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831 under these circumstances he will not be fixes a plumb-line to the top of the cylinder required to exhibit the other disadvantages as a guide, and descends withinside, carrying attending this “ wonder working'' machine. an instrument called a “Phaora, or Ma

Whenever Mr. Emslie can produce a lifting mooti,” somewhat similar in shape to a hoe; or forcing pump, which, worked by one man, with this he excavates the earth until the will, with a twenty feet lift, raise one hun water is too deep; he then commences the dred gallons of water per minute—then, but use of the “ Jham," which resembles the not till then, will he be in a position to com

“ Phaora

in shape, but is about 36 inches pete with that which he “considers a perfect long and 27 inches wide, and is suspended fallacy."

to a cord passing over a pulley above the There is no violation of any of nature's cylinder. Upon this instrument the well. laws in Mr. Walker's engine, but he has sinker descends, and diving into the water contrived to employ a principle hitherto but excavates with the “ Jham " the soft earth partially available; all that has been pub under the sides of the curb, and is at interlished respecting it is the result of actual vals drawn up with the instrument. The working, free from all theoretical or specu cylinder descends gradually from 6 inches to lative ideas, and writers may as well attempt 2 feet per day, as the earth is withdrawn to deny the laws of gravity, or of falling from beneath it, and relays of workmen keep bodies, as to gainsay the performances of it constantly going, lest the sand should the "momentum engine."

settle around it, and cause it to hang up. To all who can, I would say,

see it ;' The natives are very expert in this operation, to those who cannot, I would merely say, and not unfrequently remain under water " believe those who have seen it."

more than a minute at a time. The cylinI remain, Sir,

ders have been sunk as deep as 40 feet; but Yours respectfully,

with extreme labour.

W. BADDELEY. A series of these wells being sunk at in29, Alfred-street, Islington,

tervals of 1 foot between them, they are April 19, 1842.

filled with a grouting of lime and rubblestone, and separately arched over ; arches

are then thrown transversely from the centre WALKER'S HYDRAULIC ENGINE.

of each parallel pair, and another set of Sir,— It will probably have been observed arches turned over the adjacent wells longiby the parties most interested, that to obtain tudinally; the whole is then covered with the greatest effect from a given power, the masonry, and the pier or other building velocity of Walker's hydraulic engine should raised upon it: such foundations are found be made to depend upon the number of os to answer perfectly in situations where alcillations made by water in an inverted

most any other kind would be washed syphon of the same length as the lift.

away. Your obedient servant,

The communication was accompanied by S. Y. (An Engineer.) a drawing of the process, and of the tools April 16, 1842.

used, showing also the modification of the system proposed by Colonel Colvin, of the

Bengal Engineers, for obtaining foundations CIVIL ENGINEERS.-MI

for a curtain, or line of wall, by sinking


square masses of brickwork, with two or

more wells in each, through which the workFebruary 15.

men could excavate the soil. "On the Mode practised in India for ob

taining Solid Foundations for Bridges, In answer to questions from the President, &c., in Sandy Soils, by Means of Wells." Captain Goodwin observed that the greatest By Captain Goodwyn, B. E., Assoc. Inst.

peculiarity of this system was that the sinker C. E.

worked under water : such had been their Pileing for the foundation of buildings custom for ages. Upon this kind of found. appears to be entirely unknown in Hindos. ation, many of the large fortresses in India tan; the ordinary mode of securing a found were constructed, and they stood remarkably ation, where the super-stratum is tenacious, well; whereas if timber piles had been used, and rests upon loose sand, is to dig a well the white ant would have destroyed them in until water is reached ; a curb of timber is a short time. then placed, and upon it a cylinder of brick, Lieutenant Sale observed that another 71 feet exterior, and 3} feet interior diame main reason for not using piles was, that ter, is built to the height of 3 or 4 feet timber was scarce and dear, whereas labour above the ground. As soon as the masonry was plentiful and cheap. Hence the genehas hardened sufficiently, the well-sinker ral use of the brick cylinders.




Mr. Parkes conceived the most ingenious and when they have produced their effect, in parts of the proceeding to be, the sinking condensing them to their liquid state, in through the water, and thus avoiding the order to introduce them again into the generisk of bringing up large quantities of sand, rators, that they may be a second time conand the combination of arches, for distribut. verted into vapour, which may act on the ing the weight of the superstructure equally piston of the engine, and so on successively. among the brick shafts. Such shafts had To produce these objects, two methods may been used by the Chinese, and sunk in the be employed. One consists in producing or same manner from time immemorial.

generating and employing gases and ether at In answer to a question from the Presi. so trifling an expense that they may be aldent, Mr. Simpson described the process lowed to escape into the atmosphere after now so much practised for sinking wells having operated on the piston of the engine. through bad strata by means of cast-iron The second method consists in producing a cylinders ; excavating the earth from within given quantity of the agent, and employing the cylinder by an instrument called a

it over and over again in a machine con“miser,” which is a conical iron shell with structed in such a manner as to prevent the a valve opening inwards : it is suspended by loss and escape of any particle of the same. iron rods 14 inch square, and worked from The second method is preferred, as the er. the level of the ground without pumping up pense of employing ether and volatile liquors the water : it is not uncommon to excavate would otherwise be an obstacle to their being to a depth exceeding 100 feet in that man used. The heating and vapourizing of the

The “miser" can bring up a cube ether, or other volatile liquor, requires a yard of earth each time it is raised. Cast boiler of a peculiar construction, and a coniron cylinders are preferable to brick shafts, denser of a novel construction is necessary which frequently hang up, and in that case for reducing them from the gaseous to the give much trouble, whereas if the iron cylin. liquid state, after they have produced their ders do not descend freely, they will bear the effect on the piston ; and further, a new or application of considerable force to drive

improved apparatus is required as a substi. them down. They are frequently forced tute for the stuffing-boxes. This apparatus through the indurated ferruginous gravel. exerts an elastic pressure on the rods which Light planking is also sometimes used, par are to move without any escape of rapour, ticularly in such cases as in the well he is

which pressure may be increased or dimi. now sinking at Chelsea, which is 20 feet nished at will, and any escape of vapour efsquare, lined throughout with 3-inch plank- fectually prevented. The facility with which ing. It has reached the quick sand at a ether and volatile liquors are converted into depth of 32 feet, and will be stopped there.

vapour when submitted to heat, and also Mr. Davison had just completed a well at their inflammability, render it impossible to Messrs. Truman and Hanbury's brewery,

expose them to the direct action of fire, as with cast-iron cylinders, 8 feet diameter, and

an explosion might be produced by the sud. 193 feet deep, an account of which he pro den generation of a great quantity of gas; mised to present to the Institution.

water and steam must therefore be used as a The President was now sinking a set of medium for transmitting heat to them." cast-iron cylinders through sand which was

The patentee afterwards explains that the liable to be washed away; they were to be substances which he proposes using as "sub. filled with concrete, and used as the foun

stitutes for steam,” (of water) are "sulphu. dation for a lighthouse at the Point of Air. ric ethers, hydrochloric ether very pure, and An account of the construction was, he be with reference to volatile liquors, ammonialieved, preparing for the Institution.

cal gas, which liquifies with great facility." “ The ether employed,” it is added, " ought to be very pure, otherwise it would corrode the boilers and cylinders.”

A description of a bpiler follows, (illus. WILLIAM NEWTON, OF CHANCERY-CANE, trated by numerous drawings) which it is Civil ENGINEER, for certain improvements said will "answer the purpose very well." in engines to be worked by gas, vapour, or It consists of two parts; first, “an external steam. (A communication from a foreigner boiler, which receives the direct action of the residing abroad.) Rolls Chapel Office, fire;" and second, "an inner boiler, which April 14, 1842.

contains the motive agent." The second “The process constituting this invention boiler communicates by means of a pipe consists in submitting ether or volatile liquors with a condenser, “ into which any super. to the action of heat in order to convert abundant quantity of gas is conducted when them into elastic vapours, and cause them the pressure exceeds the prescribed limit." to act on the piston of an ordinary engine, The working cylinders are of the ordinary





333 form. After the ethereal vapours have done The leather descends until it reaches the their duty there, they pass through an educ cone, (of the working cylinder) which being tion pipe, to a series of pipes surrounded by very sharp at its upper end penetrates a cold water, where they are recondensed, or, certain distance into the circular cavity in other words, reproduced in a state fit for formed by the leather, and slightly distends renewed use.

the leather. The cover of the small cylinder The “new and improved apparatus," is then put over the piston-rod, and as it which is to be used “ as a substitute for the descends to its place, the cone (attached to (usual) stuffing-boxes," and on the hermeti- it) enters into the cylindrical cavity of the cal closeness of which the efficiency of the leather. The bolts are then tightened grawhole affair entirely depends, is thus des dually, and the cover of the small cylinder cribed, (omitting the references to certain brought carefully into contact with the workillustrative drawings which accompany it): ing cylinder, when the leather covers both

“ The cover or upper plate of the cylinder cones.” of the engine carries a cone, which is fixed The above substitute for a stuffing-box to the plate by its base. Over that cylinder may, it is said, “ be used not only in the be. a small cylinder is placed, the cover of which fore described (gas) engine, but also with likewise carries a cone. The piston-rod any steam engines actually in use." passes through both cones. A leather, satu A contrivance is described for “ lubricat. rated with oil or fatty substance, and thus ing the piston when necessary;" and also made pliant, is rolled in a spiral direction “a cock or a valve, to be used instead of the round the piston-rod and cones. This leather ordinary cock for retaining very volatile is held only by a tape or twine, which is wound round it in a helical direction, to The patentee desires it to be understood prevent it from unrolling. Between the “that the boiler containing the water and leather and the internal sides of the cylinder steam which transmits heat to the ether and there is a space which must be filled with volatile liquors, and converts them into valiquid fat or oil. A reservoir contains the pour, should be provided with safety-valves, oil to be employed in the operation; and water-gauges, proof-cocks, and all other acthere are pipes for conveying the oil as cessaries, generally adapted to steam geneit is forced by a pump into all parts of the rators. apparatus. There is also a reservoir of air No claim is made. The public are left to compressed by the liquid forced by the pump, gather from the description given what“ the the object of which is to render the pressure improvements” are which the patentee conelastic. A valve is provided for the escape siders to be new; and this is a sort of labour of any superfluous oil; which valve is loaded which the Courts have decided a patentee las by means of a lever and weight, and is fur no right to cast on the public. The double nished with a funnel and pipe for reconduct boiler we do not think is new. The substi. ing into the first reservoir the oil which es. tute for the ordinary stuffing-box is new, capes through the valve. A meter is added and, moreover, a very ingenious contrivance, on the compressed air principle, for indicat. which, though it may never be of any use ing the pressure produced on the stuffing in its native application to ethereal vapour box. It is by the indications of this instru engines, may probably be applied with ad. ment that the engineer regulates the degree vantage to high-pressure steam-engines. of pressure which the weight ought to produce The patentee (or, more properly speak. on the valve."

ing, the foreign author of the commu“ In order to place the leather on the nication” to him) gives us to understand in piston-rod, a rod of the same diameter is the introduction to his specification, that he employed, and on this rod the leather is to has actually succeeded in obtaining a mobe rolled, having the edges previously pared, tive power from ethereal vapours “ employed well prepared, and perfectly smooth on one over and over again in a machine constructed side of its edges. Then roll it with the hand in such a manner as to prevent the loss and and as evenly as possible on the rod, so that escape of any particle of the same;" but that it be wound round and round two or three the machine he has described is capable, even times. The leather thus rolled is retained with its ingenious packing apparatus, of by means of a tape coiled round it. These accomplishing such a prodigy, or even of preparations made, the cover of the small reaching within many degrees of it, we hold cylinder is removed, the piston being then to be a most chimerical expectation. There at the bottom of the other, the larger or could not fail to be very great waste; and, acworking) cylinder. Then place the extremity cording to the inventor's own showing, unof the rod on which the leather is wound less there is no waste at all, there is nothing round, on the top of the piston-rod, and slide to be gained by the adoption of his mathe leather gently from one rod to the other. chine.

Moses POOLE, OF LINCOLN'S-INN, GENT., the parties on Friday, 1st of April, and so for certain improvements in fire-arms. extensive was the investigation, that the case (Being a communication from a foreigner occupied six days.] residing abroad.)–Enrolment Office, April This was an action of damages for the 16, 1842.

contravention of a patent for "an invention The improvements comprehended under for the improved application of air to pro. this patent relate solely to fire-arms with duce heat in fires, forges, and furnaces, revolving breeches, and consist, l. In so where bellows or other blowing apparatus constructing them that by simply pulling are required." The claim of the patentee is and letting go the trigger, one barrel is dis in these terms:-"I, the said J. B. Neilson, charged, and the next in the circle of barrels do hereby declare, that my invention for the brought round to be fired off ; so that the improved application of air to produce heat gun may be discharged as many times as in fires, forges, and furnaces, where bellows there are barrels, without once moving it or other blowing apparatus are required, from the shoulder ; and 2. In making the consists in introducing into, and applying to locks of such fire-arms without either ham the fires, forges, and furnaces, atmospberic mer or cock.

air, in the following manner, &c." When the trigger is pulled, it pushes for The following were the issues :ward a small spring barrel or case, which by It being admitted, that, on the 1st day of means of a connecting collar and link, brings October, 1828, the pursuer, J. B. Neilson, a moveable stop inside of the revolving obtained letters patent under the Great Seal breech round upon the nipple of the first of used in Scotland, in place of the Great Seal the loaded barrels in order to be fired, and thereof, and duly enrolled a specification in by its forcible contact with the cap fixed terms of the proviso contained in said letters upon it, causes it to explode. On with. patent : drawing the hand from the trigger, the spring “It being also admitted, that the pursuers, barrel and stop return to their original other than the said J. B. Neilson, have sc. positions, while the breech, with which quired, by assignment from him, a joint inthe trigger is also connected, (by means of terest with him in the said patent : arrangements similar to those commonly “Whether, in the course of the year 1840, adopted in guns of this class, and not neces and during the currency of the said letters sary therefore to be here described,) revolves patent, the defenders did, in or at their iron so far as to bring up another loaded barrel works at Househill, by themselves or others, ready to be discharged in the same way as wrongfully, and in contravention of the pribefore. Should it be desirable to cease vileges conferred by the said letters patent, firing after the discharge of one or more use machinery or apparatus substantially the barrels, there is a stop below the lock, by same with the machinery or apparatus des pressing on which the whole of the mechan. cribed in said specification, and to the effect ism is made fast.

set forth in the said letters patent and speci. The claim is, “1. To the mode of con fication, to the loss, injury, and damage of structing fire-arms with revolving breeches the pursuers ?in such manner that the action of pulling The damages were laid as follows:-Prothe trigger will discharge the gun, and by fits claimed, as at the date of the action, withdrawing the pressure therefrom, the 10,0001.; other damages, as at the same breech will revolve, and bring up a fresh date, 2,0001.—Total, 12,0001. barrel to be discharged, the other parts Mr. Rutherford opened the case for the returning to their original position.

pursuers in an address of upwards of two 2. To the mode of constructing fire hours' duration. The following among other arms with revolving breeches applied there witnesses, gave evidence in favour of the pur. to, in such manner as to dispense with the suers > cock or hammer, by bringing each nipple Professor Forbes, Chair of Natural Philosophy in having a cap thereon, successively in contact University of Edinburgh. with a moveable stop, which will explode

W. Gregory, Esq., Professor of Chemistry, King's

College, Aberdeen. and so discharge the gun."

Dr. Andrew Fyffe, Lecturer on Chemistry, Edin


George Buchanan, Esq., Civil Engineer, EdinNEILSON'S HOT-BLAST PATENT-IMPORT


David Mushett, Iron and Mine master, at Cole. ANT TRIAL.

ford, Gloucestershire. Jury Court, Edinburgh - April 1-5. William Jessop, Esq., of the Butterly Iron Worka, J. B. Neilson and others, v. Househill Coal


Alvan Penrice, Esq., Mining Engineer, Work and Iron Company.

ington Hall, Cumberland. [The Lord Justice Clerk and a special

Alexander Christie, Esq., of the Muirkirk Iron Fry commenced to try the issues between John Holdsworth, Esq., of theColtness Iron Works.



335 John George Bodmer, Esq. Engineer, Manchester purpose of being heated under the progress William Silverwood, Esq., Civil and Mining En

of the blast. gineer, Derbyshire. Alexander Buttery, Esq., of the Monkland Steel “ And they assess the damages at 30601. and Iron Company, &c. &c.

sterling." The Solicitor General (M`Neill) then [It was proved in evidence, that the de. addressed the jury with great ability for the fenders, from the time they began to smelt defenders, and afterwards called several wit. iron, to the date of the summons executed nesses (chiefly from London).

against them, had smelted 1700 tons of iron, Mr. Rutherford replied for the pursuers so that the sum of 30601. of damages is at in an eloquent and powerful speech.

the rate of 11. 168. for every ton of iron The Lord Justice Clerk, after giving full smelted by them.] directions to the jury as to the law of the case, went over the principal parts of the evidence. In concluding, he informed the

NOTES AND NOTICES. jury, that, if their verdict should be for the Impure Air.-Dr. Reid, in his lectures on chedefenders, they would simply find for them mistry, mentions the following simple and satisfacon all the issues ; if, on the other hand, they

tory experiment for the discovery of impure air :

A spoonful of lime should be injected into a beer should find for the pursuers, then he consid bottle with water, and being placed where suspicion ered it would be expedient, with a view to is attached to the quality of the atmosphere, the the after-procedure in this important cause,

presence of impurity would be tested by the appear

ance on the surface of a white and copious incrusthat they should embody in their verdict

tation, answers to the three following questions : English and American Tools. - All kinds of " Whether the invention, as described in

moulding planes, more particularly beads, hollows, the said letters patent and specification, is not

and rounds, are cheaper in the United States than

in England, in consequence of machinery being emthe original invention of the pursuer, the ployed in manufacturing them, to a considerable said J. B. Neilson ?

extent. With these exceptions all other edge tools are " Whether the description contained in the

dearer in the United States than they are in Eng

land. Axes made in England of the American said specification is not such as to enable pattern and quality, would pay well as an investworkmen of ordinary skill to make machinery ment to take out: they may be purchased at 6d.

per lb. The best axe and hammer maker in New or apparatus capable of producing the effect

York is an Englishman, named Standish, in Perryset forth in the said letters patent and speci. street-his price is 3 dollars for a broad axe of 9]b.; fication ?

this is the lowest. The felling axe, of about 6lb., “Whether machinery or apparatus con

sells from 15 to 2 dollars. One reason why the

American axe is superior to those imported, is bestructed according to the description in the cause the steel is welded to the end of the iron, insaid letters patent and specification, is not stead of being put between two layers of iron, as in practically useful for the purposes set forth

England, by which it is apt to peel, when using the in the said letters patent?”.

axe sideways.-Le Cras.

New Sali.-M. Laurent announces that he has The jury, after retiring for an hour and a obtained a new salt, the “isato-sulphate” of potash, quarter, returned a verdict for the pursuers,

by treating isatine with the bisulphate of potash. on all the issues, at the same time adding,

This salt presents a new type of crystals; it is

isomeric with the indigo-sulphate of potash, but it in terms of the suggestion of the court, the possesses different properties. Acids give a piecifollowing special findings :

pitate of isatine, and disengage sulphurous acid. "And further find, that by the description

Feeding Poultry.- Professor Grego:y, of Aber

deen, in a letter to a friend observes-“ As I supin the said specification, the patentee did not pose you keep poultry, I may tell you that it has refer to any particular form, or shape, or

been ascertained that if you mix with their food a mode of construction, of the air vessel or

sufficient quantity of egg-shells or chalk, which

they eat greedily, they will lay, cæteris paribus, vessels, or receptacle or receptacles, in which twice or thrice as many eggs as before. A well-fed the air under blast is to be heated.

fowl is disposed to lay a vast number of eggs, but "And further find, that by the use of the

cannot do so without the materials for the shells,

however nourishing in other respects her food may term “effect” in the specification, the pa be; indeed a fowl sed on food and water, free from tentee did not state that the form and shape carbonate of lime, and not finding any in the soil, of the air vessel, or vessels, were material

or in the shape of mortar, which they often eat off

the walls, would lay no eggs at all with the best will for the purpose of heating the air in such

in the world. Lay this to heart, and let me know air vessel, or vessels.

in the spring if the hens lay two, or two for one." “ And further find, that the terms of the

Liverpool Standard, specification respecting the air vessels, or

Science in High Life.--A letter from Dublin of

the 16th instant, written by a gentleman who was receptacles, and the size and numbers there present on the occasion of casting a gigantic specuof, are not such as to mislead persons ac

sum which has been undertaken by Lord Rosse quainted with the process of heating air, so

(late Lord Oxmantoun), and quoted in the Times,

says "Nothing could be more successful than as to direct and cause them to construct the Lord Rosse's operation, not more beautiful than vessels in a form or manner contrary to the

all his arrangements. The casting was made at ordinary and necessary rules to be attended

nine at night of yesterday, (15th inst.) and byten we

witnessed the building up of the monster speculum to in heating air, passed into vessels for the of 6 feet diameter, and weighing 3 tons, in a hot

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