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441 limit to his powers of sub-aqueous vitality. invaluable. Dr. Payerne is said to be now General Pasley, and several other eminent engaged in constructing a sub-aqueous boat scientific individuals kept watch at the bell in which he will undertake to enter any during the whole of the three hours, and enemy's harbour unseen, and in a single day were perfectly satisfied that no supply of apply the means of destruction to every ship vital air was conveyed to Dr. Payerne from it contains. above.

Now that this surprising feat, so long regarded as of the class of physical impossi • bilities has been at last accomplished, every


(Selected and abridged from the Pranklin Journal.] one (as usual) is discovering how easy it is.

IMPROVED STEAM ENGINE. John EriccIt is only to take down with you something son, of Sweden, now residing in New that will absorb the carbonic acid gas as fast York. The claim appended to the speas you generate it, and something else (with

cification of this patent will give a suffia lucifer match or two to heat it) from

ciently clear idea of the invention : it is as

follows, viz. Having thus fully described which you may set free oxygen enough to

the nature of my invention, and shown the keep you alive. Doubtless these are the manner in which I carry the same into opermain conditions of the experiment and there ation, I do hereby declare that I do not claim

to be the inventor of steam engines having are several well-known substances which do

radial pistons, which vibrate or perform possess these two requisites. Pure potassa, partial rotary movements within semicylin. for example, will absorb nearly half its weight ders, or other segments of cylinders, such of carbonic acid gas; and chlorate of potass

engines having been before known and used ; gives out when heated 3915 parts per 100 of

but what I do claim as my invention, is the

propelling of steam carriages by the comoxygen. The judgment and skill, however,

bining of two semi-cylinders, each furnished which have formed out of such abstract with radial pistons, which pistons vibrate notions and (quoad hoc) unapplied facts as

within them, said semi-cylinders being these (supposing the conjectures that point

placed on a level with each other ; and the

shafts, or axles, of their radial pistons ex. to them to be correct) a practical means of tending through the cylindrical covers in living under water—which have realized so opposite directions beyond the sides of a lonice a balance or adjustment of essential yet

comotive carriage, and having crank levers

attached to their outer ends, which crank conflicting elements—cannot be of an every.

levers are connected by suitable rods, to day cast, and unquestionably entitle Dr.

crank pins on the driving wheels. I likePayerne to take a high place among the in wise claim the employment of the same apventors and discoverers of the age.

paratus for the driving of the propelling, or The practical applications which this new

paddle, wheels of such vessels as are pro

pelled by the power of steam. art admits of, are numerous and important. IMPROVEMENT IN THE METHOD OF MADiving-bells and helmets will now be freed NUFACTURING BALLS OR Suot; Levi Ma. from all those cumbrous, yet delicate append gers.

Baltimore. The moulds which are ages which make working with them so dif

to be used are made upon the sides of any

number of square bars of iron, are arranged ficult, and in no case free from considerable

in a reciprocating carriage, so that they can danger. Works under water will be pro be separated at the end of each operation to secuted with almost as much ease as works

discharge the balls that have been cast, and

reclosed. above. Valuable wrecks will no longer lie

For this purpose the bars slide

on the carriage at right angles to its length, for ages on our shores, hidden and unex and all the bars are connected with one le. plored; but within a month or two of their ver, each by a separate link, the connecting being ingulfed, restore their treasures to link of the outside bar being furthest from the daring and industry of man.

the fulcrum of the lever, and the others poses of war, too-power to wage which, with

nearer and nearer the fulcrum, so that by

one movement of the lever the bars will all advantage, is always, in just hands, the best

be separated. A furnace and kettle, consecurity for peace-this invention will be taining the lead, are arranged over the car.

For pur

riage of moulds, and are provided with the necessary appendages to allow the molten lead to run into the moulds as they pass uns der the kettle, and to stop its How when the carriage of moulds arrives at the end of its course.

The claim is to the combination of the furnace and kettle with the moulds, and also to the combination and arrangement of the moulds with the carriage.

IMPROVEMENT IN THE SPARK Extin. GUISHER; David Ritter. New Haven. At the top of the ordinary chimney of a locomotive steam-engine, there is placed a cap pierced with three holes, one at top, one in front, and the third at the back; the two former have hinged covers, which can be opened for firing up, and the other provided with a conducting tube which runs over the engine and turns down at right angles, and is to discharge the sparks, &c. into a reservoir containing water, and covered with wire gauze for the escape of the draught.

Claim.-"I do not claim as my invention, the conductor for carrying off the sparks from the chimney of the locomotive, nor the openings for the draught on the top or in front of it, which openings may be used or not, as occasion may require. But I do claim as my invention the combination of the cistern or reservoir of water with the conductor for carrying the sparks and dust from the chimney, and depositing them per. pendicularly downward in the reservoir, and thereby extinguishing the spars and absorbing the dust, permitting the smoke only to escape from the reservoir."

IMPROVEMENTS TAKING MEASURE OF THE HUMAN BODY FOR THE PURPOSE OF DRAFTING AND CUTTING Coats; Thomas E. l'ilden, Bal. timore. The patentee says" My first improvement consists of a simple instrument which I denominate Tilden's Daguer. reotype, or transfer ruler ; and my second improvement consists in the manner of applying the common tape measure, divided into inches and parts of inches, so as to draft and cut from a point, or points, as certained by the transfer ruler, which system of measuring I denominate Tilden's Balancing system.”

The transfer ruler is simply a straight strip of wood, having a spirit level fixed on the middle, or on any other convenient part, of one of its flat sides, and two sliding arms which project out from said ruler at right angles to its length, and by the use of this, and the ordinary measuring tape, all the required measures are obtained.

Claim.-" What I claim as new and de

sire to obtain by letters patent, is first, the manner of constructing and using the instrument which I have called the transfer ruler, for obtaining a point on the back of the person to be fitted, which shall be in the same horizontal line with the under part of the arms, and for obtaining two such points where the arms, or shoulders, are of unequal height, from which point, or points, the principal measures, constituting my ba. lancing system, are to be taken. Secondly, the manner of taking what I have called my second shoulder measure by the aid of said point or points ; also the manner of taking my third shoulder measure as related to and employing the said point or points; and lastly, I claim the manner in which I take what I have herein called my balance measure, and of using the same in drafting for the purpose of cutting, so as to test and balance the respective measures obtained by the mark, or marks, on the middle of the back.”

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE SPARK ARRESTER; William P. M'Connell, Washington. The smoke and sparks are to be drawn into a rotary fan blower, placed in the smoke-bas, by which they are forced up a pipe, and then thrown into a reservoir of water placed above the smoke-box; the smoke and gases pass up through the openings of a perfor. ated plate and out of the chimney, the draught of which is to be increased by the steam from the exhaust pipes. The water reservoir is provided with two pipes and cocks for discharging the water and cinders when desired, and it is also surrounded with a case of larger diameter, leaving a space between the two, and from this space tubes descend, so that the water and extinguished sparks which may be carried over the edge of the water reservoir, may descend and be discharged.

IMPROVED Vessel, OR LocoMOTIVE STEAMER; George Burnham, Philadelphia. The patentee says:-—" My vessel, or locomotive steamer, is to be rendered buoyant, and to be propelled by means of hollow, air-tight floats, in the form of drums, or spheroids, or spheres, which are to be of such capacity as to sustain the vessel and its load, without the dipping of any part of the hull, or body, of the vessel into the water, and without the submersion of any larger portion of such hollow floats than shall be compatible with their being advantageously used to carry buckets or paddles, for the purpose of propelling said vessel. These floats are to operate in water in a manner somewhat reser that of the propelling wheels of locomotives on land; but they must, of course, be furnished with buckets,






or paddles, to act upon the water in the " It is a well known fact,” says the patenmanner of the ordinary paddle wheels of tee, “ that when steam is allowed to escape steamboats.

rapidly through a small orifice into the at. * I do not claim to be the first to have mosphere, it carries with it a considerable used buoyant cylinders, or floats, having portion of the surrounding air, and that the paddles or buckets upon their peripheries ; instrument denominated the ælopile has but what I do claim is the using of re been, from this circumstance, proposed to volving floats for obtaining buoyancy, and be applied to the blowing of air into forges as propellers, in the manner herein set and furnaces. The same principle is also forth : that is to say, said tloats eing in applied in the locomotive steam engine to diameter equal to that of the paddle wheels create a partial vacuum in the furnace, by ordinarily employed, and like them, rising projecting a jet of waste steam up the chim. above the deck of the vessel, and being fur ney, which carries with it a large portion of nished with buckets, or paddles, the outer air, thereby effecting the object desired. In edges of which are to be on a line, or nearly my apparatus for raising water I apply the so, with that of the peripheries of the same principle to the producing of a partial floats."

vacuum in suitable receivers, into which Propelling Boats By JETS OF WATER; water is then to be forced from the well, or Hugh Ronalds. The propelling of boats by other reservoir, by the pressure of the atmeans of jets, or currents of water, has re mosphere." peatedly been patented in Europe and in The claim is to the combination and arAmerica, under various modifications; in rangement of the various parts of the appathe present plan there are two cylinders ratus with the view of applying the principle lring horizontally in the vessel, and open at above indicated, to the raising of water. the stern. These cylinders are each pro MACHINE FOR SPINNING Sık; George vided with a piston impelled by a steam en Heritage, Chestertown. This machine is for gine. The improvement claimed is to the spinning silk directly from the cocoons, and making of the inner ends of the cylinders giving the necessary twist to it at the same open to the atmosphere for the free egress time. The cocoons are placed in revolving and ingress of the air during the back and pans, (for a description of which the reader forward movement of the pistons, the water is referred to the notice of the patent next as it flows into said cylinders doing so by following) which give the first twist to the hydrostatic pressure only.

strands ; the threads are then guided to two MACHINE FOR OVERHAULING CLOTH square shafts, around which they pass, the WHILE FULLING; John Tillou, New Ha. axles of which are parallel; these are divided ven. The patentee says— The design and into sections of different diameters, for the object of my machine is to remove mill purpose of drawing the threads from the wrinkles, and to make a smooth surface on cocoons with different degrees of velocity, cloth by means of a force so applied as to to give different degrees of fineness and stretch the cloth widthwise, while the rolling twist; the threads pass thence to the flyers cylinders passing the cloth, draw and stretch and spindles, which are of the usual conit lengthwise." “ The principle is applica struction. ble to machinery for overhauling cloth while MACHINERY FOR REELING SILK FROM fulling, and for extending cloth while nap THE Cocoons ; George Heritage. It is ping or shearing, or in lieu of revolving tem observed in the specification, that “ in the ples for weaving."

ordinary mode of reeling silk from the coTwo pairs of chains working over rollers coons, and forming from it what is known and armed with rubbers, pass over and un under the name of raw silk : the fibres from der the surface of the cloth at right angles the respective cocoons form a flat, angular, to its length, the two nearly meeting in the or irregular thread, as they do not receive middle of the cloth, and running in opposite any twist on their way to the reel from the directions, rub out the wrinkles—this is basin or vessel containing them. By my called the "transverse rubber." The cloth, improved machinery, I cause the respective after leaving these chains, passes between two fibres which are to form one thread, to twist sets of oblique rollers, the axis of one set together, as the cocoons are unwound, and forming an obtuse angle with the other, in consequence of such twisting to form a called “ oblique stretchers,” which stretch round thread when wound upon the reel, the cloth width-wise.

which round thread is much better adapted APPARATOS

RAISING WATER, to various uses in the silk manufacture, than CALLED THE ÆLOPILE HYDRAULIC APPA. the raw silk as heretofore formed." To Ratus; Pierre Ravard, Paris, France, as effect this, the basin in which the cocoons signed to Eugene Ablon, of New York. are placed is attached to a spindle with


each end, and one at top in the middle:

which it revolves, and the basin is divided opened to receive the oil; and when the into compartments, so that the water con valve at the top is closed, then the stop tained in it, with the cocoons, revolve with cock may be opened. When this has been it, and give the desired twist.

done, it is evident that the air from the air IMPROVEMENT IN WIND-MILLS; Isaac chamber will rise in the tube, at the bottom Garver and Samuel Fahrney, Washington. of the reservoir, and allow the oil to descend This patent is for a mode of setting and in the air chamber until it reaches the lower shifting the sails of wind-mills. The backs end of the said tube, and the oil reservoir of the sails are jointed to the arms, and a being then hermetically closed by the valve rod, attached to the back of each sail, is at the top, the atmospheric pressure will connected with a thimble on the shaft, by prevent the further descent of the oil. By sliding which, the angle of the sail is this arrangement the inconvenience arising changed. The sails are kept at their greatest from the overflowing of the common founangle by a spring, the end of which is forked tain lamp is effectually guarded against ; for and fits into a groove made for that purpose by making the top of the burner a little in the thimble. A cord attached to the higher than the lower end of the tube in the thimble passes over pulleys and down to bottom of the oil reservoir, the oil can never within reach of the operator, by means of rise above the given height. which the tension of the spring can be over METHOD OF FORMING ICE; Thomas B. come, and the sails shifted.

Smith, St. Louis. The patentee says: APPARATUS FOR STEERING Boats; Rus. “My improved process for the rapid prosell Evartz, Madison. The steering chain in duction of ice by the freezing of water, is this apparatus is made fast to a segment of a dependent upon the well known fact, that a wheel at the rudder head, and passing thence, thin stratum of water when exposed to an its ends are wound around, and made fast to atmosphere, the temperature of which is at, two drums on a horizontal shaft, under the or below, thirty-two degrees of Fahrenheit's tiller house—the distance between the two scale, very rapidly becomes frozen. It is drums must be equal to the diameter of the also a fact that after a thin sheet of ice has wheel at the rudder head; the chain, there. been formed upon the surface of water, the fore, always acts upon the wheel in the line process of freezing proceeds but slowly, in of its tangent, and the leverage on the rud consequence of the bad conducting property der will be unvarying. The shaft of the of ice for the matter of heat. Taking adtiller wheel, which has its bearings in a vantage of these laws, I proceed in the forsliding frame, is provided with wheels of mation, or the making of ice, in the followdifferent diameters, either of which may be

ing way: I prepare a vat, or other suitable put in gear with a cog-wheel on the shaft of vessel, of wood, or other material, of any the drums to which the steering chain is at. size that I may deem convenient, and this I tached. Two chains are made fast to the place on a level, in such situation as shall rudder, and pass along under the gunwhales best expose it to the freezing influence of the to the bow, where they are attached to the atmosphere. From any suitable reservoir I windlass, by which arrangement the vessel cause a portion of water to run into this rat, may be steered in case of a fire, which would or other vessel, so as to cover the bottom prevent the use of the tiller or rudder head. thereof to the depth of an eighth, or fourth,

IMPROVEMENT IN THE ARGAND LAMP; of an inch, more or less, according to cirBenjamin Hemmenway, Roxbury. The ob cumstances, and this water I allow to become ject of this improvement is to avoid the completely frozen : when this has taken place, necessity of removing the oil chamber, in I in like manner supply another portion of the fountain lamp, to replenish it with oil. water to be converted into ice. Proceeding The fountain or reservoir is supplied with

in this way, I quickly obtain a thick stratum oil through a short pipe at top, which is of ice, of perfect purity, if the water de hermetically closed by a leather valve and pure, and of great solidity." screw cap; and between the bottom of this re The vat, or reservoir, is described as being servoir and the pipe that conducts the oil to made with movable partitions, to form blocks the burner, is an air chamber, which is sup of any desired size. plied with air by a tube passing up through

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CARDING MAthe oil reservoir. From the bottom of the CHINE ; Ebenezer and Alanson Crane. The oil reservoir, a tube, provided with a stop top cards, instead of being permanently

atcock, descends to within a short distance of tached to the frame, are affixed to a travelthe bottom of the air chamber. When the ing endless belt, passing around a roller at oil chamber is to be replenished, the stop cock, in the tube at the bottom, must be they are prevented from approaching too closed, and the valve at the top may then be near to the main card by a segment plate,

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over which the ends of the pieces, forming the chain, travel. As the top cards approach the top roller, they are stripped by a stripping card attached to the ends of two “ sweeps," or arms, that receive a reciprocating motion from a crank. After stripping the top cards, it passes over a small permanent card which cleans it.

The rollers and segment are provided with adjusting screws.


“ FAIR LRATHER." James C. Booth, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In order to obtain or put the leather in the state designated, so that it may have the peculiar light-coloured and fair appearance which is the object of the invention, the patentee employs the leather in that stage of the manufacture when it is in its moist state, after it is “ finished ;' or if it is used when the leather is dry, then in the latter case it must be moistened through with clear water. While it is thus wet, I spread (he says) with a sponge, brush, or other suitable article, the following liquid composition over the fair surface of the leather, giving it sufficient dampness to let the pores absorb the liquid. The liquid to be applied, is a solution of the protomuriate of tin in muriatic acid, ether, alcohol, and water, and is composed as follows :-Any quantity of the protomuriate of tin is dissolved in about one half of the weight of muriatic acid, and to this solution ether is added in the proportion, by weight, of three times the weight of the protomuriate of tin, and then a quantity of alcohol by weight, equal to four times the weight of the proto. muriate of tin. To this may be superadded clear fresh water in the proportion of three parts by weight, as compared with the pro. tomuriate of tin. If the leather to be employed under this process is not clear, or is very dark or spotted, then a greater proportion of muriatic acid is to be used, say an equal quantity, by weight, or twice as much, by weight, as compared with the protomuriate of tin. Immediately after the application of the above described liquid composition to the leather, I spread over it (he says) in a similar manner, spirits of turpentine with or without a small quantity of tallow dissolved in it, sufficient to make it pliable, and the leather is suffered to dry in the ordinary manner, and the operation is complete. The spirits of turpentine alone will generally be sufficient to give pliability to the leather after the first composition is employed, without adding the tallow; but when the leather is stiff or hard, or not sufficiently soft, the tallow may then be added. The leather after this process will have the required whiteness and fair appearance.

PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING SUL. PHATE OF ALUMINE. Rudolph and Gustava Boninger, of Baltimore, Maryland, As. signees of Max Joseph Funcke, of Eichelskamp, Prussia. The process here patented consists in manufacturing sulphate of alu. mine, so as to produce the same free, or nearly free, from iron, and from alkali; whereby it is more perfectly adapted to be used as a mordant, or for other purposes, in the useful arts, than the alum of commerce, or than the sulphate of alumine, as ordinarily prepared.--" I take," says the patentee,“ potters' clay, pipe clay, or clay of any other kind, as free from iron as it can possibly be obtained ; and this I dry at such degree of heat as is necessary to drive off all its free moisture. The clay so calcined is next to be reduced to powder, and this powder I put into suitable leaden ves. sels, or vessels of other material not acted upon by sulphuric acid ; to these vessels a moderate degree of heat is to be applied, by means of steam or otherwise. Sulphuric acid, of 66° Beaumé, is then to be added to the clay, in such quantity as shall suffice to dissolve nearly the whole of the alumine contained in the clay; which may be ascertained by a previous test on a small quantity. An excess of acid should not be used, as the whole ought to be perfectly neutralized by the alumine.

“ After the addition of the acid, the mass in the pans is to be stirred until it is perfectly dry ; boiling water is then to be added in sufficient quantity to dissolve the whole of the salt. The liquid thus obtained is to be placed in vats, and to remain at rest un. til it becomes perfectly clear. It should then be tested by means of lime water, to be certain that it does not contain any free acid ; and should any be present, lime water is to be added until the whole excess of acid has combined with the lime, and has been precipitated in the form of sulphate of lime. When perfectly clear, the liquid is to be drawn off into other vats, preparatory to the separating from it the iron, which will always be found contained with it in greater or a less quantity. A measured portion of this liquid, say one pint, is then to be taken, and the iron contained in it is to be precipitated, by means of a solution of prussiate of potash, in such manner as to ascertain the exact ;quantity of said solution necessary to the precipitation of the contained iron. The quantity of liquid contained in the vat being known, the portion of the solution of the prussiate of potash necessary to the precipitation of the whole of the iron will consequently be known, and this is to be added to it, the mixture stirred,

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