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far as my experience goes, to the mode of cold, ground to a proper consistency for propelling vessels by side paddle-wheels. painting with olive oil. Depend upon it, Mr. Editor, the Great
A plate of metal, of proper dimensions, is Western Company know what they are then taken, and the subject required drawn about. It is no speculative point of ques upon it, and submitted to the electrotype tionable advantage upon which the excellence of the screw propeller rests ; it is a strikingly The second improvement consists in a superior, as well as an entirely new, inven. mode of obtaining metallic plates with raised tion. Propelling vessels by side paddle- printing surfaces, by means of which china, wheels, (though not perhaps by steam,) is as music, maps, &c., may be printed. This old as the pyramids ; but it is left to the process closely resembles the former, but in screw propeller, I firmly believe, to exhibit
instead of the black composition, the real triumph of steam and modern skill a white one is employed, composed of two on the ocean, over every thing that was ever parts wax, two parts lard, and one part suldreamt of before.
phate of lead. I am, dear Sir, yours truly,
ROBERT ORAM, or SALFORD, LANCASTom CRINGLE, Jun. TER, ENGINEER, for certain improvements
in hydraulic presses. Petty Bag Office,
December 12, 1841. ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH These improvements consist in a simple PATENTS RECENTLY ENROLLED.
addition for the purpose of causing the ram ** Patentees wishing for more full ab.
to move with greater speed, when light arstracts of their Specifications than the pre
ticles are being pressed, until a point is atsent regulations of the Registration Offices
tained when the full power of the machine is will admit of our giving, are requested to
required. favour us with the loan of their Specifica
For this purpose, a small stationary ram tions for that purpose.
is inserted through the bottom of the water
cylinder, into the common ram, which is Ezekiel JONES, OF STOCKPORT, ME bored to receive it, and is thus converted CHANIC, for certain improvements in ma into a second cylinder. The interior of the chinery for preparing slubbing, roving, spin ram may be a cylinder of four inches dianing, and doubling cotton, silk, wool, worsted, meter only, while that of the water cylinder filax, and other fibrous substances. Enrol. is ten inches; water is, therefore, in the first ment Office, December 10, 1841.
instance, pumped into the interior of the The first of these improvements is applied ram, until the utmost pressure is obtained ; to the roving machine, commonly known as the water is then pumped into the ordinary the bobbin and fly frame, generally employed cylinder, when the speed becomes diminished, for producing the finer rovings, and is de and the power proportionately increased, say signed to obviate the uncertain rotation which in the ratio of 16 to 100. occurs in the usual mode of conveying mo There is a provision for admitting water tion by means of the cone and strap.
to flow into the outer cylinder, to occupy The second improvement consists in a the vacuum which would otherwise be ocmethod of regulating the varying speeds of casioned by the ascent of the ram. the bobbin and flyer, so that each succeeding The claim is to the boring out of the ram layer may be placed with equal tension, and to convert it into an interior cylinder, and in regular succession during the filling of the the introduction of the smaller stationary bobbin, from the commencement of the bare ram into the same, in order that the strokes spool to its greatest diameter when full. of the pump may tell quicker upon the goods Another movement is designed to regulate
under pressure. the distribution of layers on the surface of John Haughton, OF LIVERPOOL, CLERK, the spool or bobbin.
MASTER OF ARTS, for improvements in the Edward Palmer, or NewGATE-STREET, method of affiring certain labels. EnrolGENTLEMAN, for improvements in producing ment Office, December 18, 1841. . printing surfaces, and in the printing china, This invention has reference to the penny pottery ware, music, maps, and portraits. and two-penny new postage labels, and its Enrolment Office, December 12, 1841. essential peculiarity is said to be, the placing
The first of these improvements consists a letter in a machine which contains a liquid in obtaining printing surfaces on copper, or and suitable apparatus for damping, and other metallic or conducting surfaces, by the causing such a motion to a part of the maknown power of electrotype, in the following chine, that the liquid shall be brought into manner. A composition is first made of two contact with the letter, so as to damp the parts white wax, two parts lard, and one precise fitting motion. And so placing labels part of ivory black or lamp black; these in and a letter, respectively, in a machine, as to gredients are boiled together, and, when be able to communicate such a motion, that
a label shall be brought into forcible contact The advantages of this contrivance over with the letter, and be affixed to the exact the ordinary system of gearing, are stated to portion of it previously damped. The dis be its greater compactness, the unlimited tinctive principle of this invention may, it is power obtainable by only two moving points said, be variously carried out, and three besides the axle to which the moving force forms of apparatus are described at great is applied, and the necessity for very few length. The first is a small machine, called bearings ; and hence its superior simplicity & damper, in which the upper right-hand and lightness when great power is required, corner of the letter is inserted and damped ; the whole force being obtained in the space the second is the stamper, in which the letter generally allowed for a single wheel. previously damped is brought in contact with Thomas WALKER, OF NORTH SHIELDS, a postage label, properly disposed, which be ENGINEER,' for improvements in steamcomes fixed thereunto by pressure communi engines. Enrolment Office, Dec. 18, 1841. cated to the upper part of the apparatus. The patentee states that the object of his Another form of apparatus, called a labeller, improvements is to prevent the exhausting performs both the damping and stamping steam of one cylinder, from interfering with process.
the other cylinder while in full power, as he WILLIAM PETRIE, LATE OF CROYDON, conceives that when the steam of one cyBUT NOW OF CONDUIT-STREET, gentleman, linder is exhausting it will pass through the for improvements in obtaining mechanical eduction pipe to the other cylinder where it power, which are also applicable for ob is not wanted, and destroy, in a measure, taining rapid motion. Enrolment Office, the power of that cylinder for a time (the December 18, 1841.
quicker the engines goes, the greater will be These improvements consist in the appli the resistance to each piston alternately by cation of the differential pulley or Chinese the other's exhausting steam); to avoid this, windlass, by means of a system of internal the patentee uses separate exhausting ways, differential gearing to cranes, windlasses, and so prevents the exhausting steam of one capstans, &c.
from interfering in the least with the others. On the terminating crank of an axle are We really know not which to admire the placed two toothed wheels fastened firmly most, the extreme simplicity of this inventogether or made in one piece, both being tion, or, the brevity of the specification, of free to revolve together on the crank. One which the above is not an abstract, but a of these wheels is larger than the other. The copy. smaller wheel revolves in a fixed internal. In the drawing accompanying the specificatoothed wheel, supported externally with its tion, the two cylinders of a locomotive encentre in a line with the axle, its inter- gine are shown, each having its separate ex. nal radius being equal to that of the small haust-pipe proceeding into the funnel. crank wheel added to the length of the crank. JOSEPH GAUCI, OF NORTH-CRESCENT, The larger wheel revolves within another BEDFORD-SQUARE, Artist, AND ALEXtoothed wheel fixed by its centre at the extre ANDER BAIN, OF WIGMORE-STEET, CAmity of a removeable axle which lies beyond VENDISH-SQUARE, MECHANIST, for im. the crank, in a straight line with the cranked provements in inkstands and inkholders. axle, so that the internal wheel lies flat Enrolment Office, December 21, 1841. against, but does not quite touch the fixed The first of these improvements consists internal wheel. The internal radius of this in placing a small force-pump at the bottom wheel (which is called the resistance wheel) of the interior of the inkstand, the piston of is equal to that of the large crank wheel which is raised or depressed by means of a added to the length of the crank. An ordi. screw, or other suitable contrivance; when nary barrel is placed upon the axle of the the piston is at the top of the working barrel, resistance wheel for winding up a rope, chain, the ink flows into it through small openings &c. When the cranked axle is made to re made in its side for that purpose, which ink, volve, the resistance wheel will revolve with on the descent of the piston, is forced up a greater power, and consequently slower, tube into the inkholder, or dipping-place. provided that double the length of the crank, In a second modification, the piston-rod multiplied by the difference between the works through a stuffing-box in the closed diameter of the small and large cranked top of the pump-barrel, and raises the ink wheels, be less than the diameter of the in its upward movement. In a third modi. resistance wheel multiplied by the diameter fication, the pipe leading perpendicularly of the small crank wheel. The patentee from the inkholder forms the piston-rod, the claims the combination of two wheels of dif piston being affixed to its lower end, and ferent diameters on a crank, and working working in a well at the bottom of the inkinto two corresponding internal wheels, so stand. placed, that one being fixed, the other will A second improvement consists in for revolve in the manner described.
ing the inkstand of a horizontal cylinder, the boiler ; the said axis passing horizontally with a projecting spout or dipping-place on across in front of the foremost end of the one side. When in a position for use, the fire-box, instead of behind the hindmost end ink flows into the dipping-place; but when thereof. But the straight axis of the foredone with, the inkstand can be turned on its most wheels is disposed as usual, or nearly axis, the whole of the ink flows back into the so, that is, horizontally across beneath the interior, and the spout rises up against an foremost end of the cylindrical part of the ornamental stop, which closes the orifice, boiler, so as to be beneath the stuffing-boxes preventing evaporation of the ink, or col of the steam cylinder. The cranked axis of lecting of dust. In another arrangement of the main or propelling wheels is disposed this inkstand, the front is a circular glass plate, horizontally across, beneath the cylindrical with a dipping-place, which turns in a fuid part of the boiler, at a suitable place in the tight joint, and allows the dipping-place to interval between the foremost and the hind. be raised up against the stop, as before, while most axles ; such interval being that usually the main body of the inkstand and its con observed in six-wheeled engines. In a locotents remain stationary.
motive engine constructed agreeably to this The claim is, 1. To a mode of constructing improvement, the boiler will be longer than inkstands by applying a force-pump below in the ordinary six-wheeled engines, and its the surface of the ink, in the vessel contain evaporative powers proportionably increased. ing the ink; 2. To a mode of constructing The second improvement is equally apinkstands by causing the ink vessel, (or part plicable to both four and six wheeled enthereof,) containing ink, to move partly gines. It relates to the position of the slideround, and, by the gravitating property of valves, steam-chest, &c., and consists in the ink, to supply ink to an inkholder for placing the slide-valves in vertical planes at
the sides of the steam cylinders, so that the John LEE STEVENS, OF KING EDWARD direction of the sliding motion of such valve, STREET, SOUTHWARK, GENERAL AGENT, and the central line of each valve-rod, will AND JOHN KING, OF COLLEGE-HILL, LON intersect the central line of the main axis of DON, PRINTER, for certain improvements in the crank at the point where the eccentric candlesticks, and other candle-holders. En is placed. In this case the eccentric rods are rolment Office, December 23, 1841.
joined directly to prolongations of the valve. These improvements consist in raising the rods, without the usual intermediate levers piston or plate, on which the bottom of the or axes; and one steam-chest, placed becandle rests within the socket of the candle tween the two cylinders, contains the slidestick, by a spiral motion. In some cases, a valves belonging to each. screw thread is cut upon the prolonged stem The third improvement relates to a method attached to the piston ; in other cases, a of working the feed-pumps for supplying the thread, on the periphery of the piston itself, boiler with water, and is applicable to all works in a spiral groove within the socket. engines having two sets of eccentrics for
A gradual vertical motion is thus given to working the slide-valves; it consists in jointthe piston by means of a screw, instead of ing the piston-rods of the two feed-pumps to being raised, as heretofore, by the direct the half-hoops belonging to the eccentric pressure of the finger. Several different rods, which are only used to work the slidemodifications of arrangements for this pur valves when the motion of the engine is repose are shown.
versed; so that the short reciprocating moThe claim is, 1. To the application of an tion of these two eccentrics works the feedinternal and an external screw, for the pur pumps and keep the boiler supplied with pose of causing a vertical movement on turn water. ing the nosel; 2. To the raising the piston, or candle, by means of a spiral screw working within a tube or collar, as described. ROBERT STEPHENSON, OF GREAT GEORGE
RECENT AMERICAN PATENT. STREET, WESTMINSTER, CIVIL ENGINEER,
[From the Franklin Journal.] for certain improvements in the arrange CURLED HAIR CARDING MACHINE, ment and combination of the parts of steam Francis Harding. Upon a cylinder about engines of the sort commonly called loco 2 feet in diameter, and similar to the cylin. motive engines. Rolls' Chapel Office, De der of a carding machine, slats are attached, cember 23, 1841.
which are about 2 inches in width, and 4 The first of these improvements relates to inches apart-these slats are covered with the disposition and arrangement of the wheels cards having two or three rows of strong of six-wheeled engines, and consists in dis wire teeth set in stout leather, and bent, or posing the axis of the hinder wheels beneath hooked, forward. Over the cylinder, atthe hindmost end of the cylindrical part of tached to arch pieces, are six stationary
NOTES AND NOTICES.
31 slats, provided with teeth similar to those might happen to them ?” we remain, and, we on the cylinder, but with the hooks turned
fear, are likely ever to remain, without any the reverse way. These slats are connected with the arch pieces by means of springs, so
distinct and satisfactory answer. We believe as to give them some play; the teeth on
the only true answer that can be given these slats are of the same kind as those of is-none whatever. Neither on the Great the cylinder, but they are less and less
Western Railway, nor on any other which coarse as they recede from the feed apron and approach a brush cylinder, which is op
we know of, has any thing like adequate posite a feed apron, by which the machine is attention been paid to the protection supplied.
of passengers from the consequences of The claim is to the combination of the
collisions. Such care as railway directors, stationary and revolving cards, arranged, constructed, and operating as described, and
managers, and engineers have hitherto taken in combination therewith the revolving cy
to provide for the safety of their customers lider of brushes, each brush consisting of has been almost solely directed to the prea single row of bristles.
vention of such accidents—it being taken too The difference between this machine and the carding, or heckling, machines, pre
much for granted, on all hands, that, when viously in use, will be manifest from the fact they do occur, some slaughter, more or less, that neither of these machines would per is inevitable. And yet, most certain it is form the operation of picking curled hair ; unless we are to abandon all faith in the rewhatever similarity there may be between them, it must be plain that they are by no
sources of science and art—that means may means identical.
be found to render innocuous the worst col. lisions which can happen on railways, in the course of their ordinary traffic. It is more
a question of expense to the Companies, than THE LATE GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY
any thing else; but the expense of such a We are informed, and have reason to be
system of buffers as we recommended in our lieve, that we made a mistake in stating, in
last would not be great ; and were it even
ten times greater than it is likely to be, that our last number, that, "just before the
ought to be no reason with any company for starting of the very luggage train that met with the late disastrous accident, the pro
refusing to adopt it. priety of placing the passengers next the engine and tender" had been fully discussed
The Smoke Nuisance-A public meeting is to be between the three principal officers of the held on the 12th of January, at the Music Hall, in
Leeds, for the purpose of considering the propriety railway, the engineer, secretary, and super of adopting some course by which the smoke isintendant; and that Mr. Brunel represented,
suing from the various steam-engines which abound
in that neighbourhood can be burnt or prevented. at the inquest on the bodies of the sufferers, The Hall is to be open on two days preceding the
meeting for patentees or other inventors, in priority that the passenger truck had, on that occa
of application, to arrange for exhibition models, sion, been actually placed “in the middle of plans, sections, or diagrams, and it is arranged
(that the whole question may be thoroughly conthe train.” The luggage-train to which Mr. sidered) for each inventor to have an opportunity Brunel alluded was, it appears, that of the
of briefly explaining his apparatus. Questions may
be asked in explanation, but it is not intended to evening, or rather morning, following the allow the inventors to question each other in pub
lic, because such course might lead to personal reaccident. We were led to refer Mr. Brunel's marks. W. Beckett, Esq., M.P. for Leeds, has pro
mised to take the chair, statements, to the luggage-train which actually
Remarkable Magnetic Disturbance at the Greenwich encountered the accident, from a confusion Observatory.-On the 25th of September last, a most
extraordinary disturbance of the magnetic instruwhich prevails as to the times spoken of, in ments was noticed at the Magnetic Observatory the newspaper reports of the evidence given
attached to the Royal Observatory of Greenwich.
Within eight minutes of time the declination needle at the inquest, from which alone our in changed its position more than 2 degrees (having
passed in both directions the range of the observing formation was derived.
telescope, which includes the angle), the vertical To the question, "Whether any means
force was increased by more than 1-40th of its whole
value, the instrument having then reached the were provided for enabling the carriages to extremity of its range; and the horizontal force
was increased about 1-30th of its whole value. sustain, without damage, any collision which
During the appearance of an aurora on the morning
NOTES AND NOTICES.
when the needles were in an agitated state, the declination needle in less than three hours traversed an arc of 34 minutes. At 2 o'clock p.m., Gottingen mean time, it was evident that all the needles were affected by some unusual cause of disturbance; and from this time to the discontinuance of the observations (some hours) two persons were constantly engaged, one taking the observations with the vertical force magnetometer, the other those of the declination needle and of the horizontal force magnetometer. The day (September 25) was cloudy throughout; about 9 h. p. m. a few bright streamers were seen through the clouds, then nothing more till 11 h. p. m., when an auroral archi, about 24 degrees high, was visible for a short time.
Ancient Stocking Frames.- A very singular lot of frames was offered lately by auction, consisting of a number of frames from Godalming, in Surrey. many of them are more than 120 years old. Among the rest we were sorry to observe the celebrated frame " Magog," the widest stocking frame in the world, it being 54 inches on the needles. This giant of a frame was built by Mr. Horton, the noted patentee, in London, about the year 1777. It was originally a knotted frame, and was calculated to make silk breeches, then in the height of fashion. About the year 1790, Mr. Horton being a partner, it was removed to the Keeley factory, Godalming, where it made fleecy blankets and great coats until the year 1838, a period of 48 years. So great was the width, that the London giant frightened all the Nottingham purchasers, and there was never a bid for poor old " Magog.” When this is known "half Godalming will be in tears," as he is known to be a " reg'lar good'un." The sale of these frames shows the vicissitute of human affairs. Though the stocking frame was invented at Calverton, yet stocking frames were worked in Godalming before they were in Nottingham, as in 1665 there was only one shop in this place. In the reign of Anne, there were nearly as many stocking frames in Godalming, Guildford, and 17 villages around, as in London.Nottingham Review.
Invention of the Steam Engine.--M. Delecluze has lately made a discovery among the manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci, carrying back a knowledge of the steam-engine to at least as far back as the 15th century. He has published in the Artiste a notice on the life of Leonardo da Vinci, to which he adds a fac-simile of a page from one of his manuscripts, and on which are five sketches with the pen, representing the details of the apparatus of a steam-gun, with an explanatory note upon what he designates under the name of the "Architonnerre," and of which note the following is a translation :-" Invention of Archimedes. The Architonnerre is a machine of fine copper, which throws balls with a loud report and great force. It is used in the following manner:-One-third of this instrument contains a large quantity of charcoal fire. When the water is well heated, a screw at the top of the vessel which contains the water must be made quite tight. On closing the screw above, all the water will escape below, will descend into the heated portion of the instrument, and be immediately converted into a vapour so abundant and powerful, that It is wonderful to see its fury and hear the noise it produces. This machine will carry a ball of a talent in weight.” It is worthy of remark, that Leonardo da Vinci, far from claiming the merit of this insention for himself, or the men of his time, attributes it to Archimedes.-Galignani's Messenger.
Rifles Inferior to Plain Muskels.--Mr. Greener, the author of an excellent Treatise on Fire-arms, affirms that "the supposed advantages of the rifle exist more in imagination than in reality." (Times,
Dec. 20.) “A well-constructed eylindrically-bored barrel will," he says, "project a ball further than the best rifles; under the same circumstances, fully 100 yards further, and that with only a very trifling addition of elevation. The disadvantages of the rifle, as a military arm, are very numerons, and it can only become useful in the hands of a man well skilled in its use; and it is, for this reason, unfit to be placed in the hands of a body of men of indiscriminate ability. So convinced am I of this, that I would undertake to teach any number of men, taken promiscuously from a regiment, to contend, with a well-constructed musket, against any similar number armed with the best made rifle yet produced, quickness and accuracy combined."
Introduction of the Hot Blast in Plymouth Dockyard. --Great improvements have been made in the north smithy of this dockyard, in superseding the blowing machines by the introduction of the fire blast, worked by steam-power. All the old bellows are removed from the fires or forges; air pipes, conveying the blast produced by the fans, are fitted in their places, and the working of the fans has commenced. The building, in which are the fans and the steam-engine that drives them, is erected without, adjoining the smithy. The air-drains or tunnels, into which the air produced by the motion of the fans is forced, are dug out of the solid rock, and are carried along through the shop, under the surface of the floor at the backs of the forges, where openings are cut, and pipes introduced to convey the air to the fire. The principle of generating the blast, and its practical utility, have been proved to be far superior to the old method in every respect; for, by the continual and steady blasts of the fan, : the heats are much more quickly produced than by the blast of the bellows; consequently, the heats in the course of the day are more numerous, and the metal in heating and forging does not diminish so much. A great saving, therefore, is effected in labour and material, and nearly double the quantity of work can be performed with more than the former facilities. The air-pipes occupy almost as small a space as the noses of the old blowing machines, thereby affording valuable room for additional forges, which the increasing manufacture of anchors at this smithy, and the extra quantity of work capable of being performed, have rendered necessary to be erected, and which could not have been built, had not the old bellows been removed. It was feared that much annoyance would be experienced from the noise of the vibration, caused by the immense velocity at which the fans are driven, which is said to be productive of great inconvenience in other similar constructions. Precautions were taken to prevent this. The fans are enclosed in the smallest possible space by walls; and this, with the solid foundation on which the building stands, and its permanent construction, has had the desired effect, so that not the least noise produced by the working of fans and engine in this building can be heard in the smithy.-- Times.
LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,
No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris ;
Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.