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381 uncompressed trenails were found in many sleepers, a portion of them were uncominstances to become loose. In ballasting pressed, but the greater part were compressthe railway, as stone was cheap, the whole ed like the wedges; the latter were supplied surface of the line was pitched transversely by Mr. William Cubitt. with thin stones, and then a good bed of Mr. William Cubitt only supplied the broken stone used for ballast, in the same wedges, they were compressed as he had premanner as Mr. Telford had proceeded with viously explained; he believed that the trethe Holyhead Road.

nails and wedges generally used upon the Mr. William Cubitt had compressed a London and Birmingham, and other railways, considerable quantity of wood wedges, by were compressed by being driven through forcing them singly, by a blow of a piston, steel rins, by heavy mallets, or by a press ; through a taper steel mould; on leaving the they were most frequently used in the stone mould they had attained their ultimate state blocks to receive the iron spikes. of compression, and they were some time before they reassumed their original bulk; but he conceived that Mr. May's plan, by ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH which they were dried in a compressed state, enabled them to retain their form longer. Thomas MACAULAY, OF THE CURTAINHe considered the systems of preparation, ROAD, MIDDLESEX, UPHOLSTERER, for cerand of laying the road, to be the most perfect tain improvements in bed-steps, which are hitherto executed.

convertible into other useful forms and arSome years since, Mr. Horne had made a ticles of furniture. Enrolment Office, May series of experiments on the form of timber 2, 1842. beams, which presented the greatest amount The improvements comprehended under of strength with the least quantity of timber; this patent are embodied in four different he found that a triangular beam placed with sets of bed-steps. The first is a three-tier the base upwards was one-third stronger set, which includes a portable water-closet, than any other form.

and may be readily converted into an easy Mr. Colthurst inquired whether the tre chair. The chief peculiarities of construcnails and wedges had been found to have lost tion are, l. The supporting of the bottom strength by compressing. He imagined that step on a pair of folding-doors, which can, they would not bear a transverse strain so by the touch of a spring, be projected or well as before compression.

withdrawn at pleasure ; 2. The making of Mr. May replied that no experiments had the bottom step to turn up in front on been tried as to the relative transverse hinges, when not wanted ; and, 3. Causing strength of timber before and after com the action of the top step, as it is thrown pression.

back in order to convert the bed-steps into Mr. S. Seaward thought it was probable a chair, to turn over a pair of arm-rests, or the timber did suffer somewhat from com. pads, on the sides of the case, which now pression, but that did not militate against serve as the chair-arms. The second is also the system, as there must necessarily be an a three-tier set, but includes, besides a portoriginal excess of strength in the trenails, so able water-closet, a wash-stand, a dressingthat no inconvenience could result from the table, and a bidet. The contrivances by process.

which one piece of furniture is made to serve The President observed, that although un so many different purposes are very skilful, compressed trenails do draw out of the stone but too numerous and minute, (though sim. blocks, they hold fast in wood sleepers. ple withal,) to admit of an abridged descripThe round trenails used to fasten the chairs tion. The third is also a three-tier set of to the sleepers on the Hull and Selby Rail bed-steps, but convertible into a chair only way, were of a proper size to fit the hole in by turning up the bottom step out of the the chair, and at the end a square head was way, or removing it altogether, and making left, which held the chair down.

a chair-back of the upper step. And the Mr. Cubitt had frequently seen trenails fourth is a two-tier set of bed-steps, includor plugs driven into stone blocks to receive ing a night-commode, and convertible, by the iron spikes which fastened down the the shifting of the steps, into a chair, which chairs; he believed they had also been used may, by means of certain rack-work, be driving through the chairs into the blocks, made either reclining or not reclining. The but he was not aware that they had been patentee describes also a water-sealed pail of used in wood sleepers, until he employed a peculiar construction, and claims it as inthem on the South-Eastern Railway.

cluded under his patent, when used as a part In answer to a question from the Presi. of any of the improved sets of bed-steps bedent, Mr. Lynde explained, that upon the fore described. Hull and Selby Railway, trenails were cer There is a great deal of utility, as well as tainly used in conjunction with wooden ingenuity, in these improvements; and they

come in good season now that steam navi. heretofore been used in that way, and under gation is multiplying so prodigiously the circumstances which give great facility for, number of travellers by sea and river, and and make great improvements in, ornamento that the multum in parvo is become a matter ing glass." of such essential importance in cabin furni. First, as regards the staining of glass, the ture. The set of steps No. 3 would, we improved mode of operating is stated to be imagine, be found an excellent article, as as follows. “Instead of mixing the staining well for libraries as for bed-chambers.

materials now used for that operation, when EDWARD ROBERT SIMMONS, OF CROY levigated finely and dried, with oil of tur. DON, ESQUIRE, for improvements in appa pentine or other volatile oils, or water, s ratus for preventing splashing in walking. usual, we mix them with boiled linseed or Enrolment Office, May 2, 1842.

other oil, such as is now used to mix with These improvements consist in applying enamel colours, when printed on glass: and to the heels of boots or shoes a shield, com instead of floating the staining materials posed of a thin piece of metal, which can be over the glass in a liquid state, as now prac. taken on or off at pleasure, and which, it is tised, we print them on, or transfer them as said, will effectually prevent all splashing impressions from, metal plates, in the man. from behind, by catching on its under side ner now adopted in the operation of printing the mud that would otherwise rise up and enamel colours, and proceed, after the material rest on the trowsers.

transferred has been well dried, to fire it for The claim is to temporarily applying the colour required, in the usual way. When shields to the heels of boots or shoes, to we operate with the same staining materials, prevent splashing when walking.

so mixed with oil as aforesaid, on what is In our 481st Number, for October 27, called pot metal, or on pieces of glass 1832, we gave an engraving of a “mud pro which are what is called 'flashed,' opaque tector," communicated by a Mr. Needham, and transparent shades are produced, leaving of Birmingham, which differs but little in the surface of the glass quite smooth, and shape from that of Mr. Simmons, and will, not raised in those parts, as in the common we dare say, be found quite as efficacious. mode of applying body colour for the pur.

JEREMIAH BYNNER, OF BIRMINGHAM, pose of shading." Lamp MANUFACTURER, for improvements in Second, as regards the operation of what gas-burners. Enrolment Office, May 2, 1842. is called stopping-out, the patentees give the

Mr. Bynner is the patentee of what goes following directions. “ We also mix the by the name of the “ Solar Lamp.” His materials used for that purpose into a compresent improvements consist in a peculiar position with boiled oil, as aforesaid, and

anner of feeding gas-burners with air, transfer printed apressions on to the whereby“ quiescence in the burning of gas glass with it, as before explained, covering is produced, flickering diminished, and com. such parts as are not to be acted upon, and bustion made more complete.” These ob can then float over the whole surface, in. jects are effected by causing the whole of the cluding the parts so stopped out, with liquid air admitted into the burner to pass through staining composition, and fire it as usual, to a multitude of very small orifices. The air produce the stain ; after which, the glass which is introduced into the interior of the being cleaned, the pattern so printed on it burner goes through a metal cylinder, the in stopping-out materials is exhibited in the sides of which are perforated with a number original colour of the glass, and quite disof small holes ; and that which finds its way tinct from the stained ground; or a printed to the exterior of the fame is made to go impression being transferred to the glass in through a circular plate, perforated in the stopping-out materials, as aforesaid, the resame manner, which plate serves also for the mainder of the ground may be obscured, as it support or gallery to the chimney-glass. is called, in the usual manner, thus producing

The claim is to the dividing or filamenting transparent patterns on obscured grounds." the currents of air in their passage to the Third, As regards the operation of what interior and exterior of gas-burners, in the is called obscuring glass, the patentees say: manner above described.

“ We also mix the materials which are used Joan CARR, OF NORTH SHIELDS, EARTH. to produce this effect with boiled oil, and ENWARE MANUFACTURER, AND AARON transfer impressions from engraved metal RYLES, OF THE SAME PLACE, AGENT, for plates on to the glass ; this produces obscured an improved mode of operating in certain patterns on transparent grounds. Now, processes for ornamenting glass. Rolls whereas it is evident, that in all processes Chapel Office, May 9, 1842.

for ornamenting glass by staining, stoppingmproved mode" here patented is out, or obscuring, the means we have disstated to consist in the application to glass covered of mixing the staining, the stopping" of the process usually called by glass-stain ont, and the obscuring materials with boiled ers printing with materials which have not linseed oil, so as to enable us to print with

The "

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the composition from copper or other engraved metal plates, gives us the power of greatly improving, perfecting, diversifying, and multiplying the combinations of pat. terns, grounds and devices, while it does not deprive us of the aid of enamel colours to add to that diversity as usual.”

The claim is to the use in those processes for ornamenting glass, where staining, stoppingout, or obscuring materials are employed, of 1. the mode before described of transferring the said materials in the form of impressions from engraved plates of metal on to the glass, in the same manner as now practised in printing in enamel on glass, namely, by mixing the said materials with boiled linseed or other oil, and, 2. of the application of the staining material so mixed with oil, to pot metal or to flashed glass generally. The patentees add, that by “ the said improved mode of operating with the said materials, we are enabled greatly to improve, perfect, render more exact, diversify and multiply the combinations of patterns, grounds and devices for ornamenting such glass as aforesaid, and to produce the same, so ornamented, at a cheaper rate.”

Court of Common Pleas.

Thursday, May 5.

(Sittings in Banco.) Gibson and another v. Brand, This was an action for the infringement of a patent, which had been taken out by the plaintiffs for a new and improved process of manufacture from silk waste, in combination with wool, flax, and other fibrous substances. The trial, which took up three days, was held before Lord Chief Justice Tindal, at the Middlesex sittings after last Trinity term. The jury found a verdict for the plaintiff on all the issues except the second and third, which denied the novelty of the invention ; and as to these issues, they brought in a special verdict, viz., that the invention was not new, but that there was an improved process, and not any new combination. A rule was ob. tained in Michaelmas term to enter the verdict on the second and third issues for the defendant, or to enter a nonsuit on the plea of not guilty, or to arrest the judgment on the fifth issue, which related to the specification. A cross rule was also granted for a new trial, if upon the argument the Court should be of opinion that the verdict on the second and third issues ought to be entered for the defendant.

Mr. Serjeant Bompas argued the case on the part of the plaintiff's, and Mr. Serjeant Channell for the defendant,

The Court said, that before they expressed any opinion as to the propriety of entering

the verdict on the second and third issues for the defendant, they would dispose of the two minor questions in the case, the first of which related to a nonsuit, and the second to an arrest of judgment on the fifth issue. It had been contended, that as the grievance charged against the defendant was that he made, used, and put in practice the inven. tion of the plaintiffs, and the evidence of infringement was a sale of some silk manufactured in the mode claimed by the plaintiffs as their invention, the plaintiffs were not en. titled to retain their verdict upon the plea of not guilty. But the evidence went to show that the defendant ordered the articles to be made in the same way as the articles made under the patent of the plaintiffs, and that seemed to the Court sufficient to justify the allegation that he made, used, and put in practice their invention. There was no ground, therefore, for a nonsuit, and it did not appear to the Court that there was any sufficient foundation for arresting the judgment for the plaintiffs upon the fifth plea. The issue raised on that plea was, that the specification was sufficient, and the jury had found that it was sufficient, in point of fact, to enable a workman of competent ability to act upon it. The Court now came to the main and important question between the parties, namely, whether the defendant had a right to have the verdict on the second and third issues entered for him. The jury found upon these issues that there was no novelty in the invention, no new combination, but an improvement in the process. The question then arose whether, upon that finding, supposing it to be supported by the evidence in the case, the jury had found those issues for the plaintiffs or the defendant, and it appeared to the Court that the verdict should be entered for the defendant on those issues. The patent was taken out strictly and entirely for the process described in it; but upon looking at the specification, it appeared to them that the patent could not be surported in law, because the plaintiffs claimed in their specification more than they were entitled to. The Court could not read the description given of their invention without understanding them to claim the improvement in the machinery used for the purpose of producing the desired effect. Now, the finding of the jury was not in accordance with the specification, as it negatived any improvement in the machinery, and therefore the Court was of opinion that the de. fendant ought to have the verdict entered for him upon those issues. They also thought, upon a full review of the evidence, that there was no miscarriage at the trial, and the rule for a new trial must therefore be discharged.

Rule absolute for entering the verdict for the defendant upon the second and third issues.


Ancient Bronze.- Among the Egyptian antiqui. On the Protection of Ironby Zinc.-M. de Althaus,

ties in the British Museum there are several cbi. director of the salt works of Durrheim, has succeed

sels, saws, and other tools, made of bronze; and ed in protecting completely the evaporating pans

also remains of granite sculptures, which, supposof the works, 30 feet in length, by nailing to them on

ing them to have been executed with these toals, the outside bands of zinc; and he observes that it

show that they must originally bave been of a bard is not necessary that the two metals be nicely po ness and temper equal to that of our best modern lished at the points of contact.-Annales des Mines.

tools of iron and steel. No Egyptian tool of iras New Propeller.-A trial was made at Liverpool,

has ever yet been found; nor is there any trade A last week, of a new method of propelling steam

this metal having been used for such purposes in boats, invented by Mr. E. Finch, for which purpose a

the days of the pyramids. A small bronze kave, small steamer had been constructed at the engineer

found at Thebes, was, after being baried for at ing establishment of Mr. Rigby, at Hawarden; the

least 2,000 years, of so good aa edge, that it was experimental trip was performed in so satisfactory

used for a penknife several months after its es. a manner as to convince all parties that this new

humation. How the Egyptians contrived to putain propeller is of great importance, and, when fully

bronze of so superior a quality is now unknota; it developed, will be as generally applied to sailing

is one of the lost arts, the re-discovery of which, vessels as to steam-packets. The invention ap

(chiefly, however, on account of the rast-proof pr. pears a simple contrivance; the paddle-boxes are

perty of this compound metal,) would be vara a still preserved, but, instead of wheels, two plates

diadem. are applied, the broadest parts of which are at their Aerostalion in Ireland.-We understand that Mr. extreme ends, fixed obliquely at an angle of 40 de

Charles Green, whose long and persevering eter: grees, one on each side of the vessel, at the ends of

tions to perfect aerial navigation are deserving of the paddle-shalt; these plates, or propellers, are

so much praise, will most probably gratify a made of wrought-iron, and appear very strong and

friends of the sister island by making some asceats compact, and about 11 feet long and 3 feet 6 inches

from Dublin, in the course of the present sumaa. wide in the broadest parts: they are entirely out of Not, however, in the "Great Nassau," (which is 3 the water twice in the revolution of the paddle-shaft,

pity,) but in some balloon of inferior magaitade; when the engine is on her centres, and have the

for, strange to say, there is not as yet a gas estab deepest hold of the water when the engine is at half lishment in Ireland which could aford su bacak stroke, or at its greatest power. They thus act like

gas for the inflation of so vast a machine. oars, or sculls; no back water is created, and the disagreeable beating of the paddle-boards on the Ericsson's Stean Fire-engine Rerired is A serici. water, and subsequent vibration of the vessel, is - When I left New York, it was rumoured that the avoided.-Mining Journal.

several insurance companies of that city had deterElectro-Magnetism as a Moving Power.—The Cou mined to have fires pui out, thereafter, by stean.sul-General of the Netherlands, in a communication They were having built a powerful steam fire-engine, dated the 18th ult., quoted by the Mining Journal, to cost 6,000 D. It was building on a plan of Ericsthus announces the removal of the hitherto great son's, the inventor of the transversal screx-paddle obstacle to the practical application of electro-mag. for steam-ships. The engine was to weigh a little netism as an effective propelling power :-“ A pri more than two tons, to have the power of 12 mea, vate gentleman, Mr. Elias, of Haarlem, has just and to throw upwards of 3,000 pounds of water per published the description of a new machine invent minute, to the height of above 100 feet. Its power, ed by him, for the application of electro-magnetism and the quantity of water to be thrown, to be greatly as a substitute for steam. The object of the inven increased over that which I have stated. It w33 3 tor has been chiefly to remedy the defects which, in be called “ Exterminator." Able engineers are of 1839, rendered the otherwise ingenious invention opinion that it will perform the work of at least sis of Mr. Jacobi, of St. Petersburgh, a total failure, in of our best engines, and it will have the advantage as far as practical utility is concerned. Those de of a power that will never be worn out by fatigue. fects originated, it seems, in the erroneous suppo The bore to which the hose will be attached is so sition that the power of the magnetic bars excla teen inches and three-quarters in circumferesce, sively resides in their extremities--whence the and the mouth of the pipe will be much less-giring form hitherto given to all electro-maguetic ma a great impetus to the volume of water, and thro*. chines-viz., that of a horse-shoe-which, while it ing it to a greater distance than our best engines. occasions an unavoidable interruption of the mag It is so constructed, that, should it be necesisry, netic stream at each new inversion of the poles, at three or four streams can play from the engine ai the same time leaves the power resident in the re the same time. The engine will be stationed in maining part of the bars wholly unemployed. The the fifth district, probably at or near Burling slip. new inventiou of Mr. Elias, on the contrary, has the It is to be drawn by a pair of strong horses, and alvery great advantage of rendering effective the full tended by a driver, an engineer, and a fireman.power of the magnetic stream uninterruptedly, and Le Cras's United States and the Canadas. throughout the whole body of the apparatus. This consists of two concentric rings of soft iron, standing on the same plane, of which the external one is immovable, while that on the inside revolves round

INTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied its own axis. By means of a piece of copper wire, gratis with Instructions, by application (postwound about each of these rings, he has given them paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., six magnetic poles, placed at equal distances from one another, the whole being so contrived that the

166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only one ring exerts its inducing power on the other

COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT throughout the whole circumference, and always at (from 1617 to the present time). Patents, both the same distance. A small, but very perfect, model of this important invention is now open to pub

British and Foreign, solicited. Specifications lic inspection here; and the result of its operation prepared or revised, and all other Patent buis allowed, by those skilled in such matters, to be siness transacted, such as to ensure the most triumphant success."

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

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