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needle in the bundle of hay—but nevertheless, plied over the clinched branches, to make all “ To all whom it concern, Know ye,' that smooth if desirable. No. 3 has a small screwthe present improvements relate, firstly, to threaded tail passed through the back of the the shanks of buttons, and secondly, to the button, and secured between the back shell backs and faces of buttons.

and the front part of the button by a small And first, of shanks—there are seven differ. nut. (The two sbanks last described are stated ent sorts described. No. 1 is a small round, to be only applicable to buttons which have or roundish knob of metal, perforated through “ backs formed of concave metal shells," the centre with two holes, intersecting, or whereas that first described is also applicable crossing each other at the centre; the said to solid metallic front buttons.) No. 4 is a knob being applied to, and securely fastened shank which may be cut out, or stamped out, to the centre of the back of the button, of a piece of metal in the form of a cross ; parallel to the plane of the circular edge or the four arms are then to be bended up circumference of the front or face of the at right angles, and cemented to the button button. In attaching a button having such back, offering the same advantages as the a shank to a garment, the sewing-thread may others, that the thread need not be passed be passed by its needle first through one of straight through the shank, but may enter at the holes of the shank in one direction across one hole, and come out at that next it, and 50 the shank, in order to obtain one fastening No. 5 (a very old acquaintance) is com. stitch, and then through the other hole to posed of a short piece of oval, or flattened obtain another, and so on; the needle may wire, bent into the form of a crescent, or sta. be passed in at one orifice, and out at the ple, the two ends of which can be soldered to next, without going right through, and by the back of the button. No. 6 is a shank for thread being so passed, buttons may be very buttons, made of hard wood, bone, ivory, or securely attached by sewing; the orifices are mother of pearl ; it is formed out of the to be made bell-mouthed, in order to prevent same piece as the button, and has four holes the thread cutting. That part of the knob which are bell-mouthed, to prevent the which is to be attached to the button is flat, cotton cutting. No. 7 is a flexible shank and to be fastened by soldering. The button for buttons having a concave metal shell may be covered with felt, cloth, or other back ; it is made by perforating the back tissue or fabric, the overlapping circumfer. with a number of holes at equal distances ence of the cloth being gathered over all arranged round its centre. Cord, or other round the turned back border edge of the suitable material is then passed, "a knot front shell, so as to overlap into the hollow being first made to prevent it slipping within that border edge, and the circum through” |- from the inner side of the back ference of the concave back shell being then to the outside, where it is allowed to form a inserted within the same turned back border small loop, and then passed through a hole edge of the front shell, and within the turned opposite to that from which it came out into over edge of the covering. The pressure the inside of the back, where it is again which is next exerted on that border edge, secured by a knot, or other suitable fasten. and on that of the concave shell back by the ing, and so on, till a cord has been passed dies in the mould, is caused to compass the through each hole in succession. said edge, so as to fasten the covering, and Secondly, of the backs and faces of butat the same time to consolidate the front and tons : The first improvement described back shells together into a covered button, under this head, relates to buttons made of made in a mould by dies with pressure, on porcelain, glass, or earthenware. “The back the plan known to the manufacturers of surface is excavated with a circular recess or Birmingham as “ Mr. Aston's method;" or hollow, which may be as large as the size of the concave shell back may be applied to a the button will admit, consistently with front made of mother of pearl, stone, spar, leaving a substantial border of material all glass, or other suitable material, or porcelain round the outer circumference of the button, or pottery, the circumference of the concave for strength, and into the hollow of that back shell being, in the last-mentioned case, circular recess the exterior circumference of inlaid into a suitable circular recess or hol. a shell back is inserted, and is fastened low, excavated in the back surface of such therein by cement ; that shell back may be front, and fastened there by cement." No. 2 a concave metal shell with any kind of consists of a small tail, divided into two shank." A similar back, with a flexible pieces by a saw, and is stated to be particular shank of cord similar to that before dely applicable to concave shell backs. The di. scribed, may be made of porcelain or earthvided tail is inserted through a hole in the enware, instead of metal. The next im centre of the button back, the two pieces are provement relates to that kind of buttons then separated, and turned down in the manner which are termed stud buttons, or shirt called clinching: solder or cement may be ap buttons, of which a description is given that



is quite a curiosity in its way. Stud but. tons, we are told, are “a kind of buttons which are not permanently sewed or attached to the garment; but the part of a stud batton which answers to or occupies the place of a shank, is inserted into an addi. tional button-bole in the garment, for the purpose of fastening the stud button thereto, by means of such additional button-hole, and the head or front of the stud button is inserted through the usual button-hole in the garment for effecting the intended buttoning of the garment by the stud button." The improvement in such stud buttons is the application thereto of fronts of porcelain glass or earthenware. A hollow is made in the top of a metal stud, into which is fixed by cement the porcelain, glass, or earthenware head; the outside rims of the metal are then to be turned over and pressed on to the said face, to hold it fast, or a hollow is made in the back of the porcelain, glass, or earthenware head, into which the metal part fits, the porcelain, glass, or earthenware, in such case, overlapping the metal part of the stud.

Another improvement relates to what are known by the term covered buttons, with flexible shanks made in moulds by pressure, with dies, according to the Aston method, before alluded to. Such buttons are, it seems, not commonly made by that method, with their backs as well as fronts covered with cloth or silk, or other material, being covered so as to conceal all the metal that is contained in the structure of the button; but by a peculiar mode of manufacture, for which former letters patent were granted to the present patentee, Mr. Aingworth, on the 30th Au. gust, 1931, covered buttons can have their backs as well as their fronts covered ; and that mode of manufacture is now carried on under assignment of the last-mentioned patent, by Messrs. Sanders and Bromsgrove. A concave metallic shell back, of the usual kind for making common flexible shank buttons, has a hole of considerable size made through its centre, so that the said back forms, in fact, a sort of metal collet, and a circular disc of cloth, silk, or other mate. rial, has a small sized hole made in its centre. The cloth is then applied concentrically on the back or convex surface of the shell back, and is slightly fastened to that surface by a cement of shell lac. The central part of the cloth, around the small central hole, is pushed through the larger hole of the metallic shell, so as to protrude through that hole into the interior concavity of the shell ; and the part of the cloth which is thus caused to protrude, is stuck fast to that interior with cement of shell lac, so as to overlap a little all round the circum.

ference of the central hole of the shell back, withinside the concavity of that shell. The front and back parts of the button are then to be put together in the usual way.

The claim is—First, to the new kind of metallic shank, No. 1, " applicable to solid metal buttons and to buttons with concave metal shell backs." Secondly and thirdly are repetitions of the words of the first head, but applied to the shanks No. 2 3, 4 and 5 Fourthly, to the new kind of shik for buttons, made of hard wood, horn, bone, ivory, or mother of pearl, which shank is formed in the same piece of material. Fifthly, the new kind of Alexible shanks of cord for metal shell backs, which backs are covered with cloth or silk. Sixth. ly, the new kind of porcelain, glass, or earthenware fronts, for buttons. Seventhly, "the application of fronts of porcelain or earthenware to studs." (Glass, though noticed in the description, is not claimed.), And, eighthly, “the application of a covering of cloth, or other material, over the convex surface of the metal shell backs of covered buttons."

WILLIAM HIRST AND Joseph Weight, or LEEDS, CLOTHIERS, for certain improvements in the machinery for manufacturing woollen cloth, and cloth made from wool and other materials. Enrolment Office, April 7, 1842.

These improvements are stated to consist “in a certain method of manufacturing woollen cloth and cloth made from wool and other materials, by a new process," of which new process the peculiar feature or result is the addition to cloth already woven, either on one or both sides, or the interposition between two pieces of woven cloth, of a layer or layers of wool (felted merely).' Then follows a description of certain ma. chinery by which bats of wool may be felted. The bats are passed between what are called “ Platons," (so spelt and so marked by inverted commas in the specifica. tion,) and much is said of these “Platons," how they are to be moved in opposite directions, with a “shoggle" between whiles, and how the bats are to be conveyed to and from them, &c., &c. (No doubt platens are meant-things common enough, one would have thought, to preclude the possibility of such orthographic and apostrophic blunder. ing.) But how the layers of wool, when so felted, are to be combined with the woven cloth, the patentees do not explain. The machinery described is simply machinery for felting. Neither do the patentees specify, as they were bound to do, in what respects their machinery differs from that in common use ; what parts are old and what “im. provements." The claim is to, 1. The ma

chinery described ; and 2. To the addition way, the salts of potash or soda, generally, but to woven cloth of layers of wool on one or more particularly the sulphate and carbonates both sides, or between, &c.

of potash and soda. These substances are inMathias NICHOLAS La Roche Barré, troduced into the soap (when the saponifying OF SAINT MARTIN's LANE, MIDDLESEX, process is complete, and it is ready to be MANUFACTURER OF COTTON, for an im cleansed) either in the solid state, in pulverprovement in the manufacture of a fabric ized masses, in the state of crystals, or in applicable to sails and other purposes. En the state of crystals melted in their water of rolment Office, April 7, 1842.

crystallization, or else dissolved in steam or The improvement which is the subject of water. The quantities of the salts of pot. this patent, consists in forming each warp ash or soda used to every eighty pounds of thread of two or more yarns of cotton, soap, are 28lbs. of sulphate of soda, and 4 lbs. (Nos. 3 to 30 are the sizes of yarn preferred, of carbonate of soda or potash, or 2 lbs. of the thickness and strength, as well as the each of these last substances ; if the subcost, increasing with the size of the yarn,) stances are used singly, then the quantities twisted together, and each shoot of the weft are 32 lbs, of sulphate of soda, or 15 lbs. of of four or more yarns of cotton. To make sulphate or carbonate of potash, or 10 lbs. of sail cloth, No. 3 yarn is used, and both the carbonate of soda. When the process of warp and weft threads are of two yarns saponification is complete, and the soap in a twisted together ; for, in this case, it is con hot and liquid state, is turned over into the sidered important that both the weft and cleansing copper, the salts, in the proporweb should be of the same size and strength. tions above mentioned, are thrown into it, The warp may be worked into any pattern

and the whole thoroughly mixed together; that may be desired. The patentee prefers the soap is then removed from the copper producing the fabric by raising and lowering and poured into the frames to cool. If the equal quantities of the warp thread at each salts are used in a liquid state, they are distime of forming a shed for the passage of

solved in their own water of crystallization, the shuttle, and usually makes the fabric by or in steam, or by boiling water, and are the causing each shoot of the weft to float alter then mixed with the soap, as before men. nately under and over two warp threads. tioned. The patentee claims the introduc. He is thus, he says, enabled to produce ing into soap, already manufactured, or in a strong and lasting fabric of cotton, suit. process of manufacture, the salts and comable for the making of sails, rick cloths, pounds of potash and soda before mentioned. and such like articles, capable of sustaining the different degrees of heat and mois. ture to which they are likely to be ex. posed. If greater strength and thickness COUPLAND'S IMPROVMENT IN FURNACES. are required, a larger number of yarns Sir,-I beg to state that Mr. Coupland's twisted together, with the same number of principal claim for his improvements in warp threads to each inch of the warp, will furnaces, consists in the admission of atanswer the purpose; if greater strength, mospheric air through the grate bars, or per. without increasing the thickness, more than forated plate, after the fuel has been placed two yarns twisted together of a larger size upon them, and not to the mere depression of yarn than No. 3, are used. By varying and elevation of the grate-bars, as stated in the number of yarns used, and the number the Mechanics' Magazine of the 9th instant, of yarns combined in each warp thread, the and that the auxiliary apparatus in its prethickness and strength may be varied as sent improved state is simple in its conrequired.

struction, and efficient in its operation. The claim is “ the mode of manufacturing I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, a fabric of cotton suitable for sails and other

J. RRODES. purposes, by applying warp threads, each Pond Yard, New Park-street, Borough, composed of two or more yarns of cotton

April 13, 1842. twisted together, when combined with the [The abstract we gave was quite correct; use of weft composed of four or more yarns the bars are lowered, solely and exclusively for each shoot.""

“ to enable a fresh supply of fuel to be ALPHONSE RENÉ LE MIRE DE NORMAN placed thereon” as wanted. “Without inDY, OF REDCROSS-SQUARE, CRIPPLEGATE, terferiny," it is true, “with the draught DocTOR OF MEDICINE, for certain im. necessary for the combustion of the fuel ;" provements in the manufacture of soap. but not interfering with, and actually conEnrolment Office, March, 1842. This invention is stated by our contempo

tributing to, the supply of air, are two dif.

ferent things. To prevent any further caril rary of the London Journal to consist in in on the subject, we subjoin the ipsissime troducing into soap, manufactured in the usual verba of Mr. Coupland's claim." What

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I claim is, the lowering at pleasure, and in a horizontal position by any suitable apparatas, (though I prefer that hereinbefore described,) a portion of the open fire-bars of a furnace to a position sufficiently below the fire, to enable a fresh supply of fuel to be placed thereon, and then raising them again to their former position in the furnace, and retaining them there till the fuel is consumed, and a fresh supply required, without interfering with the draught necessary for the combustion of the said fuel while being so consumed, as aforesaid, and thereby I am enabled to do away with all feeders, hoppers, pushers, plunges, pistons, and inclined planes, and other the like objectionable apparatus, which have hitherto impeded the successful application of inventions for feeding furnaces from below upwards.”—ED. M. M.]

XOTES AND NOTICES. Ur. Williams's Argand Furnace.- At the monthly meeting of the Commissioners of the Birmingham Street Act, held on Monday last, the committee appointed to consider the best means of effecting an abatement of the smoke nuisance, reported that they had inspected the steam chimney of Mr. Clifford's mill, in Fazeley-street, to which the patent of Mr. Williams, of Liverpool, had been applied with the view of consuming the smoke from the furnace, and they were perfectly satisfied of the utility of ihe plag, and its efficacy in accomplishing all that was required. The committee also referred to two let. ters which they had received, in reference to Mr. Williams's invention, from Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, and Co., of Manchester, and Mr. Nicholas Knight, of Liverpool, which stated that the plan had been adopted with the most complete success, diminishing the consumption of coal, increasing the quantity of steam, and, at the same time, reducing the amount of manual labour. Midland Counties Herald.

Atmospheric Pressure-Engine.—The Toulonnais has the following :-"M. Lewinsky, a Pole by birth, but naturalised in France, will in a few days make trial of an atmospheric pressure-engine, in a small boat which Admiral Baudin has placed at his command. We have before us a certificate by Captain Durbac, of the port of Marseilles, affirming that M. Levinsky in the course of last year made a trial of his engine, which is of wood, in a flat-bottomed boat, which he was thereby enabled to take out of the port of Marseilles, and reach the fourth buoy, at the rate of between three and four knots an hour, although the sea was very boisterous. He had previously made an experiment at Rome, in the pre. sence of numerous spectators; this attracted the notice of the English consular agents, and induced them to communicate an account of it to their government. The Lords of the Admiralty in conseqaence wrote to M. Lewinsky, inviting him to bring his in vention to England, promising him every protection and encouragement; but M. Lewinsky, wishing to present his discovery to his adopted country, declined accepting the flattering offer." Fudge!

A total Bclip. e of the Sun takes place on the 7th of July neal, during which the moon's shadow will pass over Spain, the South of France, the north of Italy and part of Germany. To assist parties desiTous of observing this remarkable phenomenon, the Astronomical Society have compiled a Table, (copies of which may be had on application at the Society's Rooms,) by which the path of the moon's

shadow may be traced with very considerable accuracy.

Steam Navigation on the Volga.-Although an isolated steam-boat was licensed to navigate the Volga in 1817, no spirit of enterprise was roused until the year 1827. The line between Nishegorod and Astrachan now employs nine steamers, whose engines vary from 69 to 97 horses power. They not only convey passengers and goods, but act as tug boats, and draw after them a barge containing wood as fuel for the machines. The length of the voyage from Nishegorod to Astrachan is between twelve and fourteen days, including their stay at Casan and Saratof; but they are from twenty-five to twenty-eight days on the return voyage, the current of the stream, and violent winds impeding their progress. The passage money is from 8u to 120 roubles (£6 138. to £5 10s.) for the voyage to Astrachan, but about 50 per cent. dearer for that from Astrachan to Nishegorod, and the passengers feed themselves. During the last two years, a new description of passage vessel, worked by machines driven by horses, has been introduced. The steamboats are private property, and all of them are manufactured by engineering establishments in the province of Vladimir. The cost is from 45,000 to 75,000 roubles, or from £2,065 to £3,430. The iron boats, which are coming into use, cost from 100,000, to 120,000 roubles, or from £4,585, to £5,500; they are dearer, it is true, but are much more durable than vessels of timber, more flat-bottomed, and draw less water.- United Service Journal.

Magnetic Binnacle.- We understand that Mr. Payne, optician, South Castle-street, after a series of experiments, which, altogether, have occupted eighteen months, has succeeded in producing a binnacle so loaded with magnetism as to counteract the local attraction of the compass in iron vessels. It is pretty generally known that hitherto the mariner's compass has been useless in iron-built vessels, unless they have undergone a process, invented by Professor Airey, to “compensate" their magnetism. This compensation, for which the vessel under process is to be continually turned and moored, unmoored and turned again, is very tedious, and, consequently, expensive. It consists in placing large magnets at such a distance from the binnacle, or other compass, that their attraction is equal to the deviation occasioned by the magnetic intluence of the vessel. Mr. Payne's plan allows the whole arrangement to be executed in the workshop, and the invention comprises an entirely new method for the circulation of the magnetic fluid. The exact process is to be kept a secret until a patent be secured; but from the explanation the inventor volunteers, it appears that he collects and fixes a vast quantity of magnetism in his binnacle, and causes its influence to ascend in a conical direction towards the centre of the compass needle. The magnetism of the iron vessel is attracted to this magnetic arrangement, which cuts off a direct communication between the needle and the vessel, and leares the needle as free to act correctly on board the vessel as on shore. The magnetic binnacle swings on substantial gimbals within an outer binnacle, covered with the usual brass top, lamp, &c. The saving of expense by this new plan will be considerable, and it will not be liable to an objection, which is advanced against Professor Airey's plan, that the compensation is not lasting. It has been found that a variation in compasses, compensated on the Professor's plan, arises by the iron of the vessel losing some of its magnetic strength by gradual oxydation, paint, &c.; while the large compens. ting magnets remain in preservation, and, after having been

exactly powerful enough, become too powerful. The compensating power of the "magnetic binnacle," on the contrary, cannot be too powerful, but may be not sufficiently so, a defect which is soon seen, and can, of course, be easily remedied. The first binnacle constructed on this plan is now on board the Mersey, iron steamer, plying between Birkenhead and George's Pier,

and occasionally employed as a tug-boat at the ordered their best thanks to Mr. Dollond for the entrance of the river.-Liverpool Albion.

favour of this inspection. Blasting by Galvanism.-Mr. Robert's mode of Steam Ploughing.-The Highland and Agricalblasting was for the first time in the neighbour tural Society of Scotland have again offered a prehood of Glasgow carried into practical operation in mium of 5001. for the first successful application of Mr. M'Callum's quarry, adjoining the Necropolis, steam to the cultivation of the soil. No premium on the evening of Saturday last. The operations was awarded last year, and the committee announce were directed by Mr. Wilson, of the Mechanics' their intention of withdrawing the notice after the Institution, and the successful result in every in present year. The particulars with reference to tte stance gave a most convincing proof of the practi premium may perhaps be interesting to some of our cability of the application. Some hundred tons of readers, and we therefore subjoin them :-** A prerock were detached ; and several practical men mium of five hundred sovereigns, or such other who were present, and who previously were scepti sum as the directors may see proper in the eireum. cal on the matter, expressed their complete convic stances, will be awarded for the first successful tion that the adoption of this mode of discharge application of steam power to the cultivation of the would be more efficient and economical than the soil. By the cultivation of the soil are to be undercommon one.-Caledonian Mercury.

stood the operations of ploughing and harrowing, a Iron Sleam Frigates. - Yesterday afternoon, a preparing ihe soil in an equally efficient manner, steam frigate, 800 tons burden, was launched from and the other purposes for which animal power is the iron ship-building yard of Mr. J. Laird, North now used; and the success of the invention will tre Birkenhead. This is the only large vessel of war judged of in relation to its applicability to the above which has been built at this port since 1809, when purposes in the ordinary situations of farms in this the Havannah frigate was built. She will carry country, and to the saving in time, labour, and out68-pounders pivot-guns, and will be fitted up in all lay, which it may possess over animal power, as respects like Her Majesty's steam frigates. Her now generally employed in the cultivation of the soil.* machinery and armament will be completed with Liverpool Mechanics' Institution.—This instituout delay. The East Indies is said to be her desti tion appears to be by far the most extensive and nation. She will make the eighth iron vessel of prosperous establishment of the kind in the king. war which Mr. Laird has built ; they all carry domn, and is effecting an immensity of good in the pivot-guns fore and aft. Four of them are now in large and important community in which its operathe Chinese seas, namely, the Nemesis and the tions are carried on. The buildings devoted to the Phlegethon, carrying two 32-pounders, and the purposes of the institution cost 15,0001.; it contains Adriane and the Medusa, two 24-pounders. The upwards of 3,300 members, with 850 pupils in tbree other three are in the Persian Gulph.--Liverpool day schools, and 600 pupils in fifteen or sixteen Paper.

evening classes. There are fifty teachers regularly Dollond's New Barometer.-At the last meeting employed, whose salaries amount to 5,0001, a year; of the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society of a library of 9,000 volumes with 1,600 readers, and a England, Mr. George Dollond, of St. Paul's Church daily distribution of 200 books. The public lecturer yard, submitted to the inspection of the council an are delivered twice a-week, and are attended by improved barometer for ascertaining the changes of audiences varying frorn 600 to 1,300. The total atmospheric pressure. The improvement effected receipts for carrying on this extensive machinery, by Mr. Dollond in this important meteorological amounted last year to 6,9391, 18s. 6d. The evening instrument, not only obviates many of the common schools afford instruction in English, writing, arichdificulties incidental to mountain-barometers, and metic, mathematics, mechanical philosophy, nariwhen out of use and packed up, becomes as firm gation, astronomy, botany, naval architecture, meand secure as a walking-stick, but it embraces in chanical, landscape, archite ural, and ornamental its construction many of the advantages of the sta drawing and painting, together with modelling and tionary barometer or weather-glass, as an indicator

practical perspective. At the last exhibition of the of changes taking place in the weight of the aimo Liverpool Academy, there were eight paintings by sphere. This improvement is chiefly attained by a teachers in the institution, and tweury one by most ingenious contrivance in the arrangement of artists who were formerly pupils within its walls. the mercurial cistern, and the application, for the There are also day schools in connexion with the first time, of an air-tight stop-cock, for regulating institution, in which a comprehensive system of the passage of the mercury into the cistern, or en education is carried on, adapted to the age, capaclosing it securely within the tube. Mr. Dollond cities, and pursuits of the pupils. The extra classes states the following as the principal advantages comprise instruction in chemistry, natural philoresulting from this arrangement:-1. A true and sophy, the French and German languages, elassies, certain state of altitude in the column of the mer vocal music, &c.-Midland Counties Herald. (The cury from the highest to the lowest situation on the Liverpool is what the London Institution-the older globe, without the necessity of applying the uncer of the two-might have been and would have been, tain and tedious corrections required in ordinary hac the views of the founders not been most unfor barometers. 2. The uniformity of the observations, tunately thwarted.] arising from the free and unobstructed condition of the mercury; all the advantages of the open cistern barometer being thus attained without the atten

Intending Patentees may be supplied dant difficulty of arranging the starting point of gratis with Instructions, by application (postmeasure. 3. The entire exclusion of air from the

paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., inner tube or cistern, and the consequent preservation of the surface of the mercury from oxidation.

166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only 4. The application of this new arrangement is

COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT capable of application to barometers of any dia (from 1617 to the present time). Patents, both meter, and with exclusive advantages obtained by

British and Foreign, solicited. Specifications no other mode. 5. The perfect security in carriage, when the barometer is either out of use, or required prepared or revised, and all other Patent bato be conveyed from place to place. The council siness transacted.

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J.C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 166, Fleet-street.--Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris ;

Machiu and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

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