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uniform rotary motion may be obtained, the substances, with the important advantages dead points avoided, and also the necessity of nearly perfect freedom from the noxious "for great speed in the steam-piston avoided. effluvia arising from certain combinations A modification of the slide-valves supposed previously known, and avoidance of the nse to be necessary for this purpose is described of mercury, and of undiluted acid, and the at length.

preservation of equal power for a long period. The application of a similar apparatus for Secondly, In the application of the elecpropelling vehicles of various kinds is de tric power or principle, however obtained, scribed, but no particular scale is given for to a new and improved mode of producing the construction of the apparatus, as the electric light, whereby that light may be proportions and dimensions may be varied. sustained and increased, so as to make it The patentee merely advises that the run available for lighting apartments, or for any ning wheels should be made much larger other illuminating purpose. than they are at present, (query, how much Thirdly, in the application of electricity larger than 7 feet ?) and that the steam pis- in its voltaic form when developing magnetic ton should exceed in size that of the water power in iron, to the production of a motive cylinder.

force of increased effect by means of imThe construction of a locomotive engine proved modes of producing magnetism in on the principle of the traversing weight iron, and of arranging and constructing the wheel is next set forth, but it is said to be

electro magnets. inapplicable to rapid motion ; it is, however, The mode in which the first improvement admirably adapted for carts, wagons, ploughs, is carried out, is described at great length, &c. To ploughs so propelled, the patentee but it is briefly as follows :-One pound of proposes to prefix a horse or bullock for the nitraté of ammonia is dissolved in twelve purpose of turning them round at the end of ounces of soft water; to any given quantity the furrow!

of this solution an equal quantity of pure The claim is, 1. To the employment of a sulphuric acid is added, the solution being weight-wheel revolving and pressing upon a placed in a vessel containing pounded ice flexible pipe, or chamber full of either water, or other frigorific mixture, and the acid air, or other fluid, for the purpose of obtain added very gradually to prevent heating, ing a continuous and forcible flow, or jet of This mixture is then put into a stoppered water, or air; also the manner in which the bottle ready for use. A saturated solution said fluids are brought under the pressure of hydrochlorate of ammonia is also preof the weight-wheel, although it is effected pared. The battery consists of a glass, porthrough the agency of valves similar to those celain, or other suitable vessel, the internal used in pumps, I consider as novel, as well measurement of which, is 3 inches by 21 as the way of constructing the flexible pipe. inches, and 3} inches deep; in this is placed 2. To imparting a pressure to water by a piece of Mosselman's zinc, within which, means of two cylinders, one containing steam, and resting upon it, is a cell of seasoned the other water, as above described, as well sycamore, or porous biscuit ware 4 of an as the employment of weight-wheels, mounted inch in diameter, and the breadth and depth on an axle, for the purpose of propelling lo of the zinc which surrounds it. Within the comotive carriages or boats. 3. To the mo cell is suspended by a binding screw from a tion given by the water to the slide-valves brass bar, which crosses and rests upon the which direct the steam ; and an application top of the outer vessel, a piece of thin sheet of these to any other purpose will be consi. platina. dered an infringement of this part of the in This battery is put into action by pouring vention. 4. To the tubes, through the some of the nitrate of ammonia and acid soagency of which the machinery is propelled, lution into the cell holding the platina ; and either upon the land or water, by introduc. a saturated solution of muriate of ammonia ing into them either water under consider. is poured into the glass vessel in contact with able pressure, or compressed air.

the zinc. A binding screw with a copper FREDERICK DE MOLEYNS, OF CHEL shank, is riveted (in preference to soldering) TENHAM, for certain improvements in the to the zinc, and on closing the voltaic circle, production or development of electricity, the battery is in powerful action, which may and the application of electricity for the ob be kept undiminished for a considerable tainment of illumination and motion. En period. For producing an available light by rolment Office, Feburary 21, 1842.

means of electricity, a strong glass globe is These improvements consist—Firstly, In furnished at two opposite points with openthe production of electricity by certain novel ings closed by brass caps, through one of combinations of known substances, whereby which, a vacuum can be formed within the the electric power is largely developed by sphere. The upper orifice has a glass or small quantities and superficies of those other insulated tube, which passes down


237 through the cap, and reaches nearly to the frame on each side of this wheel are fixed centre of the sphere; this tube is made to electro-magnets radiating from a centre taper at its lower end in a cone-like form, formed by the axis of the driving-wheel, so that its lower opening does not exceed which work in the frame, and in their rela. the eighth of an inch in diameter. A thick tive distances from each other, correspondcopper wire passes down through this tube, ing with the magnets fixed in the drivingworking in air-tight collars in the brass cap, wheel. The poles of the magnets in the and reaches to within a quarter of an inch of frames are opposed to the poles of the magthe conical end of the tube, where it is united nets in the wheel, during the revolution of to a piece of fine platinum wire; this pla which attraction is converted into repulsion, by tinum wire, which is coiled in a spiral form a change in the polarities of the fixed magnets, like a corkscrew, passes through the opening effected by a commutator worked by the wheel. of the tube and projects into the centre of The patentee states that he should prefer the globe. Opposite to this wire, which suspending, or cutting off the magnetism, to forms one of the electrodes of the battery, is changing of the poles, but that he is preanother thick copper wire which passes

vented from using that expedient in consethrough the opposite brass cap, and termi quence of its having been previously patente nates in a fine platinum wire similar to the ed. The fixed magnets are worked by one former, only that it contains a small piece of battery, and the moving, or wheel magnets, spongy platinum. The upper glass tube is by another. filled with finely powdered box-wood char The claim is, 1. To the development of coal, or plumbago.

the electrical principle by means of a combiOn completing the connexion between nation consisting of a liquor composed of the two electrodes of the battery, the char nitrate of ammonia, or nitrate of potassia, coal powder or plumbago falls in a minute or other soluble nitrate, water, and sulshower upon the platinum wires and ball, phuric acid, in the proportions before des. and a continuous and intense light is given cribed, or in other proportions, in associaoff. The dimensions of the platinum wires tion with platina, or other negative metal, are to be so adjusted to the power of the or precipitate of one metal upon another, or battery, as to become intensely heated, but upon other substances, not metallic, which without being fused.

may be substituted for the metal, and which Two modes of constructing electro-mag is capable of resisting the action of such nets are next described, by means of which, compound liquid; and further consisting of the patentee states, from a given weight of a saturated aqueous solution of muriate of iron more attractive power may be obtained, ammonia, or muriate of soda, or other soluthan has been hitherto developed in any ble muriate, or sulphate, or nitrate in assoother form. In the first mode of construc ciation with zinc, or other positive metal — tion, thick copper or other wire, properly the whole forming a voltaic circle or combicovered, is laid upon a strip of sheet iron, nation, consisting of the acidulated nitrate and the iron is rolled up into a cylindrical solution, platina-saturated solution of mucoil enclosing the wire. In the second mode riate of ammonia, zinc-with the addition of a the wire is coiled round a small soft iron wooden, or other diaphragm. Also the comcylinder, which is placed within another a pound liquor of which nitrate of ammonia, sulsize larger; wire being coiled round the phuric acid and water form the ingredients, in second cylinder, it is placed in a third : and the proportions set forth, or in varying proso on ad infinitum,, until any required de portions; or of which a different soluble gree of power is obtained.

nitrate, a different acid, and water, are inIn order to apply the above described, or gredients, inducing, however, when combined, other electro-magnets to the production of a similar play of chemical affinities, during power, a series of electro-magnets are placed the development of electricity in a closed through circular holes at regular distances voltaic circle. all round the felloes, or rim of a wheel 2. To the application of electricity, fixed in a metal or other frame, and parallel whether produced by the foregoing contri. to its axis. An equal portion of each magnet vance, or by other means, to the developprojects at either side of the rim of the wheel, ment of a sustained light by the mode and fixed in frames on each side of the wheel before set forth and explained ; that is to and parallel to it are a similar number of say, by the use of pulverized charcoal or electro-magnets corresponding in size and plumbago, in connexion with fine platinum, strength to those in the wheel. The spokes or other wire, or spongy platinum, or both; of the driving-wheel are of sufficient sub. and also the mode, or mechanical means by stance to admit of a certain number of which the charcoal, &c., is brought into con straight electro-magnets being passed through tact with the platinum, or other metallic them, also parallel to its axis ; and in the electrode,

3. To the two modes of forming powerful the shanks of buttons. A piece of metal is electro-magnets, before described, and also stamped or bent so as to present the appear. the particular modes of arrangement of the ance of a small cross supported on four upsaid improved electro-magnets, or other right legs, each leg terminating in a hori. forms of electro-magnets in the electro-mag zontal projection or foot. In applying this netic engine.

shank to buttons the “ collet" at the back 4. To the particular mode of construc of the button has an opening in the centre to tion of the motive apparatus before des allow the cross part of it to pass through, the cribed and set forth, as intended to convey feet remaining within the button, and premotive force to machinery, and to display venting the shank being drawn through the the greatly increased force produced by the opening. The button can be covered in the described arrangement of electro-magnets. usual manner.

EDMUND MOREWOOD, OF HIGHGATE, The second part relates to another form of GENTLEMAN, for an improved mode of pre shank to be applied to covered buttons. A cir. serving iron and other metals from oxida cular disc of metal perforated with four holes tion or rust. (A communication.) Enrol. is sunk in the shape of a hat, and the rim, or ment Office, Feb. 26.

flanch, prevents the shank from being drava This invention consists, first, in tinning through the hole in the collet when the cen. the metal, to be preserved, and then in zinc tre part is protruded through it. ing the tin, so that both the tin and zinc

The third part relates to forming the collet shall have a combined influence in preserving or metal back of covered buttons of steel, so the metal.

that it will lap over or cover the edges of the The iron is first tinned by any of the me button. The covering is made on the front thods now in use. The coating of tin, after shell of the button, and the collet is made having become hard, is well cleaned; the with a rim turned up; the covered shell is tinned metal is then immersed in molten then put within the rim, and the rim closed zinc, its surface being carefully skimmed over its edge. and covered with powdered sal-ammoniac. The fourth part relates to å mode of The tinned metal is suffered to remain in constructing buttons with movable shanks, the molten zinc (which should be kept as formed like the one last described, only, that near as possible at the melting point) until, instead of having a circular flanch to prevent on drawing it ont slowly, the surface presents its being drawn through the collet, it has a smooth and even appearance.

two arms in a line with each other, one of Almost immediately after being taken out, which has a small stud fixed in its extremity. and before the coating has become set and The collet has an opening to receive the cenhard, the coated metal is immersed in clear tre part of the shank and one of the arms, water, then scrubbed and cleaned therein, and another hole to receive the stud in the and afterwards dried in bran or sawdust. shank. Inside the shank hole is a dise of

The claim is, to the preserving of iron metal attached to a spring, which is enclosed and other metals capable of being tinned, between the shell and the disc, so that the and fusing at a temperature of not less than disc will be pressed against the collet. To one thousand two hundred degrees of Fah fix the button to the shank, one of the prorenheit, from oxidation, by tinning them jections of the sbank must be pressed under and then dipping the tin covering or sur the collet; so that the projection with the face into molten zinc; or otherwise coat stud may enter the opening, then, by turniing the tin covering with zinc in such manner ing the button one quarter round, the stud that a union or contact shall take place be will go into the hole in the collet made to tween the surfaces of the zinc and tin, whereby receive it. a united influence is caused to be exerted for The fifth part relates to an improved mode the preservation of the iron or other metal. of making vest bands. The folded edges of This influence the patentee believes will pre the fabric of which the bands are made, are vent the destructive influence of the tin upon cemented together (instead of being sewn) by the iron when tin alone is used, and tin common flour paste, dissolved India rubber, lessens the destructive influence of the iron or any other convenient cement. upon the zinc, when zinc alone is used to

The sixth part relates to constructing vest cover the metal.

bands with eyelet holes or loops formed

from Thomas CHAMBERS AND FRANCIS MARK one piece of metal, in lieu of having each FRANKLIN, OF LAWRENCE-LANE, LONDON, eyelet hole affixed separately in holes formed AND CHARLES ROWLEY, OF BIRMINGHAM, in the edges of the bands. A piece of wire for improvements in the manufacture of but. is bent at regular intervals in the form of tons and fastenings for wearing apparel, eyes; the straight parts of the wire being seEnrolment Office, Feb. 26.

cured in the edge of the band while the eyes The first part of this invention relates to project beyond it,


239 The seventh part relates to a method of crank, so that it is attached to the garment imparting elasticity to vest bands, and con by the two ends, while the hook takes into the sists of a flat metal bar having two slots in bent part which projects beyond the edging. the direction of its length, divided in the The thirteenth part relates to a mode of centre of the bar by a narrow cross piece of making bands for drawers, so that they can the bar itself. Two springs are formed around be fastened in various positions. The novelthe bars, each spring being as long as one of ty(?) consists in applying a series of eyeletthe slots. The bar with its springs is en holes and hooks; the band being graduated by dosed within the fabric of which the vest a series of rows of holes, the hooks can take hands are formed, and stitched all round. into any of such holes, and the band be reAt the end of each spring, next to the centre tained tightly round the person, rendering of the bar, is a small stud, which passes strings at the back unnecessary. In place through the slot of the bar and the double of eyelet-holes, rings may be affixed. casing of the vest; by this adjustment, when The fourteenth part relates to a mode of the ends of the rest are drawn in a direction applying elastic India rubber straps to chil. to separate them, the studs compress the dren's shoes, in place of the leather, or nonsprings, which offer an elastic resistance. elastic straps heretofore used. The two ends

i he eighth part relates to an apparatus for of the strap are fastened by a hook and eye, fastening stocks. A ratchet bar is fixed to or other convenient means. Another very one end of the stock, and a plate having a questionable novelty ! socket fixed thereto on the other. On the The fifteenth part relates to a mode of mak. top of that socket is a spring fixed to the ing brace and other buttons of the vegetable plate at one end and having a stud at the matter called “ivory-nut,” or “vegetable other; a projecting edge of this spring passes ivory," instead of common bone or ivory. through a slot in the top of the socket, and JOSEPH COOKE GRANT, OF STAMFORD, catches one of the notches in the ratchet bar, IRONMONGER AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLEthus holding the bar in whatever position it MENT MAKER, for improvements in horsemay be forced into the socket.

rakes and hoes. Enrolment Office, March The ninth part relates to a mode of con 8, 1842. structing elastic fastenings for stocks. This This improved horse-rake consists of a fastening is somewhat similar to the vest short, but very wide quadrangular frame, band spring described in the seventh part of mounted on a pair of wheels, and drawn by these improvements. Sometimes an India shafts in the usual manner. Within the rubber strap is used.

frame a series of arms are placed side by The tenth part relates to a mode of con side, throughout its whole width ; each of structing fastenings for straps or trousers. the arms is driven into a cast-iron socket, On each end of the strap a metal plate is and a bolt passing through the whole forms riveted, having a slot formed in the centre a joint or axle on which they are free to vi. part and a groove on each side. To the brate. At the opposite end of the arms is trousers are affixed other plates, each of placed a curved tine or tooth, the curve which has a flat spring attached to it, with being continuous, and nearly conformable to its edge turned down so as to fit into the slot the arc described by the end of the arm. of the strap-plate, thus acting like hooks and Each of the arms is connected with a beam securely holding the parts together until the lying along above them, and resting on suitplate in the strap is slided sideways, by which able stops, by means of short chain links or the groove on one side of the slot will raise other free connexion, so that when this beam the book of the spring out of the slot and is lifted, it raises the whole of the arms and release them.

tines. This beam is attached to a pair of The eleventh part relates to an improve levers moving on fulcra attached to the ment in breast-pins, and consists of a pro framework of the machine, the inner extrejecting point affixed to the stem, and turned mities or ends of the levers being attached up towards the head of the pin. The stem by means of connecting-rods to a second of the pin is forced into the neckerchief, or lever or levers, which are jointed to the shirt-front, as far as the lower part of the front of the machine, and, passing over the guard ; the pin must then be raised, so as to whole, terminate in a handle behind it. On cause the guard to enter the neckerchief ; in pressing down this handle, the second system the event of the pin being raised with the of levers is acted upon, which raises the intention of removing it suddenly, the guard beam, and with it the arms and tines or will prevent it.

teeth of the rake, which, from their peculiar The twelfth part relates to an improved curved form, readily free themselves from loop or eye, to be used with hooks in fast any accumulations of hay, straw, &c. A ening parts of garments. It consists of a catch is provided for holding up the teeth piece of wire slightly bent in the form of a when the rake is travelling from one field to

another. The horse-hoe is constructed in a similar manner to the foregoing, the hoes taking the place of the tines or teeth, and being elevated in the same way.

The claim is, 1. To the mode of connecting the arms of horse-rakes with the axis, by applying the combination of cast-iron sockets, as described ; 2. To combining the independent arms of horse-rakes with curved tines or teeth ; 3. To the application of the combined motion of two levers working on different axes, in combination with the long bar, to facilitate the lifting of the tines or teeth of horse-rakes ; 4. To the application of a lever to horse-rakes, when so connected with a bar for raising the tines or teeth, as to require the lever to be depressed in order to lift the tines or teeth; 5. To the mode of applying the compound lever action to the bar of a horse-hoe, having independent arms as above described.

NOTES AND NOTICES. Mule-spinning.--Mr. Horner, one of the Factory Inspectors, states in a recent Report, that in a mill in Manchester, where they spin the finest number of yarns, one man now works, by means of eight double-decked mules, the amazing number of 2,592 spindles.

The Mammoth steam-vessel, which has been so long building at Bristol, by the Great Western Company, but which is now, it seems, to be called the Great Britain, is expected to be ready to be launched in March, 1843.

Magnetism Extraordinary.—The following singular case of magnetic attraction is stated, in Silliman's Journal, to have occurred in the State of Maine. A bed of magnetic iron ore magnetized so powerfully the instruments used to break it up, as to adhere to them in large tufts of the fragments of the iron ore; and a crow-bar, suspended freely over the iron ore, took the position of the magnetic meridian, so as to become in fact a true, though yigantic needle !

Draining Machine. -At the last meeting of the Agricultural Society, Mr. J. G. S. Lefevre presented, on the part of the Board of Trade, an American draining machine, invented by P. D. Henry, of New Orleans, U.S. The object of this machine is to raise water from a low place to a higher one, and the inventor proposes to accomplish this purpose by means of a hollow revolving hydraulic wheel, placed vertically at one-third its depth in the water, and divided into scooped compartments provided with valves which, as the wheel turns round, admit the water and retain it until a certain elevation above the surface has been attained, when the inclosed water falls back along radiating compartments towards the centre of the hollow wheel, and is carried away by a cylinder in a continuous stream. Mr. Henry enters into a detailed account of the particular arrangements by which this effect is produced in the most economical and efficient manner, and claims as the peculiar merit of his invention, the tangential manner in which the compartments of the hollow wheel are arranged in reference to the cylindrical conduit through its centre, and the contrivance of the spoons for scooping up the waler when the reservoir is low. Above the hydraulic wheel, when in use, is placed a man on a framework, who causes the great wheel to revolve, by turning the handle of cog-wheels acting on its cir. cumference; and the inventor states that he found a wheel of 6 feet in diameter, constructed on this principle, and worked by one man, capable of raising 200 gallons of water per minute.-- Athenaum.

Suppression of the Snoke Nuisance.- At the usual monthly meeting of the Commissioners of the Birmingham Street Act, on Monday last, on the mi. nute in reference to the subject of an inqairy as to the best means of effecting an abatement of the smoke nuisance, having been read, Mr. Turner said that the committee were not prepared to make any report, but he was happy to inform the too. missioners that the nuisance so long complained o! in Birmingham, arising from the smoke of steam furnaces, was in a fair way of being done away with The patent of Mr. Williams (of which Mr. Dircks was the agent) had been tried at Mr. Clifford's mill. in Fazeley-street, with the most complete success; and he believed that if the principle were generally adopted, the compiaints in reference to this subject would not only be put an end to, but that a considerable saving would be effected by mill owners and manufacturers in the reduced coasamprios of fuel; he thought it was the duty of those commissioners who had furnaces, to give the plan a fair trial, and thus set an example to others in abolishing a nuisance in Birminghamn which had become almost intolerable.—Mining Journal.

Clyde Steamer8.-" What do the champions Thame supremacy in steam-boat building say not to Clyde-fitted steamers? The Tay, of the West India Company, and the Princess Royal, Liverpool and Greenock passage-vessel, have, I think, proved that the new theory of the wave current water-lites has been no fallacy. Or four vessels, namely, the Clyrle, the Teviot, the Solway, and the Tay, the performance, (under circumstances in all respects similar,) has been exactly in the order in which the theoretical curve was more or less introduced in their construction; while that of the Princess Rogal, regarding which there were no controlling circumstances to prevent its fair adoption, has not been equalled even by Mr. Smith's Fire King."-Prons Correspondent. [The question of rivalry between the Thames and Clyde steam-boat builders 112 always turned less on the comparative correctness of their lines of construction, than on the degree of engineering genius and skill which they have respectively own. The four vessels referred to may be the best moulded that ever yet plongbed the deep, and yet their engines be nothing to boast of. However, we gladly take this opportunity of bear ing witness to a vast improvement, of late, in the workmanship of the Clyde-built engines; though still, as before, the Thames makers keep the lead, in all that relates to reduction of weight and spre, and increase of effective working power. - Es. M. M.)

The Anti-John-Scott-Russell is the fantastical name very rashly given to a small steamer which inay at the present time be occasionally seen on the Thames, testing the capabilities of a new rotary engine invented by Mr. Beale. Mr. Russell may possibly be wrong in saying that there is nothing to be gained, in any case, by the substitution of rotary for reciprocating or oscillating engines; but, frotu what we know of Mr. Beale's whirligig, we should not say that the Scotch Professor's reputation for sagacity has much to sear from its performances. It was enacting wonders when we saw it-for er minutes—but how long may we expect it to work so? No longer, we fear, than numbers of the same ingenious class of novelties which have gone before it-to oblivion.

Intending Patentees may be supplied gratis with Instructions, by application (postpaid) lo Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT (from 1617 to the present time). Patents, both British and Foreign, solicited. Specifications prepared or revised, and all other Patent bu. siness transacted.

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 166, Fleet-street.--Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machiv and Co., Dublin : and v. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

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