, the surest guarantee for su

been sent to Wolverton to undergo a thorough cessful operation. This will appear repair; and it was further decided to sab. more evident, when it is borne in mir stitute for her fore-axle one which, having that if ever called into action, it wou

been erroneously made a quarter of an inch probably be amidst scenes of confusi less in diameter than the prescribed dimenand distress-perhaps too in the darhni sions, had been long since laid aside.

The axle thus selected was cut circularly of the night. ' In such cases it too fr through, by a tool threz-eighths of an inch quently happens that more zeal is shot wide, close to one of the journals, and to than discretion-all are eager to lend within half an inch of the centre of the dia. helping hand, but few aware how assis meter, leaving, therefore, an intervening ance may best be rendered; and und thickness of one inch of metal connecting such circumstances, complicated tack the partially severed parts. of any description might not only rend The engine, in this state, was sent from abortive the means of relief intende the station towards Roade; the fore-axle but in all probability lead to fatal r broke in two as intended, at the point where sults. Against these fearful continge it had been divided, but the occurrence had cies, the inventor of the present apparat

no apparent effect on the movement of the appears to have effectualy provide engine, which continued its course till it

reached Ronde, when it was crossed from Simplicity and power are at once cui bined in this machine. There is nothi the down to the up line, and returned in

safety to Wolverton. to adjust, which can lead to confusion

On Tuesday, at half-past one p.m., the failure, while no less than four indi' engine, with its divided fore-axle in preduals at a time, may with ease be rais cisely the state in which it had been left the or lowered in the carefully construct day preceding, was started from Wolverton, cradle attached to the machine. Nor with six waggons of wheels and axlesit in saving life alone, that Mr. Johnstoi making a gross load of 32 tons, exclusive of apparatus may be rendered availab engine and tender. With this load the enProperty as well as human beings m gine attained a speed of 23 miles per hour, and be rescued from destruction by its simp arrived safely at the Watford station, distant but effective machinery.

34 miles. Soon after leaving Watford, and The accompanying perspective vi when it was again running at a speed of 25 and plan (fig. I and 2,) i Lich are copi miles per hour, one of the front wheels slipfrom the Report of the Royal Huma ped off the rails, and the engine was delayed

The Society for the present year,

seven minutes until it was replaced.

exbibit t construction of the apparatus and ti

engine aguin proceeded towards London ; but

at about two miles beyond the Harrow sta. mode of working it so clearly as to r tion, where the line is on transverse sleepers, quire but little explanatory descriptio the wheels once more slipped off the rails, A is a box or well for rocket or mort and the engine, in that state, ran upwards apparatus, if required. B, pin-bolt f of 200 yards before it was stopped. * In 20 securing or adjusting the beam. C, spa minutes it was again lifted on to the rails, shores or stays. I), catch-wheels attache and started for Camden Town, where it ar. to roller. E, ballast-box; f f, hooks f rived in safety before five o'clock. attaching hand-ropes to assist in i is experiment, tried as it purposely was

« ZurückWeiter »