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Se sie im e size tie boks from the action of paddle-wheels

est, sh se iz spa beeg cece removed, (by the adoption of sjes se mnie

sers propellers.) the rest is easy. The

proprietors of the dise engine are making 59. Iss at dette exertions to take the lead in this per S sees om teren ad of enterprize, and, from all we can

Schising is, with good prospects of success.


&.-I have been prevented sooner offer ger thanks to your valuable correspondeat -5," for his good wishes, and for his come

nication upon my engine (in No. 971) esame I have read with satisfaction; because, e ser ces cash be does not take quite so favourable a

ties of it as I could wish, yet it appears free from prejudice, and his facts, as there given, are bas proofs of the correctness of my 6 views. The drawing he mentions, I

presume be perceived was meant merely to T: YES I unde se re. Bestrate the principle, not to work from;

Co Coezi na pro- therefore it was made as compact and as neat Siis men s viss the circumstances permitted, and occa.

son required.

I feel also obliged to your correspondent -- Throttle-valve” for his suggestions" (in No. 972.) though I think he misappreheads the grand object which I endeavour to obte by my invention, and incline to think be cannot have seen the pamphlet written upon it, as an arrangement is there made for - passing the centre with one engine." I am, Sir, Very respectfully yours,

JAMES PILBROW, Wing i miss o C

Tottenham Green, April 18, 1842.


mre & ratif et there. s's Nauei crise egperiments

PATENT LAW CASES. * = mese genciemen pea Vice-Chancellor of England's Court, LinSK I ens er mes cena,

coln's Inx. #murs du ce te sapta

April 21, 1842 se i sommigenioa bad

Hancock v. Hullmandell. un en mat ses

[In January, 1838, Mr. Charles Hauseck,

the eminent animal painter, obtained a paWir za psed to learn

tent for "certain improved means of pro si sie Grand Junction ducing figured suef

d in relis. (ma import me meczi a sum of 1007., and of

mouldir ORZE Can Carpenter, on be

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is alleged by Mr. Hancock to be obtained ever, insisted that upon the conduct of the by means which are included in his specifi parties since the granting of the patent of cation ; and the present was a motion for an Hullmandell, as well as the ground that two injunction to restrain the alleged infringe- legal titles were brought before the Court, ment.

one of which must be taken, prima facie, to Mr. Stuart and Mr. Elderton were for be as good as the other upon a motion for the plaintiff; Mr. Girdlestone and Mr. Rotch an injunction, the application ought to be for the defendant.

dismissed altogether. The learned counsel The part of his specification on which the also went into a lengthened argument upon plaintiff relies, is the following: “I take the principles of the two patents, in the a thin solution of caoutchouc mixed with course of which illustrations were given by etehing ground, or any other composition the execution of impressions of the engravwhich will resist the action of acids, and ings in open court, his Honour observing, with it cover the whole surface of the plate, that in the whole course of his experience he and then with an etching point, or other never remembered such a peculiar kind of suitable instrument, remove all the parts “ drawing in equity.' (A laugh.) which are not intended to be in relief, (or The Vice Chancellor, in giving judgment, with the same or any suitable composition, said he considered the case a very important draw or paint upon plain, curved, or undu one, and for that reason he should follow lated metallic surfaces, the whole of that the course he had already suggested. He part of my design which I intend to be in wished to have it made absolutely certain relief,) and when the drawing is perfectly whether there had been an infringement of dry, I place it in a dish or trough of ade the patent or not. If he were to act on the quate dimensions, with its face downwards, present impression in his mind, it might immersed to a proper and uniform depth in happen that when the case came before a the acid liquor, which I allow to operate jury, a verdict might be pronounced against until the desired effect is obtained. Should that opinion, and then he should have on a any part require to be placed in higher relief, matter of fact, and not being at all converthe plate, block, or cylinder, is to be washed sant with the subject, an opinion he had clean with spirits of turpentine, and a pronounced on the verity of the case conground laid on in the manner usually prac tradicted by persons who were, by the law tised in relaying of grounds ; it is then to of the country, the constituted judges of be submitted again to the action of the acid, disputed matters of fact. He therefore ador the part lowered with the graver.” hered to the opinion he had expressed, that

The degree of similarity between the pre all he could do was to let the motion stand ceding process and that followed by the de. over for the plaintiff to bring an action, or fendant, will be seen by reference to the otherwise to take such proceedings as he Mech. Mag. vol. xxxiv. p. 207, where a very might be advised, with liberty to either full abstract is given of his specification. party to apply.

Numerous affidavits from artists and men of science, were produced on both sides ;

April 26. but there was a great conflict of testimony

Russel v. Ledsam. as to the novelty of the inventions, and [For the better understanding of this case, whether one was an infringement of the we prefix a few explanatory particulars. other.

Mr. Russel, the plaintiff, is the well known At the conclusion of the arguments of gas tube manufacturer of Wednesbury, who, Mr. Stuart and Mr. Elderton on behalf of besides being himself the inventor the plaintiff,

method of making tubes, for which he had The Vice-Chancellor said, when the Court a patent long since expired, is assignee of a found persons of such scientific knowledge patent for improvements in this branch of in these matters giving the opinions they manufacture, granted to Cornelius Whitehad, he was quite unwilling to take upon house in 1825, and renewed on its expiration, himself to say what they had stated was for a term of seven years. Mr. Ledsam, groundless, which he should do to a certain the defendant, has been recently manufactuextent by granting the injunction in the ring tubes under the patent of Mr. Richard present state of things. Therefore, in the Prosser, of which we gave an account in extraordinarily dark state of the case as it vol. xxxiii. p. 386, and it is the validity of was now presented to the Court, he thought this patent which is the present subject of the proper course would be to do nothing on dispute. Mr. Russel alleges it to be an inthe motion, but to let it stand over for the fringement of Whitehouse's. In our acplaintiff to bring such action as he should count of Mr. Prosser's invention we rebe advised, to try the validity of his patent. ferred to a patent still older than either

Mr. Girdlestone, with Mr. Rotch, how Prosser's or Whitehouse's, namely, that

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granted to Henry Osborne in 1817. Os. appears to me to be an extremely interest. borne used a pair of grooved rollers, simi ing case, and interesting from the circumalar to the rollers employed in rolling round stance particularly, because it seems to the iron. The invention of Osborne has been to be quite established that the thing which employed chiefly in welding gun-barrels in substance Mr. Whitehouse claimed as from plates of iron called skelps, and is now the principle of his invention was new ; in common use by the gun-makers of Birm namely, the causing to pass by some means ingham. About 1820 Osborne commenced the or other the imperfectly formed iron tube, manufacture of gas (tubes by means of his when it was nearly in a state of fusion, invention, and the tubes so made were used through a cylindrical ring which would give for lighting his workshops. He also made such a pressure on the softened metal as gas tubes for Mr. Clegg, the earliest, and would cause the parts to weld, and in that still the most eminent of our practical gas sense to form a perfect tube. I observe, engineers. The tubes were made in lengths however, there are differences brought forof about 4 feet each, and had to be passed ward with respect to the mode which the between the rollers many times before they defendants adopt. The plaintiff himself were completely rounded. The welding was was utterly indifferent to the mode by means done on a mandril, and the latter rollings of which the almost fuid metal should be without a mandril, for the purpose of round caused to pass through the cylindrical ring ing the tube by repeated rollings as is done -through what he calls in one place, swages, in rolling round bar iron. In 1824 Mr. or dies, and in another place, dies or holes. Russel took out his patent for welding tubes, He was utterly indifferent to the mode by and proposed the use of a tilt hammer, and which that propulsion should be created. also grooved rollers; he says the welding Now, as I understand it, the defendants may be done either with or without a mandril. have invented this plan. By means of four In 1825 Whitehouse took out his patent pulleys, which are grooved, or things in the for the same purpose, which (as before shape of pulleys which are grooved, the de. stated) was afterwards assigned to Mr. Rus. fendants contrive to give a propulsive motion sel. The invention of Whitehouse consists to the heated tube as it passes through the in drawing the tube at a welding heat through grooves, which grooves collectively make toa pair of dies or holes, the dies or holes gether a ring or cylindrical ring, which has gradually decreasing in size, and the pipe or the effect of compressing the tube in every tube being re-heated after each drawing part, and causing the operation of welding, operation; only one half of the tube is but which at the same time has the effect of heated at a time, and after that half has by itself causing the tube to move forward, been reduced to the required diameter, and therefore gets rid altogether of that maand drawn to the requisite length, the chinery of the draw-bench and the pincers other half of the tube is heated, and drawn and so on, which is described at considerable through a pair of dies; it is then re-heated length in Mr. Whitehouse's specification. and drawn through another pair of dies, a You see the substantial difference between little smaller; after which it is once more re the two things is, that according to the spe. heated and re-drawn through another pair of cification of Mr. Whitehouse, the die or the dies a little smaller than the preceding ; the hole is fixed, it is motionless, and it is motube, after six operations (three at each end) tionless in this sense, that it not merely is finished so far as concerns the welding, stands still, but it communicates no motion; and a skelp of 5 feet 6 inches long becomes whereas, as I understand it, the pulleys by these operations 8 feet long. The main which are used by the defendants, though bench moves at the rate of 1 foot per second, they themselves are fixed in this sense, so that to weld a pipe 10 feet long would namely, that their centres do not move, yet occupy at least forty seconds of time. Now their circumferences are moving, and the the peculiarity of Mr. Prosser's invention motion of their circumferences in a fixed consists in this, that a pipe is perfectly plane, they being at right angles to each welded by one operation of the machine, other, has the effect of giving a motion to and whatever may be the diameter of the the tube as it passes through their edges. pipe, a length of 10 feet is welded in two Now that, certainly, is a very important seconds.

difference between the two, although I am The judgment of his Honour, the Vice not going now to pronounce on the question Chancellor of England, will be found to state whether the thing is identically the same. very clearly the difference between the two It seems to me, however, that there is a very inventions, and the decided improvement substantial difference in that respect between which the defendant has effected.]

the two. The Vice Chancellor. With regard to the Well then, it is observed that the plain. merits of this case, in the first place it tiff's patent, that is to say, Mr. White

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house's patent, has in its specification this direction, that after the tube has been moved to a certain extent, the pincers are to be taken off, the thing itself is to be reversed in position, and that which before was not exposed to the action of the fire, is to be put into the furnace, and nearly fused, and then to go through the same operation as its first half had previously gone through.

Now it is very remarkable that in this specification of Mr. Whitehouse, it is said, and said in praise of the thing, “ That the length of the pieces of tube thus made, is likewise a great advantage, as by these means they may be made from 2 to 8 feet long in one piece, whereas by the old modes the lengths of tubes cannot exceed 4 feet without considerable difficulty, and consequently an increased expense,” whereas it is reasonably plain, upon the statement of the machinery used by the defendants, that so far from stinting the tubes to the length of 4 feet, or 8 feet, they may be made to any length to which the tube may be propelled, and there is no limit to it, as I understand. Now there was, and I have no doubt that what this specification says is true, there was a very great advantage derived by the power given by Mr. Whitehouse's patent of making the tubes even to the limited extent, and what seems to have been considered the utmost extent of 8 feet.

Mr. Richards (for the plaintiff.) They cannot make them so long as we can.

Mr. Bethell (for the defendant.) Oh yes we can, and longer.

The Vice Chancellor. That I do not know any thing about.

Mr. Bethell. Will you give us an order for some 12 feet long ?

The Vice Chancellor. I am speaking of the thing only theoretically. There is no physical limit to the extent to which the tube may be made by the defendants' process by one uniform operation. Well, now, those things do appear to me to be things that ought very much to be considered, when the question is raised whether there has been an infringement of the plaintiff's patent or not; and though I can easily understand that when the thing was in a ruder state at the time when Cowley's case came forward, * and that it might very well do then to hold there was an infringement of the patent, yet I cannot but myself think there is a fair question here to send to a jury. I cannot but think, on the whole, there is quite enough to constitute a fitness for sending the case to a jury. And one thing which occurred to me was this, that if it be true that there is a very great improvement by means of the machinery under which the

defendants are acting, why, if I were to grant an injunction in the first instance, I might be depriving the public for a time of the benefit of that very improvement. Now I should be extremely unwilling to do that, unless I felt the case was irresistibly clear, and therefore I rather think the safest and the best course, and therefore the course I ought to pursue, is to direct there shall be an action brought by the plaintiff, in such manner as he may be advised, against the defendant, for the purpose of determining this question ; and I shall direct it in the usual terms, that both parties may be at liberty to apply. If it were desired by the plaintiff that he should have an inspection of the defendants' works, I do not understand the defendants themselves to refuse it.

Mr. Bethell. We have been always ready and willing.

The Vice Chancellor. I think so, and therefore it struck me it might be possible for the plaintiff to get in without an order. The witnesses of the plaintiff should have an opportunity of stating to the jury what is the actual state of the defendant's machinery, in order that their testimony may be contrasted with that which may be given on behalf of the defendants, and in order also that they may be enabled to state what is the difference, if any, between the machinery as now constituted, and the machinery as it was in the month of July or August last. What I incline to do is this, to give a direction that the defendants shall, at reasonable times, permit an inspection of their machinery by agents of the plaintiff, the plaintiff giving reasonable notice ; and I would give liberty to apply, meaning thereby, of course, that if it became necessary, after an inspection, to require the defendants to make an affidavit, then I would direct the defendants should make an affidavit, rather than direct them in the first instance to make it, because it appears to me I must presume, and I have a right to presume the defendants will act fairly.

Mr. Richards. That is amply sufficient.

The Vice Chancellor. The order is, that the motion at present stands over ; the plaintiff undertaking to bring such action as he may be advised, and the defendants being directed to permit the plaintiff's agents, at reasonable times, and with reasonable notice, to have an inspection of the defendant's machinery, with liberty to apply. It appears to me that that will be the order necessary for the real and fair trial of this great question.

Mr. Rotch. A like inspection, of course, by the defendants, of the plaintiff's machinery.

Mr. Richards. Certainly.
The Vice Chancellor. Of course.

• Russel o. Cowicy, 1. Cr. M. and R. 864.


which are of this description, have been in ise saly

7 Photo-lithography.-An artist at Rome, named

years, and are already exhibiting strong syne Rondoni, has just succeeded in taking photographic

toms of coming destruction. Mr. Morris nis the drawings on stone, and printing from it. In ihat

candour, at the same time, to mention that these way he printed a lithograph of a nebula of Orion ! results are in perfect accordance with what our This is printing at second hand from nature her countryman, Mr. W. Chapman, of Newcastle, see self: bringing the firmament within one move of

Wood on Railroads,) predicted, many years ago, as the press. The next process will be to print speech

most likely to happen. and music warm from the lips.--Spectator.- The

The "Mountains High" of Marine Seene Pais. most curious part of the whole affair our esteemed

ters.-Some writers have asserted that the height contemporary has omitted to state. The reflected

of the waves of the ocean, from the trough to the image of the nebula of Orion exhibited the exact crest, reaches often to 40 and 50 feet. Bot De likeness of a whale! " Very like a whale!"

Arnott, in his Elements of Physics, affirms that The Precursor-the name given to the first of a

"no wave rises more than 10 feet above the ordiline of large steam-vessels about to be established

nary sea level, which, with the 10 feet that its sur. between Calcutta and Suez-which arrived recently

face afterwards descends below this, gives twenty in the River, from the Clyde, accomplished the

feet for the whole height, from the bottom of any voyage in the remarkably short space of 70 hours,

water valley to the adjoining summit." From еbeing at the average rate of 119 geographical miles

servations subsequently made with great care ia per hour. She is of 1,751 tons, and 500 horses

the midst of the Pacific Ocean, by the French Erpower. The engines, which are of the common

ploratory Expedition, it appears that Dr. Arnott side lever construction, have been constructed by

was very nearly right. The maximum height of Mr. Robert Napier, of Glasgow.

waves was then found to be 22 feet. Steam Navigation of the Danube and Black Sea.

Dutch Wagons. — The Rev. W. L. Rham, in a In 1830, a company for the promotion of steam na paper on the Agriculture of the Netherlands, resi vigation on these waters was chartered by the

belore the Royal Agricultural Society of England, Emperor of Austria. In 1831, the first boat, the

describes the Dutch wagons as light in weighi, “Francis I.," was launched. In 1840, they had 10

with a very narrow track to accommodate them to river boats and 10 sea boats in operation, and 5

the narrow roads on the tops of the dykes. As a pale more on the stocks. These boats now make regular

would be a great incumbrance in the act of turning passages, during the navigation season, between

round within a very narrow space, a curious sub Lintz, Vienna, Pest, Semlin, Galatz, Varna, Con

stitute has been adopted, viz., a very short crooked stantinople, Trebizond, Salonica, and Smyrna. The

pole, which rises in front, and is moved by the passage from Vienna to Constantinople is accom

driver with his foot, as he wishes to direct the plished in 17 days. All the boats are built after

course of the wagon to the one side or the English models. Two of them, the “ Sophia" and

other: a person unaccustomed to the use of this “ Stephan," are of iron. The fuel used is coal,

contrivance, would never be able to drive a Datch from the vicinity of Pilsen, in Bohemia.

wagon, which requires great judgment to steer it, The Maine and Danube Canal, which now ap.

while a drunken driver would be discovered a loog proaches its completion, is 108 miles in length, and

way off by the oscillations of his wagon, which freconnects the Danube, near Ratisbon, with the

quently runs off the dyke, and is overturned into Maine, at Bamberg. When it is opened, an unin

the ditch on one side or the oiher, the horses har. terrupted communication by water will exist be ing no power to keep it straight when the crooked tween the North Sea, or German Ocean, and the

pole has not a steady foot to guide the front wheels Black Sea-one of the most magnificent lines of in

The Dutchmen always make their horses trot in the ternal communication in the world.

wagon when not heavily loaded; by which noch New Quicksilver Mines.-A correspondent writes

time is saved in haymaking and harvest, and the from Florence, that the mine of quicksilver disco.

horses being accustomed to it, naturally trot like vered last year in the environs of Peravezza, near

carriage-horses, when the load and roads permit. Pisa, is in full work, and during the last month

Pall of a Meteoric Stone at Grunenberg, ie Styielded more than 6,000 lbs.-a produce that is

lesia.-On the 22nd of March, 1841, at 34 p. m., the daily increasing. The Grand Duke had visited

inhabitants of Heinrichau, who were abroad in the them, and expressed his satisfaction at the able

fields, heard three heavy reports like thunder-caps manner in which they had been conducted, an

in the air, and soon after a whizzing noise, whics nouncing the intended appointment of a commis

ended in a sound like that of a heavy body failing sion of French, English, Italian, and German geo

to the ground. The sky at the time was almost logists and chemists, to search for the other mines wholly clear. Some persons went in the directies of quicksilver, which, according to tradition, exist

from which the sound came, and, after proceeding in the Grand Duchy.-Morning Chronicle.

about one hundred and fifty paces, found a fresh Cornish Sleam-engines.- The number of pump

hole in the earth, at the bottom of which, abec ing-engines reported for March last is forty-eight.

half a foot below the surface, they found the stese They have consumed 4,163 tons of coal, and litted

which had just fallen. The stone, (which is of the 34,000,000 tons of water 10 fathoms high. The ave

form of a four-sided pyramid,) is evidently a fras. rage duty of the whole is, therefore, 56,000,000 lbs.

ment of a larger one which burst in the air: three lifted one foot high by the consumption of a bushel

of its sides are broken, the fourth is covered by the of coal.

thin black crust peculiar to meteorites. If wees Duration of Malleable Iron Rails.-Tine was iwo pounds four ounces.- Poggendorji's Annaita when engineers generally were under the impres

The Steam-bark · Clarion," fitted with Ericsson's sion that rolled iron edge rails, of 50lbs. to the

propellers, was totally wrecked on the 19th of yard, would last from 4010 60 years, but experience

March, on the island of Cuba. is fast dissipating all such notions, by demonstrating that the duration of rails of malleable iron is not determined by mere superficial wear, but by

0 INTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied the time which it requires for a given amount of gratis with Instructions, by application (positrade rolling upon them, to disintegrate them internally-that is, to produce disruption and exfo

paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Con liation of the laminæ of which they are composed.

166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only Mr. Ellwood Morris, an American engineer, calcu. COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT lates (Franklin Journal for March) that 1,500,000 tons gross weight, conveyed over rolled iron edge

(from 1617 to the present time). Patents, BAR rails of the T and H forms, weighing from 33 to

British and Foreign, solicited. Specifications 42lbs. per yard, will destroy them in 10 years. The prepared or revised, and all other Patent bärails of the Philadelphia and" ambia railroad,

sness transacted.

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co.. Dublin: and W. C. Camhell and on Humah

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