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ON THE COMBUSTION OF COAL AND COKE, BY C. W. WILLIAMS, ESQ. 23 mean while ? Why, a vitiation of the I will, then, divide the combustible vacuum, in consequence of the evolution gases, which are to be converted to the of air from the injection water, and other purposes of heat in the furnace, into causes. This evolution cannot be rec three classes—First, Bi-carburetted Hytified by the air-pump during the stroke, drogen; secondly, Carburetted Hydroand it is of no use for the next; so that, gen; and, thirdly, Carbonic Oxide. The after all, this much-talked of pause may
first two I will call the coal gases, and be an evil rather than a benefit, and may the third a coke gas; meaning by the arise from a due calculation by the en latter term to convey the idea, that the gine-inaker, &c., as to the balance of two former are generated in the practical forces.
combustion of coal; and that in the proI am yours truly,
cess of combustion of the coke, or solid WILLIAM RADLEY. carbonaceous residue of coal, the latter London, January 1, 1842.
Now, with respect to the quantity of
air required for the combustion of this ON THE COMBUSTION OF COAL AND COKE carbonic oxide, or coke gas, the weight CARBONIC OXIDE, OR
of carbon which it contains being the BY C, W. WILLIAMS, ESQ.
same as that which went to the formation [In continuation from page 5.]
of carbonic acid, the quantity of air must Sir,- In my last week's contribution to necessarily be the same, to provide an equal your Magazine I referred to the exist. weight of oxygen. But since the carence of a combustible gas in furnaces, bonic acid, in its conversion into carbonic which had hitherto escaped the attention oxide in the furnace, has doubled its voof practical men—was denied by many- lume, it follows, that the volume of air and doubted by most outside the labora required must be in accordance with this tory. I allude to carbonic oxide. I chemical transformation of the acid into transmitted you a letter of a most im the oxide, In other words, that each portant character on this subject, setting cubic foot of carbonic oxide, taking ibe whole question at rest, not only as
the carbon thereof at 6, by weight, regards the existence of this gas in a will require a volume of air, the oxygen useful or available quantity, but of its of which will be 8, being one-half that direct application in the generation of required in the generation of carbonic even an intense heat.
acid; so that, if the solid carbon of a ton Now, the most important considera of coals requires 240,000 cubic feet to tions, as regards the conversion of this convert it into carbonic acid, the carbonic gas to available purposes, relate to the oxide generated from such, (supposing quantity of air to be admitted in effecting it all to be so converted, and which is iis combustion, with the time when and probably the case in large and deep furplace where such admission is' rendered naces,) would be 120,000 cubic feet. necessary. I will therefore briefly exa With respect to the time when and place mine these points, as they arise out of
where such air should be admitted—it is the consideration of the constituents of clear that this should be regulated by this gas, and the circumstances attending the place where the gas is to be encounits generation and combustion.
tered—namely, beyond the bridge ; inasIn my treatise On the Combustion of much, as it is only in the passage from Coal, I considered it of the last importance the incandescent fuel in the furnace, to dwell on the nature and properties of and after it has escaped from such fuel, this * earbonic oxide," and the import
that it can be met. This at once neuance of providing for its combustion. tralizes the erroneous inference arising On these points I will, if possible, refer out of the supposed absence of a comin my next. I will now, for perspicuity bustible gas, when the coal” gas has all sake, and for the better consideration of been evolved; and the supposed inour subject in a practical point of view, jurious effect of air, if admitted at such distinguish this gas from the other com time. Practically, the existence of this bustible gases produced in a furnace, by gas is unnoticed by engineers, and cona term which, though chemically it may sequently, the necessary demand for air be objectionable, yet practically will be denied. When, however, we consider found to have its value.
that this “coke gas” is generated when
the “coal gas" has ceased to exist; and is one of Upton and Robert's contrithat its quantity is in proportion to the quantity and incandescence of the ignited All that we think it necessary to state fuel on the bars, we shall see that the is, that we have some time since comdemand for air for the former will arise menced an action, which is now pending in the same rate and degree as that for against the same Mr. Upton, whose name the latter shall have ceased. Thus this is here mentioned in connection with demand is in admirable harmony with Roberts (who is since dead,) for infringnature's uniformity in the supply of air, ing our patent rights in the solar lamp, and relieves us much from the supposed by selling a contrivance called "Young's inequality in the demand in furnaces, Patent Oxydator;” and on the trial of arising out of an unequal generation of that action, he will have a much better combustible gases. In searching for the opportunity of showing whether the solar reason why the existence of the “ coke lamp is one of Upton and Roberts's congas” has been overlooked in practice, trivances, than can be afforded in any and the demand for air denied-this can easily be accounted for as regards close fur It is not our intention to be drawn naces, from these circumstances: 1. That by Mr. Upton, or his friend, “A Conuntil it has been converted into flame, it stant Reader" into a correspondence on is necessarily invisible ; and, 2. That the the merits of the question between him place where it is so converted, is beyond and us, but we think it desirable, that ihe reach of observation—being beyond the public, to whom "A Constant Reader" the bridge, to which part there is no has addressed his observations, should be usual access or means of seeing what is aware of the real state of the matter, and going on. In smelting furnaces, or in that we are at this moment taking against all operations where this gas arises in Mr. Upton the same course which we large quantities and meets the air at its have already pursued against other parexit from the top, it is strange that it ties who have infringed our rights, by should have been so long neglected, and seeking damages against him by legal that coke, which it is asserted burns proceedings. without flame, should yet be attended Trusting to your sense of justice for with so large a body of it, without excit the insertion of this letter, we are, Sir, ing attention to its heating powers, and
Your obedient servants, the causes and circumstances under which
TIMOTHY SMITH AND Sons. the body of unquestionable flame is ge Birmingham, December 29, 1841. nerated from a fuel which is said to burn without it. I propose continuing this subject in my next communication. I am, yours, &c.
PLOWMAN AND QUARTERMAN'S MANUAL
POWER FOR THRESHING MACHINES. C. W. WILLIAMS.
(Registered Pursuant to Act of Parliament.) Liverpool, January 4, 1842.
In our last volume (page 504) we published a description of a new Horse power" for threshing machines, designed
by Messrs. Plenty, of Newbury. The acSir,-Our attention having been drawn companying engraving represents a new to a letter in your publication of the 18th manual power” adapted to similar ma. instant, beaded “The Cap or Deflector chines recently introduced by Messrs. Lamp, commonly called the Solar Lamp," Plowman and Quarterman of Oxford. and signed “ Á Constant Reader," in It consists of two horizontal bearers which letter our names are made use of, mounted upon suitable supports a a; upwe shall be obliged by your inserting on these bearers a sliding frame is placed, this communication in your next number. which carries the bearings of the several
It is generally known, that we are the axles. The centre of the frame is occuproprietors of the patent right of the pied by a large fly-wheel b, which carSolar Lamp, and “A Constant Reader" ries a drum c; upon the prolonged axis is evidently aware of this fact; the ma of the fly-wheel a small spur wheel, or nifest object of his letter being to lead pinion e, is placed upon each end, which the public to suppose that the solar lamp pinions revolve in the outer compartments
PATENT SOLAR LAMP.
FOR THRESHING MACHINES.
or wings of the sliding frame. In suitable winch handles g. On turning these bearings, immediately behind, and gear handles a rapid motion is given to the ing into the former, two large spur fly-wheel and drum, which is communiwheels, f, are placed, furnished with cated to the threshing-machine by a belt
A TRIP IN THE
the band, or belt is kept constantly presented, that as we should soon have the tight.
whole flood tide to contend with, during The performance of one of these ma which it was not to be supposed that any chines on the large scale, has given the vessel, against such a wind, could make highest satisfaction to competent judges,
much progress, and as it was necessary to
husband the coal, of which we had only a and it appears well adapted to supply a desideratum in many agricultural loca
limited quantity, he would advise our run. lities, — advantageous employment for
ning into Pennarth, and seeing how it would
be on the next ebb, as he was sure it would willing able-bodied men during the ces
be “ nothing but a real dirty night." This sation of profitable out-door labour.
advice was adopted, and we let go our anchor in Pennarth Roads at half-past two o'clock, four hours from the time of leaving
Bristol Basin, the last three of which it had (From the Bristol Magazine.)
been blowing very hard against us. Dear Mr. Editor,
The justice of Mr. Ray's observations was On presenting your note of introduction soon established ; for shortly afterwards the to Mr. Smith, the morning of the departure Victory and the Bristol bore up and came of the Archimedes, from Bristol, I was very into the roads also, both vessels anxious to kindly welcomed on board, and having as make good their time, and the latter with certained that the steward's arrangements only a short distance (to Swansea) to run. would not be disconcerted by an extra The next morning (Sunday) it was blowing hand at the mess, at which I undertook to still very hard, with very unsteady wind, perform my share of the duty without skulk veering about from south-west to north-west, ing, I soon felt myself as much at home as and the pilot still discountenanced our getif I had been quartered on the beef and pork ting under weigh. The Victory, however, for a voyage to the East Indies.
made another attempt, and succeeded, as I Our party consisted of Mr. Smith, the have since learned, in getting so far as Mil. inventor of the screw, in propria persona, a ford in the next twenty-four hours ; but the gentleman friend of his (who was disposed Bristol remained, as well as ourselves, until to go " a pleasuring,” like myself, to enjoy the Monday morning, when, the wind havthe inviting breezes and invigorating fogs of ing abated, though still westerly and fresh, an honest old-fashioned November, on "the we weighed anchor, resolved to take a final broad, the open sea”), the Captain, the leave for that voyage of Pennarth, which we managing engineer, Mr. Ray the pilot, and did exactly at twenty-five minutes past seven, your humble servant, all, with perhaps one in company with the Bristol. exception, practical fellows, able to look a At eight o'clock, hove the log, and found nor'-wester in the face without winking ; her going seven knots, wind west south-west, and when the hauser was let go off Rownham, very fresh, engine making twenty-four revoat exactly half-past ten A.M.,—for my own lutions per minute. At noon, strong winds part, I felt ready for anything, from "pitch and rainy weather. Half-past twelve, abreast and toss to manslaughter.”
of the Foreland, strong gale and heavy sea, You will remember that the morning of and the Bristol we observed bearing up again the 20th November came in fine and soft, for Cardiff (where, I have since understood, and as I was going down to the Archimedes she landed her passengers); as, however, we from the city, I was apprehensive that the run were doing well, we kept on without the round to London would be a very dull and slightest deviation from our course till we common-place affair, affording but small reached Lundy Island, under which weanchoropportunity of testing the properties of the ed, at a quarter after seven the same evening, screw, more than could be done in a river. the wind continuing to blow a strong gale By the time, however, that we reached King from west north-west to west. We acroad it was piping up pretty fresh from the complished the whole distance from Cardiff south-west, and when we rounded Posset to Lundy at the average rate of five miles Point, exactly one hour from the Basin, it an hour, against such weather and a whole was blowing hard right a-head, and as it flood tide ; Mr. Ray, the pilot, and several looked black and murky to windward, I of the hands being perfectly astonished at began to entertain hopes that I should have the ease with which a true course was steered something to say to you ere
in weather in which, he asserted, many large London.
and powerful steamers could not have been The wind continued to increase as the day kept head to wind at all. advanced, and when we reached the Holmes, We lay at anchor, under Lundy, all that at two o'clock, it was blowing a whole gale, niglit and part of the next day, during which and Mr. Ray, calling a council of war, re I got on shore to visit the natives. There
it seems, only thirty inhabitants on the island, apparently a healthy and a happy little colony; they told me, such a thing as a doctor on the island had never been heard of. Two, at least, of the lot are both pretty and agreeable, I can say that from my own observation, (this, of course, is not a part of ** the log ;') but as I suppose you want an account of the Archimedes, and not of Lundy Island, I proceed to inform you that, at about noon, on Tuesday, the 23rd of No. vember, the wind hauled so far to the northward, as to admit of our setting the canvass, and we got under weigh at one o'clock P. M., a tremendous sea still tumbling into the chops of the Channel, from the westward, on account of the previous heavy gales from that point, notwithstanding which we found her going eight and a half knots by the patent log. At six the wind had become so strong, that we took in the main spencer. At eight, a heavy squall struck us, and blew away the jib; at half-past eight, a heavy gale and head sea, speed by log six and a quarter knots.
I was never more pleased, myself, than when I came on deck in the midst of this hubbub, to see how beautifully this little vessel was performing her part ; at this time she was making good six knots, with a terrible head sea on, and blowing too hard to carry any canvass. She was making excellent weather, and a boy might steer her; and, from first to last, the engine never varied above three or four strokes per minute, at no time exceeding twenty-five, nor being down so low as twenty, the whole voyage. This, to me, appeared the more singular, as I had observed such a striking difference in the action of the paddle-wheel engines, at different times, which labour dreadfully in a heavy head sea, and are liable to run away when scudding in similar wea. ther, requiring to have the steam shut off, on account of the paddles being sometimes wholly out of the water. I have known the mighty Western reduced down to five strokes per minute, and even less, by the strength of the opposing wind and sea, though, when doing her best, she makes sixteen and seventeen strokes per minute. Talking of the Great Western, by the by, puts me in mind of the first gale of wind I experienced on board of her. At the time I speak of, the people were getting the yards down, and I was on the spar-deck, forward, lending a band, when two or three seas, successively, slapped in over us, almost taking my breath away, and scarcely giving me time to recover it again ; one of the hands, an old whaler, who stood near me, however, said to me, quite coolly, “ Hold on, and never mind her, sir-she'll come up to blow presently;" thus identifying her, as a sailor delights to do, with a thing of life and habits.
At half-past eleven at night we made the Longships ; at midnight, very heavy squalls, with rain and hail. Rounded the Longships at about half-past three in the morning, and ran up the Channel all that day, at the rate of about nine knots. At half-past two in the morning of Thursday, we met a strong breeze from the eastward, notwithstanding which we were off Beachey Head by eight, when we sent down the gaffs and fore-yard, the wind continuing against us till two P. M., when it abated, and shortly afterwards fell calm. At half-past two, we hove-to off Sandgate for a couple of hours ; and at seven, anchored in the Downs, after a run of thirty-seven hours' steaming from the Longships. Here the weather was quite calm, but very thick, and we remained at anchor until the following morning. On Friday morning, at six, got under weigh, and, though constantly delayed by a dense fog, we were at Gravesend by four in the afternoon, and safely moored at Blackwall by half-past six on the same evening, (Fri. day, Nov. 26,) in six and a quarter days from Bristol, only three days nine hours of which we had been absolutely under weigh, accomplishing a distance of over six hundred miles, about half of which was against strong head winds and a heavy sea.
I don't imagine that the above needs any commentary, Mr. Editor. All I know is, that we passed every sailing vessel and steamer we fell in with between Bristol and London, and accomplished the voyage without unpleasantness of any sort, saving the weather alone. The vessel performed her work with uniform regularity, and every one on board was delighted with her; and if you have a doubt on any point, I refer you to Mr. Ray, the pilot, from whom Mr. Smith took a certificate of her behaviour during the severe gales in the Bristol Channel.
It should be borne in mind that the Ar. chimedes is a vessel drawing eleven feet of water, and that she has little more than one. horse power to every four tons register; and I do not believe there is in the kingdom a paddle-wheel steamer, of the same proportion of power to tonnage, and the same draft of water, that would have a chance with her against a strong wind and heavy sea. At any rate, I am sure there is not one that I would be so well pleased to be on board of in such weather; nor need you fear saying too much in favour of an invention, which is only kept from general adoption, either because it is unknown, or because people do not desire to know it. It is to me a complete puzzle ; nor can I account for the in. difference with which the steam-navigation world appears hitherto to have regarded it, -so superior as it is, in every respect, as