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indispensable to adapt this instrument to from the circumstance of the hopper, performers of ordinary abilities :
under hammer, and even the hammer Firstly, that the motion imparted by itself working on leathern hinges, they the finger to the key shall cause the wear rapidly. Perhaps the greatest imhammer to strike the string with suffici provement which the action of the square ent force almost instantly, and yet piano is susceptible of, would be to take that the damper shall be removed from away the under hammer, and make the the strings before the hammer strikes hopper act directly on the hammer itseif, them.
or, in other words, to substitute the Secondly, that the hammer leave the action of the grand piano for that of the strings instantly after the impact, for if square. it did not, it would act as a damper ; and The action of the upright or cabinet that it shall not be liable to return to the piano is not very dissimilar to that of the string before the blow is required to be square instrument, but the parts are repeated.
necessarily disposed in a different man. Thirdly, that the hammer can easily ner to suit the altered position of the be made to repeat the blow with great strings--the motion being communicated rapidity.
from the under hammer to the hammer, Fourthly, that the damping apparatus by means of a long wooden rod called a shall be capable of stopping the vibrations sticker, which is suspended from the of the strings quickly, and yet not resist hammer by a leathern hinge, the lower the finger of the performer very sen end being attached to the under hammer. sibly.
This arrangement is much superior to Fifthly, that the moving parts shall that in the common square pianoforte, as not be much subjected to wear, and, its the sticker and under hammer act as a consequence, becoming noisy.
steadying weight to the hammer, and If the actions of pianofortes in general tend greatly to prevent its returning to use be examined with relation to their the string after striking it; but as the capabilities of producing the above effects hinges have hitherto been constructed, I fear I shall be justified in the opinion they must wear more rapidly than bushed that there are none at present known centres do. If the expense were not too which fulfil all the above conditions ; in great for the present rage for lowsupport of which opinion I will now pro- priced, miscalled cheap instruments, the ceed to describe the actions in common hopper might be made to centre in the
key, and the sticker attached to the butt The common square pianoforte action of the hammer, by another wire centre, consists of a hopper attached to the key when its durability would be almost equal acting on a lever, technically termed the to that of a common grand action, and, under hammer, which lifts the hammer having no check, it would continue to that strikes the strings. As the hopper possess the advantage of repeating the is constructed with an abutment below blow with facility. the level of its top, the lever, or under Upright pianofortes have been made hammer, falls down upon that abutment with a jack, or lever action, and checkafter the hopper has “hopped off,” and indeed, the first upright instruments consustains the hammer a little below the structed, (the uprighi grand pianofortes,) level of the strings, which of course af were so made; nor can I perceive any fords a complete facility for repeating the impossibility in making the lever or jack blow of the hammer without the key as high as the present hopper and sticker, rising to its full height; indeed, the so that it might act directly on the butt facility of repeating is so great, that of the hammer, particularly in the very after it has been some time in use, the short instruments improperly termed hammer commonly repeats its blows picolo* pianos. Perhaps the increase of when not required to do so. This evil expense is the principal objection to such has been obviated in more modern in an action being generally used. struments, by the introduction of the check, such instruments being designated
The term “picolo" should, properly, be te
stricted to a peculiarly constructed pianoforte grand square pianofortes, and action, which was the invention of Mr. Wornum, tainly they are a great improvement on
but is often used to signify any very short upright
instrument, even if made with ihe common cabinet the common square instruments ; but,
THE PIANOFORTE MANUFACTURE.
347 The common grand action is superior either diminish wear, or readily compenin simplicity and durability to any other, sate for it, would be desirable. I have the moving parts, excepting the keys, been informed Messrs. Errard have hung being all made to work on wire axes or the keys on bushed centres, and emcentres; and it appears capable of ful. ployed oval steady pins under the finger filling all the required conditions, except end of the keys; these being turned ing that of repeating its blow rapidly partly round, ill up the space prowithout requiring the key to rise to its duced by wear. Perhaps, if the mortises, full height. The attempts to overcome particularly that at the end of the key this evil have been pretty numerous, but which wears most, were lined with cloth, the writer is of opinion it has never been the action would not become so noisy as effected, but at the expense of greatly it usually does after being in use for a increased complexity, and diminished comparatively short period, to the great durability. One of the earlier attempts, annoyance of those who resemble the and perhaps the most successful one, is writer in desiring to hear tone without that of Sebastian Errard, in which the noise. check is detached from the hammer by a If we may judge by the general abvery slight motion of the key; but this is sence of the means of quickly stopping effected by such complex machinery, the vibration of the long bass strings of that it is to be expected the effects of grand pianofortes, we might infer there wear will be to cause the motion of the is some practical difficulty in effecting parts to be accompanied by considerable this. I think it will be found that rapid noise. The practical difficulty is to check damping is best effected by increasing the hammer sufficiently high up, without the surface of the damper. Any increase endangering the contact of the hammer of its weight is very objectionable, as is with the check during its rising. The also the employment of spring dampers, writer has a contrivance by which he being felt so very sensibly to resist the hopes to overcome this difficulty, and if finger ; but if extension of surface should successful, he will send you, Mr. Editor, be found incapable of damping with sufa figure and description of the same. But ficient rapidity, I would suggest the emto return to the subject of durability. It ployment of two sets of dampers, one is obviously a most important condition above and one below the strings, for the in any machine, that it consist of the two lowest octaves of the compass, which fewest parts which are capable of effect I know from experience will effectually ing its purpose, and that it be so con damp, the most powerful vibrations of structed as to be as durable as possible. very heavy strings of the length of ten Now, neither of these conditions usually feet, which is fully four feet longer than result from complexity, which is a gene the longest strings of a modern grand ral character of the modern “patent," piano. In the case of short instruments and other improvements in the action of there is no difficulty in damping, the grand pianofortes, particularly the at great difficulty being to continue their tempts to revive “down striking' vibrations. actions by Kohlman and others, which On the proportionate lengths and sizes do not appear to have any advantages of of the strings, depends, to a considerable tone which are not better obtained by degree, the obtainment of an equal placing the sound board above the strings quality of tone throughout the compass as in the construction of Mr. Wornum ; of the instrument; as does also even still besides gravity resists, instead of favour more its standing well in tune; and should ing the return of the hammer, and the this meet the observation of pianoforte spring which does return it is felt to resist makers, I would, with all humility, beg the finger as a spring damper does. to hint that it is a part of their business
Perhaps no part of a piano wears more which many of them are too careless of, rapidly than the mortises of the keys copying slavishly each other's scales, which receive the steady pins by which without first investigating the goodness they are retained in their places; and as of what they copy. But as it is unany considerable looseness, resulting gracious to point out defects without sugfrom wear, is accompanied by much
gesting remedies, I beg to offer for their noise, some contrivance which would
adoption the following scale, which stands
well in tune, and affords a very equal Isaac Hawkins's construction. Now, quality of tone throughout, the bass being both these conditions are attended by very firm and powerful.
some practical inconveniences; the former C 15 in. No. 12 wire.
requiring so much space as to necessitate 13
the employment of crooked keys, and 14
the latter rendering it needful to have 12
one of the attachments of the strings 23 18
moveable, or a most inconvenient length 45 21
of wire beyond the bridge, if the strings 25
are attached to the other side of the Your practical readers can easily dis bracing. Perhaps these evils might be cover for themselves the lengths for the avoided in upright instruments, by emintermediate notes, as also where to com ploying a straining force, equal to that of mence using covered strings in instru the strings applied at the back of the ments of ordinary length, as from the wrest plank, and to that part of the frame length of the bass, the above scale re in front of which the strings are attached; quires a case full ten feet long.
both these parts of the instrument reIt would appear as if a perfect scale maining fixed as at present, it would be were a matter of easy obtainment, for all needful to have a convenient means of the sounds in the octave can be produced determining the amount of the compenby stopping the vibrations of one string sating force, as it might otherwise exceed at different lengths, and those lengths or fall short of the force of tension. can easily be measured. If wire of uni In grand pianofortes it is usual to em. form size and quality were employed, ploy bracing beneath the sound board, this would no doubt be the best method, and other bracing, technically termed but a pianoforte strung with wire of bars, above the strings; consequently, uniform size is very unequal in different the instruments so constructed fulfil the parts of the compass. To avoid this former condition, and are open to the greater evil we must choose the less one same objection, viz., the necessity of of using strings of different size, gradu. using crooked keys. I think, however, ally increasing in thickness from the when the circumstance of the different treble to the bass. As thick wire does distances of the upper and lower bracings not undergo so much manipulation as from the strings is considered, it will be thin wire, its tenacity is usually less; obvious that the total strain is very unhence one chief cause of the necessity of equally distributed on each set, for the inaking the octave below less than double upper bracings or bars are so much the length of the strings of a given note; nearer the strings that they sustain from at the same time it must not be too two-thirds to five-sixths of the whole short; no increase of thickness will com force, which fact would suggest the depensate for want of sufficient tension, sirableness of making the bars strong which produces a bad tone. This is a
enough to bear the entire strain. As very common defect in those notes of the the bars are of iron, this might easily be piano which are immediately above the done, and the inconvenience of the covered strings, and it renders what is bracing beneath the strings, or rather a termed the break in the tone very obvi continuation of it, termed the arches,
which connect the belly rail with the wrest The bracing of pianofortes is a very plank be thereby avoided; for they are important consideration in their con in the way of the hammers, and involve struction, although were mere capability the consequent necessity of employing of resistance the only consideration in- crooked keys, a disadvantage which is volved, it would not be difficult to design avoided in Mr. Wornum's construction such an arrangement of its parts as before mentioned. Mr.; Wornum's inwould at once combine the least possible strument has the further advantage of weight of material with the greatest striking towards the sound board, though strength; but this would require either this is obtained at the expense of the that the bracing should be on both sides bracing being as distant from the strings, of the acting force, or that force on both and consequently from the straining sides of the bracing, as in Mr. John force, as in cabinet pianofortes.
SPECIFICATIONS OF RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS.
319 To carry out the above suggestion in machinery there is combined an overhauling the bracing of grand pianofortes, it would machine, by which a large portion of the be needful to attach the barrs very firmly
manual labour now required in the fulling or to the string plate, and also to the wrest milling of cloth is said to be saved. By plank, which may be best done by cover
these combined machines the fabric is equal. ing the latter with an iron or brass plate ized, and stretched clear of folds and of sufficient thickness into which the
wrinkles, and made fit for finishing. bars should be inserted, and firmly
The claim is, 1. To the use of the two bolted down. The covering plate also
carding machines, so placed, and working to. serves to prevent the wrest pins from
gether, that they furnish the material for the
fabric with the fibres of each successive leaning over, as it must be drilled to re
layer across the fibres beneath. ceive them if made as wide as the wrest
2. To the construction and use of the replank.
ceiving machine. I remain, yours respectfully, 3. The combining of the two carding
ALFRED SAVAGE. machines with the receiving machine, so as 16, Garlic-hill, March 22, 1842,
to produce thereby collectively a set of machinery to form materials into cloth.
4. To the hardening or jiggering machine
with the perforated steam chamber. ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH
5. To the use of overhauling machines for PATENTS RECENTLY ENROLLED.
stretching, flatting, and smoothing any kind JUNIUS Smith, or FEN-COURT, Fen. or description of cloth, during the process CHURCH-STREET, GENT., for improvements of fulling or milling. in machinery for manufacturing cloths of Marcus Davis, or New BOND-STREET, wool and other fibrous substances (commu Optician, for improvements in the means nicated by a foreigner residing abroad). of ascertaining the distances vehicles traEnrolment Office, April 20, 1842.
vel. Petty Bag Office, April 7, 1842. The improvements described in this speci. Mr. Davis's improvements (in the ordinary fication have particular reference to the re odometers) consist in using a roller, which cently introduced manufacture of cloth by revolves by contact with the circumference felting, without weaving (though as much is of the wheel, and causing the counting pait not stated by the patentee himself) and seem of the instrument to register the revolutions to have for their main object to obviate the of the roller and not of the wheel ; so that, as objection generally made to the felted cloths the revolutions of the roller are always the of wanting firmness of texture, by giving same in number for any distance gone over, them a warp and woof the same as woven whatever may be the diameter of the wheel fabrics. Mr. Smith's invention may be the inconveniences arising from variations described in brief as consisting in weaving in the size of wheels are got rid of. The sheets or layers of carded wool into cloth, odometer, when thus improved, may, the whereas ordinarily the carded wool is first patentee thinks, be more properly called a spun into thread, and then woven.
1. Terrameter." Four different sets of machinery are des The claim is to the adaptation and appli. cribed.
cation of a wheel or roller to the periphery 1. Two carding machines (of the ordinary of one of the running wheels of a carriage, sort) working together at right angles : one or of a wheel or roller connected therewith, furnishing the material to form the warp, in whereby the number of revolutions made by a thin continuous layer, and the other sup the wheel or roller can be ascertained, and plying (by means of a grooved doffer) the consequently the distance travelled by the material to form the web or woof in succes. carriage. sive but intermittent portions.
The idea of employing such an inter2. The warp and web so furnished by the mediate wheel or roller is not new, but carding machines passes into what is called it has never before been carried into prac"a receiving machine," where the materials tical effect, for want of a convenient and are consolidated, interlaced, and formed into durable method of affixing the roller, and a cloth-like fabric.
connecting it with the registering wheelwork. 3. From the receiving machine the cloth Neither can we flatter the present patentee with like fabric is transferred to a hardening or having succeeded better than others in this jiggering machine with a perforated steam respect. An apparatus such as he describes chamber, in which machine the material is his “ Terrameter" to be, would be in the so much further consolidated and interlaced " hospital" at least ten times as often as the that it is made fit to undergo the ordinary wheels themselves, and that is oftener than process of fulling or milling.
would be consistent with the sound economy 4. With the ordinary fulling or milling of any conveying or carrying establishment.
LIST OF DESIGNS REGISTERED BETWEEN MARCH 24TH, AND APRIL 27T1, 1842. Date of Number
Time for which Registra- in the Registered Proprietors' Names. Subject of Design.
protection tion. Register.
is granted. 1842. Mar. 28 1156 Henderson and Co..................
years. 1157 Patterson, Boyle and Co. Joint for shortening the handles of parasols 3 30 1158 Henry Phillips
...................................... Hat, coat, and umbrella stand
1164 Chadburn, Brothers.............. Syringe
Instrument for smoothing the exterior
surface of drain tiles
Blind-roller ......................................... 3 5 1168 Samuel Hill Smith
Knife ..................................................... 3 1169 Thomas Humphries............... Carpet .......................................................
1 1170,2 J. and T. Kipling
1 1173 Henry Cope, Jun................... Lamp chimney
1 6 1174 Henry Brunton......................
Bottom of kettles, pots, &C..................... 3
Fender ............................................... 3
........................... ! 1183 Henry Cope, Jun. .................. Bottom of kettles, pots, &c....................... 3 8 1184 John Sheldon....
Portable letter and coin balance................ 3
Detent for window blinds, &c................... 3
Machine for sweeping chimneys............... 8
Carpet .................................................. 1
Pocket comb sliding in case without cap... 3
Carpet 22 1207 Jno, Sheldon .........................
Letter and coin balance and pencil-case ... 3 1208 Richard Kitchen .................. Skate......................................................
3 27 1209 Ridgway and Co. ..................
1 1210 Ditto .................................. Jug.......................................................... 1 (AGENTS FOR EFFECTING REGISTRATIONS, MESSRS. ROBERTSON AND CO., 166, FLEBT-STREET.)
LIST OF ENGLISH PATENTS GRANTED BETWEEN THE 31st of MARCH, AND THE 28TH OF
APRIL, 1842. Joseph Clisild Daniell, of Tiverton Mills, near city of Glasgow, merchant, for certain improve Bath, for improvements in making and preparing ments applicable to the preparing and spinning of food for cattle. March 31 ; six months.
cotton wool, flax, hemp, and other fibrous subJulius Seybel, of Golden-square, Middlesex, stances. April 6; six months. chemist, for improvements in the manufacture of John Read, of Regent's Circus, mechanist; sulphate of soda and chlorine. March 31; six Henry Pirtland, of Hurst-green, Sussex, farmer; months,
and Charles Woods, of Fore-street, Cripplegate, William Liversidge Trippett, of Charlton-upon commercial traveller, for improvements in the conMedlock, Lancaster, agent, for improvements in struction and make of driving reins, barness, looms for weaving by hand, or by power. March bridles, and reins, and in bridles and reins for rid31; six months.
ing. April 6; six months. John Bevard, of Whitehead's Grove, Chelsea, Jean George Sue Clarke, of Euston-grove, engentleman, for an improved mode of expelling the gineer, for improvements in supplying and regulatair from certain cases or vessels used for the pre ing air to the furnaces of locomotive engines. (Be servation of various articles of food. April 6; six ing a communication.) April 6; six months. months.
Thomas Clive, of Birmingham, iron founder, for James Smith, of Deanston Works, Kilmadock, certain improvements in the construction of candlePerth, cotton-spinner; and James Buchanan, of the sticks. April 7; six months.