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ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH or by dissolving the platinum or palladiun
PATENTS RECENTLY ENROLLED, in muriate of soda, (twelve parts by weight) OGLETHORPE WAKELIN BARRATT, or alum, (two parts,) and cream of tartar, (ode BIRMINGHAM, METAL GILDER, for certain part.) “Copper, iron, and other metallic improvements in the precipitation or deposi. articles introduced into the (latter) solution tion of metals. Enrolment Office, March when boiling, are speedily coated; if : 8, 1842.
stronger coating be required, I attach the Mr. Barratt claims
battery, and an anode of metallic platinum, First, a “ mode of cleaning copper and and continue the action till the desired thick. its alloys by means of a galvanic or other ness be obtained." battery, and also recovering by precipitation Fifth, the precipitation of gold, silver, or the metal dissolved during the process." The platinum, upon other metals, by employing article to be cleaned is suspended from a wire boiling solutions of these metals in hydrate of connected with the negative metal of the potash, with or without the aid of the gal. battery, and a plate of copper of a larger vanic battery. superficial area than the article is suspended And Sixth, the precipitation of metals in from the other wire, which plate receives the a state of alloy, " by obtaining them in 80metal deposited from the solution. “In lution, and using an anode of an alloyed from five to ten minutes the scale or oxide of metal in the same proportion as in solution." copper will be removed."
Mr. Barratt also describes, but does not Secondly, a mode of precipitating zink up claim, the following mode of "precipitating on other metals, by passing an electric cur. copper from waters of copper mines, and rent through a cold solution of zink in sul. other waters containing copper.” “I form phuric acid. • Other acid and saline solu. pits (similar to those commonly used, but tions of zink may be employed, as those in deeper) to hold the solution of white copper, muriatic and acetic acids, and the muriate of or other metal. I place in the solution : ammonia, or the sulphate of zink of com. porous vessel of earthenware, or divide the merce, in connexion with the battery ; but I pit by any convenient porous material : have found the former (the sulphuric acid into the porous vessel, or the (parts of the) solution) succeed perfectly."
pit partitioned off by the porous material, I Third, the following improvements in the put a solution of muriate of soda, and into precipitating of copper upon iron and other the solution I place the iron, and connect it metals. 1. He connects the article to be with wires with sheets of copper, lead, or coated by a copper wire to a plate of zink, other metal in the solution of copper, and and immerses them in a saturated solution which are to receive the deposit of pure of sulphate of copper-taking care first to metal. The solution, after all the copper wrap the zink in cloth or strong paper, to is precipitated, will serve to dissolve the prevent any deposition of copper on the iron in the porous cell, instead of the muriste zink plate. “I have been able by this ar. of soda." rangement to produce a more perfect con EDWARD FRANCOIS JOSEPH DUCLOS, OF tact of the metals, particularly where iron is CLYNE Wood METALLURGICAL WORKS, desired to be coated, than by any of the SWANSEA, for improvements in the mant. modes heretofore recommended or described facture of copper.—Enrolment Office, May when using acid solutions of copper." 2. He 11, 1842. precipitates the copper from solutions of cop The first improvement specified consists per in the cyanides and carbonates of potash in calcining all sulphurous ores of copper, and soda. These solutions may be used at dif. technically called sulphurets, and other arti. ferent temperatures, but the action is most ficial products of the same nature in large rapid when boiling. And, 3. When he wishes kilns, whereby a large portion of the coal to convert the copper coating into brass, he and labour required in the ordinary treatdeposits zink upon the copper surface first ment are economized ; and the sulphurous obtained, (by the process described under acid gas and sulphuric acid formed in the the second head of his improvements,) and operation, irretrievably lost in the ordinary then subjects the article to a heat of about method, are made applicable to the manu. 300' Fahr. in a muffle or other convenient facture of sulphur or sulphuric acid. apparatus.
Secondly. When the ores have been suf. Fourth, the precipitation of platinum and ficiently calcined to treat them for the re. palladium from their solutions, and deposit. duction of any metallic oxides they may ing them as coating on other metals, either contain, in blast furnace similar to those by immersing a plate of zink or some other used in the manufacture of iron, with the positive metal in the solutions — “taking addition of chambers of condensation and the precaution to have free acid present,' feeding apparatus, – such additions being
SPECIFICATIONS OF RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS.
477 calculated to insure the collecting of any with a sufficient quantity of coal, or coke, or volatile products which the ores treated may charcoal, in such proportion as the calorific contain, -the earthy matters associated with power of the fuel and refractability of the the ores are fluxed by a proper addition of ores will best allow, which is best ascertained lime or other substances, according as the by practice; and such a proper quantity of chemical composition of the ores to be treated lime, or other flux is also to be added as the may require.
chemical composition of the ore will require. Thirdly. The mixture of metallic copper The charge is put into the furnace, in such a with cast iron thus obtained by the preceding manner as to avoid the escape of any volatile operation, is then submitted to fusion and product, other than through the chamber of liquidation in a common iron-founder's cu. condensation. The working of the furnace pola, modified to insure the liquidation of is the same as that followed in the working the two metals.
of iron ore, taking care to work with a highlyFourthly. The black copper from which heated blast, and with closed breast, the the cast iron has been separated by differ. object being to obtain a slag highly charged ence of gravity is submitted to refining in with lime, by which means the induction of the usual way, in the refiner attached to the the metallic oxides is more completely infurnace of liquidation.
sured, and their carburation, as far as iron is
concerned, more certainly obtained. The Description of the Treatment.
mixture of cast iron and copper thus ob. The ores of copper, when ground to the tained is tapped out like common cast-iron, size of one-fourth, or one-third of an inch in the most advantageous shape for the reare mixed with ick lime in the proportion fusion, and the operation is thus conducted of two and a half cwts. of quick lime, or with great economy of labour and combnst. thereabouts to every ton of copper ore. The ible matter without any interruption. The quick lime is slacked thin and mixed with pigs of mixed metals thus obtained are melted the ore in the same manner and of the like in a cupola : and the melted metals are, by a consistence as common mortar. It is then disposition which keeps them at a high state laid on heated floors between two and of temperature, allowed to separate by diftwo and a half inches thick, and cut, as ference of gravity, the copper precipitating soon as spread, in parallelograms of the under the cast-iron, this containing one-half same size as common bricks are generally or one quarter per cent. of copper, and the made. The floors are then kept hot for copper from 20 to 25 per cent. of iron,which twenty-four hours, when it will be found that is allowed to run out of the cupola in an air the mixture has acquired sufficient solidity furnace, which is kept at a high temperature. to remove the rough bricks so produced to Finally, to allow more complete separa. the kiln, where the calcination is to be tion of the metallic copper from cast-iron, effected. The doors through which the the proportion of that metal left mixed with bricks have been piled being closed and luted, the copper is further separated, by means of a fire is kindled on the grate of the kiln fur. the usual mode, followed in the reforging of nace, until the mass becomes of a dark red black copper in the furnace when it has been heat; the ash-pit door, to which air-slides are tapped out of the cupola. fixed, is closed hermetically, as well as the The claim is to "the mode of calcining fire-door, and the admission of the fresh air the ores and fusing them in a blast farnace is thus controlled to keep the mass of ore burn as before described, and also to the mode of ing at the same temperature, which is also separating the metals obtained in the treat. better effected by the regulation of the draught ment of the blast furnace by liquidation as of the escaping products of the combustion,
by before described.'' means of dampers placed on the eduction William HENRY MORTIMER, OF FRITA flues. It is found in practice when the first STREET, Sono, MIDDLESEX, GENTLEMAN, combustion is over, that it is advantageous for improvements in covering ways and sur. to light another fire at a rather increased faces, and in constructing arches.-Enroltemperature, and thus more completely ob ment Office, May 16, 1842. tain the expulsion of the sulphur contained These improvements consist in a new in the ore by the repetition of the above mode of combining certain substances in the described treatment. The ores of copper, in blocks used for covering or paving ways and large lumps not exceeding 2 inches square, surfaces, and for constructing arches, where. may be calcined in prismatic kilns with by each block having its two opposite sides double grates, with the same arrangement of reversed in their cut will go together and the kiln described as is necessary for the re
give support to each other. gulation of the draught, and when sufficiently The following figure repra ents a block calcined, may be taken at once to the blast constructed on the plan of the paten. furnace. The ore thus calcined is charged tee.
position of asphalte, bitumen, black-lead, of
gas-tar, and other adhesive materials. In general the composition need only be applied to the sides and bottom. When it is deemed requisite to incrust the top, or upper sur face, the following process must be followed. The wood is first to be steamed to render it soft and porous, and a mixture of asphalte and bitumen with gravel strewn on it is the to be beaten into the wood by rollers er mallets.
The claim is to the form of wood blocks above set forth, for paving purposes, and ta the mode of incrustation, as also to the right
of employing blocks of wood of the above k
form combined with incrustation, as before
explained, for wood pavements. The patentee does not confine himself to ROBERT WILSON, OF SOWERBY-BRIDGE, making the inclined surfaces according to the Halifax, CURRIER AND TANNER, for isprecise angles shown.
provements in the manufacture of leather.The claim is to the mode of constructing Enrolment Office, June 2, 1842. blocks for covering roads and ways by com These improvements consist, Firstly, in pre bining the inclined surfaces a b and d e with paring hides or skins, or parts of hides and the tongue e, and forming on the opposite skins, for covering rollers used in the manufacsides of the blocks the corresponding in ture of yarns and threads at a cheaper cost and clined surfaces and grooves, fg i k and h. more expeditiously than the leather heretoRICHARD GURNEY, OF TREWINYON fore applied to such purpose.
After the House, CORNWALL, ESQUIRE for a new hides and skins have passed the well-knowa method of cutting wood, and incrusting the process of immersion and working in : same, in order to present a sure footing for lixivium of pigeon's dung, they are passed horses, and other purposes.—Enrolment through a solution of terra japonica and Office, May 25, 1842.
quercitron bark, in which solution they are This new method consists in producing allowed to remain four days, and frequently surfaces for the paying of roads by means of handled; the solution is also to be stirred wood and other materials, which, says the during that period; after which they are in a patentee, “will be found more lasting, pre fit state to be taken from the solution, and sent a sure footing for borses, and prevent being dried, polished, and cut, can be ap. water passing through the crevices of such plied to whatever purpose they may be rewood." A beam is sawed at its extreme
Secondly, In a mode of splitting length at right angles, and squared on all hides or skins, after which either or both of four sides ; it is then laid down with one the parts so divided may be prepared accord. edge upwards, and sawed edgeways, the saw ing to the above mode, or manufactured inbeing held in an oblique direction, so that it to leather in any other known manner. After deviates from the right angle downwards and the hide has passed through the usual pro. sideways. The block thus produced is to cesses up to the immersion in bark liquor, have all its sides equal. In paving, each and after having been immersed in bark block is to be so placed as to lean equally on liquor for four days, and frequently handled two other blocks, whilst two more blocks during that period, it is to be taken out of lean upon it. The blocks being so laid the liquor, and one end fastened to a cylindown as to present the appearance of a dia. der, which is caused to revolve so as to bring mond lengthways, that is, with the two sides that part to which the hide is attached im. which incline so as to lean on two other mediately opposite to a fixed bar; the other blocks away from the spectator, and the two or loose end of the hide is then passed and sides which support two other blocks next drawn over such bar, until a sufficient part to him, it will be found that all the weight of the hide has been so drawn over as to of the block is thrown forward on the far. make that part remaining between the cylinther point, the two sides of which rest on der and the bar quite tight. Two rollers are two other blocks. Mr. Gurney says, “I then placed upon the surface of the hide, consider that this cut is perfect in itself, and upon the fixed bar, so as to keep the hide may be used with or without incrustation." upon the bar, and between it and the cylin.
The block thus cut is to be incrusted with, der straight and tight as it is drawn over the or cemented to the next block by a com. bar. A knife is then screwed up to as near
MINE REFORM-LORD ASHLEY'S BILL.
479 the surface of the bar as may be necessary to
NOTES AND NOTICES. split the hide into two parts, according to the thickness required of each part. The
The Atmospheric Railway is expected to form a cylinder is then made to revolve so as to
prominent subject of attention at the approaching draw the hide downwards over the bar,
meeting of the British Association. Mr. Vignoles, and the knife having an eccentric motion
C. E., the Professor of Engineering at the Univergiven to it, cuts or splits the hides into
sity College, whose eplightened advocacy of this two parts throughout the entire length.
system, in the face of much prejudice and hostility,
does him infinite credit, has announced a paper on Claim (verbatim)" But I do hereby lay no claim to any part of the machine, or any
the subject, to be illustrated by models and working part of the process or mode secondly above
drawings on a large scale. It is mainly owing to described, except and I do hereby contine my
the exertions of this gentleman, next to those of claim of invention of the above described
Mr. James Prior, the public-spirited Treasurer of new mode secondly above described to 0.G.
the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, that it has been bar,* and the splitting hides in an untanned
resolved to make the trial of this system on the
branch line from Dublin to Dalkey, noticed in a or green state, as well as tanned leather."
subsequent extract from the Dublin Mercantile Ad vertiser. We are glad to learn that Mr. Brunel has
also become a convert to its merits, so far, at least, MINE REPORT-LORD ASHLEY'S BILL.
as to recommend it during his recent professional We are delighted to find that Lord Ash tour in the South of Europe, as the only practicable ley has brought in a bill for the entire abo. method of establishing a railway communication lition of female and infant labour in our from Genoa, through the passes of the Appenines. mines, as also for the abolition of appren The Prussian Government have had it under their ticeship to the art of mining; and that the consideration to give it a trial in a part of its Bill has met with the unanimous approbation Rhenish provinces, where the actual character of of the House of Commons. Of its speedily the country opposes similar obstacles to the laying passing into a law there can be little doubt.
down of railways on the ordinary plan, and have Lord Ashley's Bill proposes to enact, in consulted Mr. Vignoles on the subject; but their the first place, that the employment of women determination on the subject has not as yet, been in any of these works shall be at once and
made known. At some experiments made last wholly prohibited ; and next, that no male
week at Wormwood Scrubbs, where, as our readers child shall be so employed under thirteen years
are aware, about half a mile of railway on the atof age. Nothing sport of actual prohibition
mospheric plan has been for some time laid down, would, in the opinion of his Lordship, avail ; a speed was obtained with a vacuum varying from for to mend matters by regulation would be
24 to 25 inches of mercury, or upwards of 40 miles quite impossible ; the miner, when the la
an hour, and this, notwithsanding the rails are in bourers are once consigned to him under
most wretched condition, and the atmospheric apground, is absolute, and as to subterranean
pliances not much better. inspection, it would be at the hazard of the
Hot Times at Hand.-Luke Howard, E«q., F.R.S., inspector's very life. The Bill next provides who has carried on careful metereological observafor the abolition of the present system of ap
tions for about forty years, has published the result prenticing the boys, who are kept till twenty
of his observations through two complete cycles of
eighteen years each. The result shows a very great one in a state of slavery. His Lordship con general resemblance between the two periods. Mr. sidered that there was no pretence for any
Howard is convinced that in each cycle there is a binding, for the business had nothing in it
succession of years above the average degree of
warmth, and a succession of years below the aver. which could not be learned in ten or twelve
age. It is very agreeable to tind that we have now days. He instanced some cases of cruelty just arrived at the close of one of the colder periods, scarcely equalled in the records of African sla
and are entering one of the warrrer. Mr. Howard
anticipates that this, and several successive years very, and attended with this aggravation, that
will be genial, warm, and generally favourable to the young sufferers in the mine had none to abundance of the products of the soil. The reader whose sympathy they could appeal. It was
is aware that in eighteen years the moon, the sun,
and the earth come into the same relative position to the cases of women and children only
towards each other as they were at ihe beginning that he had applied himself with a view to of the period. Now dr. Howard's theory is that legislative remedy ; he had never attempted the temperature, moisture, winds, &c., on our globe, to legislate as between the masters and the
are materially affected by the relative positions of
the sun and moon towards her. men, but he besought his countrymen in the
Axles Useless. – Some of the English railway spirit of Christianity, to make some expia companies, to justify themselves for persisting in tion for their sins by taking thought for the
the use of four wheeled engines, have been proving
most satisfactorily by a number of experiments poor.
with axles cut intentionally in two, that an axle
thus divided is just as good for all practical purpo• The patentee means, we presume, the ogee bar, ses as one perfectly entire. The next step, of course, over which the hide is passed to tighten it for the will be to dispense with them altogether. application of the knife.
Comfortable News for Railway Travellers.-A
performance of these engines is looked to sith con correspondent of the Times mentions that Dr.
siderable interest by parties connected with steen Buckland, the eminent geologist, stated “at his
navigation. Great praise is due to Messrs. Eyton last lecture" (a mistake-it was at a meeting of
for their spirit in carrying into effect a hazardou the Institution of Civil Engineers the Doctor made experiment at their own risk, and it is highly prathe statement) that he “considers the Box-tunnel,
tifying to find that the result has anszered their as well as several others, to be in a very dangerous
most sanguine expectations. We understand that state, and that if they were not masonried through
the Messrs. Eyton yet contemplate much greater out, he would stake his reputation that at some
improvement in the construction of maride eogises, period not far distant, a serious fall of earth and
and we may say that most of the improvements in rock will take place, the disastrous consequences of
this most important branch of our national merine which no man can venture to enumerate." The
have arisen from individual enterprise and skillDoctor laid it down as a general rule, without ex
the result of private competition.-Chester Chronicle ception, that every tunnel which is not made Atmospheric Railway in Ireland.-The Daikis through solid rock, is unsafe, unless defended by
Mercantile Advertiser says—“Every arrangemen: strong brick or stone-work, with provision besides
has been completed with the government and the for good drainage-a category which may be said to
board of works, preliminary to the commencemeat comprehend nine out of ten of all the railway tun
of the line between Kingstown and Dalkey, co ibe nels in England.
atmospheric system. Ja the course of the etsning Immense Stone. -The largest stone which we be
month the works will be in full operation; and lieve has ever been cut out from any of the fine
thus the Dublin and Kingstown Railway Company freestone quarries which abound in our vicinity,
will have given the initiative in the practical ador has been this week removed from the Duke of Buc
tion of a system which is calculated to produce such cleuch's quarry at Granton. It is a block of thirty
transcendently important results upon railway contons weight of liver-rock, and is intended to form
munication." The money for the purpose (25,000..) the statue of Lord Nelson, about to be erected in
is to be advanced on loan to the company by Go Trafalgar-square, London. It was yesterday re
vernment. moved from the quarry to Granton Pier, to be
The largest apartment in the world, is the riding shipped in a vessel sent down specially by the Ad
school at Moscow, which is 500 feet 10 inches long miralty, for the purpose of conveying it to London.
and 133 broad, without pillar or intervening prap The labour of removing it from the quarry was
of any kind. The famous town-hall of Padua great in proportion to the ponderous mass; but
which used to be considered the largest, is only 249 under the superintendence of skilful engineers was
feet long and 80 feet broad. Westininster-ball ha satisfactorily accomplished. The cost of the block,
often been stated to be the largest, whereas it la with the expense of placing it in Trafalgar-square,
only 275 feet by 75 feet; and King's College, Can we have been told, will exceed 3001.-Caledonian
bridge, 291 feet by 454 feet, and 79 higb. Mercury.
Adams's Bow Springs.-From a statement giren Cast and Wrought-Iron Rails.-A correspondent in the Railway Times, it appears that since Sep of the Mining Journal states, that at the last annual tember, 1838, no less than 204 pairs of these spring meeting of the St. Etienne and Loire Railway Com have been applied to private carriages; 3:2 to railpany, the directors expressed their conviction of way carriages, and 30 to carts, wagons and draşe, the necessity of abolishing the use of cast-iron for in addition to 73 sets of double buller springs, and rails in future, and substituting wrought-iron for 50 of single buffers, on the same principle, supplied that purpose, as also for the spokes of the wheels ; to different railways. Of 72 carriages at the South the cause of that determination was explained by Eastern Railway, 25 are on Mr. Adams's plan. Å the announcement that no less than 203 wheels had full description of the bow spring system is gires been broken, during the last year, from the use of in vol. xxxi. p. 113. cast-iron on their line, while on the Roanne Rail. way, where wrought-iron only was employed, but
Rearing Timber.-No populous and industrious three wheels were injured.
people can afford to grow useful timber for their own
lise. A fine oak will require 200 years to come to The Taliesin Steamer and Engines. - About Christmas last we announced the launch of the
maturity. The oaks planted during the Contuot
wealth are only now fit to cut for decent navy tipTaliesin from the building yard of Messrs. Eyion
ber. The land fit to grow an oak, sould in the Brothers, at Mostyn Foundry, at the mouth of the
same time yield 200 green and grass crops, and in Dee in Flintshire. This vessel is intended to ply
the hands of a market gardener, froin 300 to $10. on the Liverpool and Mostyn station, in lieu of iho
The fee simple of an acre of land fit to grow cakes present steamer the Black Diamond. Messrs. Eyton might be bought nearly seven times over while the have constructed two new engines of their own in
oaks are growing. vention for the Taliesin, on an entirely new principle, combining lightness, with power, and economy
Tribute to the Art of Printing.-The Emperor el of space, and which, for distinction, may be called
Germany allowed printers to wear coat armour in the “Taliesin Engines. Various trials of these
acknowledgment of the importance of the discovery. engines have been made, and they are found to
Printing was anciently practised by many who were work admirably, with a very moderate consumption
of noble family as well as by eminent ecclesiastics. of fuel. The power of the engives is equal to ninety
Wood Paring.-It has been at length determined horses. They weigh only 15 tons, and vccupy about
to pave Oxford-street with wood, and the Vestry 4 feet of the vessel's hold, while the speed of the
are now laying their heads together to furnish the boat, constructed rather wide with a view to towing
material.--Punch, and carrying cargo, and short so as to turn in a confined space to suit the particular station, aver
17 INTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied ages full ten miles an hour, when there are upwards of two hundred persons on board. A much
gratis with Instructions, by application (posthigher rate of speed will most likely be effected paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., when the stiffness of the machinery wears off by 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only use. With a vessel modelled for speed there is little doubt that sixteen or seventeen miles an hour
COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT would be accounplished. We understand that the (from 1617 to the present time).
LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,
No. 166, Fleet-street.Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris,
Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgb.