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tons and all other necessary appendages, wrought by this poor but most ingenious artist.” The strangeness, however, consists less in the man's performances, though certainly they are remarkable enough, than in the use which he is about to make of his discoveries in weaving. “Rather than injure," so the story proceeds, " such of his fellowcountrymen as carry on the business of woollendrapers, and follow the trade of merchant tailors, by selling his secret and teaching his art to an English capitalist that has offered for both, and who, by the application of steam power and appropriate machinery, could manufacture all sorts of men's clothing, and thereby, at po remote period, leave multitudes of tailors disemployed," he has determined to emigrate with his invention to "some distant land!" There is a patriot for you! A per. fect "gem !" But he has, it appears, his consolation. He crosses the Atlantic to find "a home and happiness" under the star-spangled banner, and when he “shall have settled at New York, whither he intends to emigrate," his mother country is to be paid off in grand style for its indifference to such extraordinary merit. "Jonathan will heap reproaches on us for neglecting to encourage and succour the most extraordinary self-taught weaver that ever left our shores." Jonathan ought rather -if there be any truth in the story--to shower thanks and blessings upon us for making him such a present. But since "an English capitalist” has already offered to buy both the patriotic weaver's secret and to pay him for teaching his art, what ground is there for complaining that he is in want either of encouragement or succour? Why not close with the English capitalist at once? Why not eschew blarney and stay and make himself rich and happy where he is?
American Locomotives.-A remarkable performance on the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad.A new geared truck locomotive-engine, built by Messrs. Baldwin aud Vail, with six wheels and outside connexions, and weighing, in running order, 30,000 lbs., hauled lately a train of 117 loaded cars, Weigling in all 590 tons, from Reading to the inclined plane, on the Columbia Railroad, fifty-four miles, in five hours and twenty-two minutes, being at the rate of over ten miles per hour the whole way. She consumed 2 6-10ths chords of wood, and evaporated 3110 gallons of water. Whole length of irain, 1402 feet, or eighty-two feet over a quarter of a mile. Whole length of level, over which the train was hauled, twenty-eight miles; longest continuous level, 81-10th miles; total fall, from the point where the train was started to where it stopped, 210 feet.
Rates of Speed on Railways. The following are the average rates of speed observed on seven of the principal English railways; London and Birminghamn, 27 miles per hour ; North Midland and Midland Counties, 29; Newcastle and Shields, and London and Brighton, 30; Great Western, 33; Northern and Eastern, 36.
Mills Started and Jills Stopped.-It appears, from the Report of the Factory Cominissioner, Mr. Horner, that in his district, which includes Lancashire, the North Riding and part of the West Riding of York, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westinoreland, there have been, during the three last years, 91 new mills started, employing engines of 3,350 horses power and 16,750 hands; and 138 stopped, which employed engines of 6,788 horses power and 29,363 hands.
Machinery the Friend of Wages.-We believe it may be safely asserted, that wherever machinery has been introduced, there the aggregate amount of wages paid has been incrcased, and that wherever it has diminished, there the aggregate amount of wages paid bas fallen likewise. Machinery has never increased but as a means to the increase of
wealth. When wealth is increasing it tous le employed in further production, or it would not continue to increase. But farther production res quires greater employment of labour, and at the same time increases the fund for its remuneration. From this increased fund the labourer derives an increased share, for the object of the employer is to augment the amount as well as the rate of bir profit. And this he effects not by diminishing his hands and limiting his uew machine power, but by extending its application to the widesi range com. mensurate with the funds he can employ to make and to work it, so as to maximise its capacity and compass the largest scope both of product and prcet. -Facts and Figures.
Death of Mr. Samuel Seaward.- We latent to have to record the death, on the ilth inst, of this eminent practical engineer. Few establishmests in this country have contributed more to the progress of steam navigation, than the firm of Mesen. Seaward and Capel, of which the deceased was an active partner. Mr. S. Seaward was a Fellox el the Royal Society, and a Member of the Institutiva of Civil Engineers, in the proceedings and we fare of which he latterly took a most lively interest.
Pour and Six Wheel Engines.- Prom the Returns made to the Board of Trade by the differeut Railway Companies, it appears that the number of six wheel engines now in use is 605, and of four wheel 224. We hope, ere long, to see the latter bomber reduced to 0.
The Transatlantic Steamers.—The Great Western, which sailed from Kingroad, Bristol, on ibe 20 ult., for New York, reached that city on the 17th, aster a passage of 14 days and 12 hours. She sailed from New York for Liverpool on the sth ult., and arrived off the floating-light early on the morning of Wednesday, the iti inst., baving made the run in 12 days and 8 hours, the shortest passage ever made between New York and Liver pool, as well as the shortest ever made by the Great Western. She has certainly made the passage to Bristol in a space of time very little greater-11 days and 12 hours--but the difference of the distance between New York and Liverpool, as com pared with the distance between New York and Bristol, is equal to at least six hours' steaming: Liverpool Times.
East India Company's Sleam-Frigate Aebar.-0a Sunday last this splendid war-steamer left her 31chorage at Gravesend, bearing the pendant of Conmodore Pepper, of the Indian navy. The Acbar is a steam-frigate of the first class, armed with to eight-inch guns, and four long 32-pounders, with a complement of 16) men; carrying öve boats, ou two of which are mounted brass 12 Ib. howitzers. The engines are of the collective power of :50 horses, manufactured by Napier of Glasgow. She carries 500 tons of coal, which, with a consumption of a ton an hour, will enable her to steau 20 sue. cessive days. The Acbar made her passage from Gravesend to Falmouth, a distance of 370 miles, in 36 hours, which gives an average speed of more than 10 miles an hour.--Times.
17 INTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied gratis with Instructions, by application (postpaid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT (from 1617 to the present time), Patents, both British and Foreign, solicited. Specificutions prepared or revised, and all other Patent óta siness transacted,
LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Oifice,
No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;
Machiu and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.
AMERICAN MARINE STEAM ENGINES PITTED TO THE SPANISH PRIGATES “EL
REGENT” AND “EL CONGRESO." We had occasion, some time ago, to notice in rather unfavourable terms the steam engines manufactured in the Uni.
Sectional View. ted States for the Russian frigate Kamstchatka, which appeared to us, both in design and workmanship, much inferior to the productions of our English workshops, while they had cost a great deal more. The Spanish Government has since had two steamers, El Regent and El Congreso, (formerly the Eagle and Lion,) fitted with engines at New York by Messrs. Ward, Stillman, and Co., of the Novelty Iron Works, who have kindly enabled us to lay the accompanying engravings of them before the readers of the Mechanics' Magazine. We take pleasure in acknowledging that they fully establish the truth of the representation made to us by an American Correspondent, (vol. xxxvi. p. 222,) that the Kamstchatka's engines were by no means to be regarded as fair specimens of what his countrymen could do in this line, having been built under peculiar circumstances, which did not give fair play to their genius and skill. The engines supplied to the Spanish frigates are in every respect of a much superior character, and approach nearer to English excellence than any of foreign manufacture which have yet come under our notice. The cylinders are 424 inches in diameter; the length of stroke, 55 inches. We have not been informed of the dimensions of the Regent, but we presume they must be nearly similar to those of El Congreso, which is stated to be 154 feet in length, 30 feet 8 inches in greatest breadth, and 14 feet 8 inches in depth. The engines of both vessels have, we are assured, been in use" for a whole year without requiring any repairs whatever." We are promised a copy of “the log of several voyages ;" and when we receive it shall be able to speak of the performances of the vessels in other respects.
THE BUDE LIGHT,
In our 849th No. (16th Nov. 1839) confine myself thereto, so long as the we gave a very full account of the Bude means resorted to are such as to bring Light, as it existed at that time, extracted the gas into contact with muriate of zink, from “Minutes of Evidence taken before with or without other suitable materials, the Select Committee" appointed to in in the passage of the gas from the gasquire into the best means of lighting the main to the burner or burners.” SpeciHouse of Commons. The light was then fication. Mr. Alexander Croll, the prestated to be produced by means of a com sent Superintendent of the Chartered Gas mon Argand lamp, with cotton and sperm Company's Works at Brick Lane, took oil, through the centre of the flame of which out a patent two months before the date a stream of oxygen was passed, in place of Mr. Gurney's, for purifying gas by of atmospheric air, as usual. The oxy contact with muriate of zink, as it comes gen was obtained by the dry distillation of from the retorts , and this circumstance manganese in iron retorts. After a short
may serve, perhaps, to explain both Mr. trial at the House of Commons, it was Gurney's addition of the superfluous found “that oil lamps thus fed with materials and the limitation of his claim vital air were expensive, and difficult to to the use of the muriate of zink “ in the regulate." (Dr. U re.) Mr. Gurney then passage of the gas from the gas main to substituted for the sperm oil, the naph- the burner or burners.” thalized coal gas invented by Mr. Lowe, 2. Mr. Gurney regulates the supply and described in our last No. (p. 392)
gas and atmospheric air by the follow-introducing the oxygen as before. A ing means. He uses a burner consisting light of great intensity
was thus obtainedof two or more hollow concentric rings, but this process too was found objec- perforated with a great many small holes tionable in the long run, owing to a large on their upper surfaces, the atmospheric portion of the naphtha becoming liquified, air being admitted to flow freely up beand depositing itself in the pipes of dis tween the rings; and the flame is entribution. Mr. Gurney then devised closed within two conical chimneys, which quite a new process altogether; he ob are also concentric (as it were) to one tained his flame from the ordinary coal another; only, that there is a small space gas in a very pure state—abandoned the left between the top of the one and bottom artificial stream of oxygen, trusting to of the other, which admits air to the exthe surrounding atmosphere (as others terior of the flame. do) for the requisite supply; and added 3. To reflect or diffuse the light, there a variety of mechanical contrivances for are two circular concave reflectors, placed regulating the supply of gas and atmo back to back, which project from the spheric air, and diffusing the light pro upper chimney at a point nearly coinciduced. For this new process he took out dent with the middle of the flame, to a a patent, (25th March, 1841,) and this it distance all round more than equal to the is which constitutes the Bude Light of diameter of the chimney; one reflecting the present day, as in use at the House the light downwards, and the other upof Commons and elsewhere.
wards. A second upper chimney is also 1. Mr. Gurney's mode of purifying occasionally used, called by Mr. Gurney the ordinary coal gas, is to pass it, as it "a refracting zone," which is "cut on comes from the public gas main, through the outside into prismatic projecting rings a vessel similar to a common gas purifier, at such angles as to direct the light in the furnished with a mixture, either in a dry desired directions," and rests on the or slightly moistened state, composed of twin reflectors. A ground glass shade 5 parts muriate of zink, 2 parts
subace may be added or not, according to the tate of lead, 2 parts chloride of baryta, brilliancy of illumination desired. and 4 parts sulphate of manganese. The Dr. Ure calculates that the Bude Light, muriate of zink is the principal agent, as thus improved, gives as much light as and the others seem added more for the best Argand gas flame, with only variety's sake than on any other account. half the expenditure of gas; and he “ Although,” says Mr. Gurney, “ I pre ascribes this, first, to Mr. Gurney's burfer the above described means of applying ner giving, by means of its concentric the above-mentioned materials, I do not rings, a compound flame, (like that of the
Aames of two candles brought into close After all, there seems to be good reacontact,) the circles of which “mutu son for concluding that the reflectors and ally enhance each other's temperature,” refractors, combined with Dr. Reid's and consequently illuminating power ; better system of ventilation, have more and, secondly, to the circumstance that to do with the superiority of this light by means of Mr. Gurney's concentric at the House of Commons than any series," the prejudicial excess of atmo thing else. The Bude Lamp which was spheric air is prevented, and only so much set up at the bottom of Waterloo-place, permitted to come into contact with the where the ventilating system could not gas, as will effect the due separation and be so well brought into play as at St. ignition of its carbon, even at the origin Stephen's, has never been of the extraof the flame."-(Lond. Jour.)
ordinary brilliancy represented in news. With great respect, however, for Dr. paper paragraphs, and gives ordinarily Ure's authority, we must confess that no more light than would be afforded by his two reasons appear to us far from an equal body of common gas flame surbeing sufficient to account for the great rounded with reflectors The Trinity superiority ascribed to this new light. House gave Mr. Gurney a commission The flame produced from any burner to fit up the Orford Lighthouse accord. whatever, of more than one hole, as long ing to his views; but after a brief trial, as the holes are close together, is just as the Bude apparatus has been entirely remuch a
“compound flame" as that of moved from that establishment; and the Mr. Gurney's." The twelve columns of cause is unreservedly stated to be, that flame rising in a single ring from a the Gurney light was found to possess twelve-hole Argand burner of the com no more illuminating power than any mon sort, do just as much “mutually other light, while his system of reflectors enhance each other's temperature,” and was not nearly so good for maritime purconsequently illuminating power, as if poses as others previously in use. The they were arranged in two rings. The Northern Light Commissioners had admission of the atmospheric air to the given an order for a Bude apparatus to flame, in the exact quantity requisite to be applied to one of the lighthouses "effect the due separation and ignition under their management; but on hearing of its carbon," would be something more of the Orford failure, that order has to the purpose, if this could be really been countermanded. shown io be effected by Mr. Gurney's plan ; but in what respect is this admission more exactly regulated in his lamp than in others ? He gives no proportions
GLEANINGS OF A TRAVELLER IN AMERICA for his apertures of admission, and places -EXPEDITIOUS BISCUIT BAKING-SIXthem just where others do. The bottom PLE HOT WATER APPARATUS. apertures which admit the air into the in.
Sir, -Some years since I saw, in New terior of the flame, are smaller than usual York, a very simple mode of baking, -that is all; but this seems rather an acci. which I sball endeavour to describe from dental consequence of the concentric recollection. It may furnish to biscuit ring construction, than an antecedent and small cake-makers some useful hint condition of it. We are confirmed in in the construction of the oven on a scale this view of the matter by Mr. Gurney's of economy.
The inventor was Mr. claim on this head, which is simply to George Dencale. the “lighting apartments or rooms by In the middle of the shop was erected, means of burners composed of concentric of brick work, an oven, about 4 feet high, rings of tubes, combined with suitable 12 feet long, and 6 feet wide. The upper glass chimneys"-not a word of suitable surface, or top, of brick and mortar, had apertures.
no opening whatever. The end, which We should have thought something constituted the front, had, near the ground, might be due to the process of purifying, an opening with a metal door, like that but this appears to count with Dr. Ure of any common furnace, through which for nothing; and if it be true, as is cur the fuel was introduced, and thence rently reported, that the process of puri. pushed forward so as to cover the entire fication has been abandoned at the House of the floor within the walls of this oven. of Commons, he may not be far wrong Above the furnace door, some 12 inches, in this respect.