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salutes, on birthdays and arrivals. Can Hopeless as such a source of income inay at the inhabitants of Brighton, who possess first sight appear to many who are not well 80 large an amount of property in so in acquainted with the sinews and energetic defensible a condition, many of whom have grasp of commerce, it may be sufficient to risen by its rising, have prospered on its refer them to the blank value of the one greatness, and the whole of whom have so hundred pound shares in Shoreham harbour, great a stake in the continuance of its pros about twenty years since, when I saw five of perity-or can the government, who derive those shares treated as mere waste paper, 80 large a revenue, both by direct and indi which are now worth 2501, each, and on rect taxation, from its various resources, which the present annual dividends are 15 remain much longer indifferent to so hazar.

I know not why the future prodous a state of things ? By the plan to spects of a “Brighton Harbour Company which I. solicit attention, a fixed and per might not brighten up to such a splendid manent defensive protection from towers polish. And what could the shareholders of and ramparts would be establishd of any the matron harbour lose by yielding to its extent that may be deemed desirable, and more comely daughter, in addition to the the southern line of which, extending, as gay trappings of pleasure, which it would be it may, from three to four thousand feet her first and paramount object to wear, a few distance from the shore, would be found of those substantial sources of revenue which sufficient to prevent either shot or shell she has not the capacity to receive and enjoy? reaching the town from any invading fleet, Are there none, nay, are there not many of while within the line of fortifications a naval the Shoreham Harbour shareholders who are force of any requisite magnitude might ride large owners of property, both in Brighton at anchor, able at all times of tide to leave and its immediate vicinity, and who are the haven and chase the foe ? And these deeply interested in the welfare of the latter accompanied by all the other advantages place, and who, were they by such an arwhich have been, and yet remain to be enu rangement to sustain loss from the rightmerated, are obtainable at a cost but little, hand pocket, but which did your space if any, exceeding that of a single steam fri- permit) I have an abundance of matter to gate.

prove is impossible, would but find the de. III. As a Mercantile Harbour.-In the ficiency restored, with ample interest, into Address referred to, I stated that we happily the left. To obtain a harbour at Brighton, do not at present need one, already having there apparently seems no other chance than one within the short distance of from three through the medium of a public company, to four miles, and by a connecting railway with, possibly, a grant of aid from governwithin ten minutes ride from its mouth; and ment, whose interest in endeavouring to achaving set out upon the principle of not ad. complish the recommendation of the comvocating, but, on the contrary, repudiating, missioners whom they appointed to survey the principle of endeavouring to interfere the coasts, and report their opinion, at a cost with the vested rights of others, I am not of about 200,0001., instead of two millions, now going to change my course, although for each capacious harbour, might prompt upon subsequent reflection I have come to them to contribute their assistance for the the conclusion, that we partially need a mer testing of a principle of such important na. cantile harbour, though perhaps not one that tional advantage, if found effective in its is free and unrestricted for the admission of operation. To induce the formation of such vessels of every class of merchandise. For, a company, there must be a rational ground in the first instance, I think we need a mer of expectation for the realization of an ade. cantile harbour, restricted to the admission quate income; and for the obtainment of of vessels of such a burthen as cannot, or such an income, the harbour must be made will not, enter the port of Shoreham, and at least partially mercantile. To make out which are freighted with what may be termed an estimate of the probable disbursements clean cargoes, not only for the sake of bring and receipts I freely acknowledge myself ining to our town, by direct communication, capable, and the task is probably such an many of those articles of merchandise that one as tut few, if any, are capable of acare continually passing by, and ultimately complishing : I will therefore content myself received by us, by a very long and circuitous with pointing to a few of the sources from route, at prices much enhanced by the super which I conceive a mercantile income may fluous extra cost of freight, of distant port be derived from vessels of greater burthen expenses, and inland carriage ; but also with

than can or will enter the port of Shoreham, a view to derive a portion, from such a 1. Occasionally from East and West India source, of that income which is requisite to vessels, which, meeting with adverse weather cover the annual disbursements, and furnish in the Channel, would prefer entering the a remunerative interest to the shareholders, port of Brighton, landing their goods, trans


197 mitting them to London by railway, and re southern breakwater as 3,000 feet. As I ceiving in return their outward-bound car have not had time to measure off 1,500 feet goes, rather than risk the dangers of the to the westward of the pier, I am not preChannel passage to and from the Thames, be pared to say in what relative situation the subject to the loss of time, and incur the western breakwater would stand to any parvarious navigation charges incidental to the ticular part of the front of the town, in an extra voyage. 2. At all times, too, I think opposite line, agreeable to the design. But, there might be a reasonable expectation of as the proposed extent of such harbour was the landing and embarking a great portion but suppositive as to what might be requi. of the oriental and other passengers, instead of site, and had no reference to its partial merits being effected at Spithead, as heretofore. cantile appropriation, I have concluded, upon 3. Wines, brandies, fruit, and grain, from reflection, that, the better to subserve the the south of France, both for local consumption latter purpose, it would be best to place the and transmission to London. 4. The fruits western breakwater immediately opposite to, and wines of Spain and Portugal, the Mediter and in a line with, West-street, and to apranean and Turkish fruits, and various de propriate its causeway exclusively for the scriptions of southern and western produce, landing and embarkation of goods, a double that almost daily pass by our town, might set of iron rails being laid down for their from the same motives be prompted to yield transit. I next propose that a tunnel should and receive their cargoes in the new-found, be formed beneath the centre of West-street, deep, and commodious port. With inducive and, crossing the King's-road, that its mouth moderate charges for entry, these different should open on the causeway of such breakbranches of commerce might furnish a large water. In continuance from West-street I income, in conjunction with such as is to be propose that it should pass across and bederived from other sources, such as post neath North-street, and continue its progress office and passenger packets to various quar beneath the centre of the new street about to ters, yachts, pleasure-boats and fishing be built by Mr. Thomas Cooper, builder, of boats, &c., all which would also contribute this place, and its northern mouth open in their quota to make up the requisite amount. that part of the Railway Company's grounds

Another powerful motive which, it appears which to them may appear the most suitable. to me, should influence all the inhabitants For the conveyance of goods from the har. and possessors of property in Brighton to bour to the several parts of the town, inendeavour to obtain a partially mercantile tended for local consumption, and also for harbour for the admission of vessels of the the conveyance of goods arriving from Lonclass referred to is, the additional support don by railway for a similar purpose, I prowhich the transit of their cargoes and pas. pose that radiating tunnels from such main sengers to and from London would afford tunnel should be formed, for the delivery of to the Railway Company, the welfare of such goods, in the most convenient and suit. which company I conceive the majority of able situations which might be found for such persons are deeply interested, for in the general distribution ; by which arrangement proportion to which the prosperity of that a great portion of the inconveniences resultcompany is raised will be the enhancement ing from the conveyance of goods through of the value of the town property, and the and across some localities wherein its transit general improvement of trade. In conformity is highly objectionable might be avoided. with these views, and to facilitate the con Taking the western breakwater as the point veyance of such cargoes, not only to and to measure from, the eastern may be placed from the terminus of the railway, but also as far to the eastward, beyond the Chain for the conveyance of such cargoes or por Pier, as may be deemed desirable, either as tions of such as may be landed for local con relates to the requisite magnitude of the har. sumption, and to obviate the chief objection bour, or the cost to which it might be deemed of the inhabitants to a Brighton mercantile desirable to go; and as relates to the southharbour—the conveyance of the cargoes of ward, there being a considerable breadth of merchant vessels across and along the Ma. level surface to the southward of the position rine drive, I will proceed to the discussion which I have selected for the southern breakof the next subject connected with these water, a much greater space in that direction views.

may be gained, without an increase in the IV. The Situation and Extent of the pro depth of water, if considered necessary. posed Harbour.-In the perspective design V. Estimated Expense. — Since writing now exhibited at the Town-ball for public the Address to “ my fellow Townsmen,” I inspection, and of which the prefixed draw. have made as careful, and as correct an esti ing is a reduced copy, I have shown the mate, as the data furnished me, and the ab. Chain Pier as situated in the centre of the sence of many requisite data for the accomprojected harbour, and the length of the plishment of such an unprecedented work will

enable me to do, and after having made a the scenes of naval and mercantile activity. liberal, and, I conceive, an ample allowance Often from the eastern to the western bori. for contingencies, I find the amount for the zon, not a single ship appears to grace and execution of the work to the extent of the enliven the weary waste of waters, and when design furnished, will be about 150,0001. they pass, it is at such a distance, that they The dimensions of the work I assume to be seem as if dreading approach to the danger. as follows:-about 3,200 feet from the espla ous shore. We are besides exceedingly denade of the chain-pier, to the lighthouse, in ficient in natural and artificial security in the centre of the southern breakwater, the time of war; and very inadequately supplied length of which is about 3,000 feet, and the with all those resources for an extensive in. width of the harbour from east to west at tercourse with the Continent and other places, the shore end, is about 3,400 feet, furnish which some of our rivals so eminently enjoy, ing an average area of about 10,240,000 among which, the most prominent is Southsquare feet. On a subsequent calculation of ampton. what would be the cost by continuing the Much inferior as Southampton is to Brigheastern and western breakwaters of the same ton in the number, magnitude, and splenlength, and by lengthening the southern dour of its buildings, and those internal breakwater to the extent of a mile, and arrangements and attractions, which have thereby furnishing an area of about 16,896,000 hitherto rendered Brighton so far superior to square feet, I find the amount about 200,0001. it as a fashionable, comfortable, and pleasant

VI. The need in which Brighton stands watering-place; yet it is situated in a warm, of a harbour, to enable her to maintain her soft, and laxurious climate; entironed on supremacy as the queen of watering places. three sides with a most luxuriant country, The town of Brighton has hitherto indispu and graced in front, with a deep, capacious, tably maintained and well deserved the en and most convenient harbour, bearing on its viable title which has been universally con glassy bosom, a multitude of the magnificent ferred upon her. Containing the marine emblems of our naval and commercial repavilion of royalty—situated at the shortest sources. Recently too she has opened wide distance of any sea-girt town from the capi. her portals, both northern and southern, for tal of the empire-enjoying the advantage of the admission of all the blessings which coma railway, which shortens the time of transit merce can bestow : à railway on the one between each place to an average of about hand, leading direct to docks on the other, two hours-possessing a broad and well connecting this comely branch by a three conditioned marine drive of about a league hours' railway communication, with the past in length-provided with wide and well-kept trunk of this powerful empire. Commerce esplanades, the eastern commanding a lofty is conducive to population and to wealth, view of the broad expanse of waters to the and population and wealth to luxury; and south, and the western more lowly, yet more luxury to every conceivable improvement; congenial to the taste of many, fringed with and with these natural and adventitious ada green sloping bank of turf, that intervenes

vantages, who can say that she is not in between its finely gravelled walk, and the a fair way to carry off the palm of vieblue ocean that nearly laves the grassy swath tory, and wrest from us, that proud and gifted with a chain pier, that furnishes an distinguished appellation which our town agreeable promenade, and in fine weather, a has hitherto so long and deservedly en. most convenient platform for embarkation joyed, provided we rest satisfied with our and debarkation, on and from the several present attainments, rely supinely confident packets that now do, and in future may, call on our acquisitions, and move not onward as to receive and discharge their freights ; competitors and leaders in that general and graced with numerous mansions fit for the extensive race of improvement, which has so residence of princes ;- with scarcely a street eminently marked the present age, as supe. which is not well paved, well lighted, and rior to its by-gone predecessors? And what well drained ;-and, in fine, adorned with other cause for jealousy do we possess ? I pleasing and varied natural and architectural well remember when I was young, our interbeauties; replete with every comfort and course with France was maintained by three convenience; remarkably cleanly and healthy; or four sailing packets, and generally well enjoying a pure atmosphere, bracing breezes, freighted, running between Brighton and excellent bathing facilities, and every agree Dieppe all the year through, (wind and wea. able incentive to wholesome exercise and ra. ther permitting,) but since the introduction tional recreation. But with all these and of steam-packets, this source of influx of many other unenumerated advantages, we visitors, has diminished to one solitary halfare sadly deficient in marine scenery, and freighted steam-vessel, and that only running the means of gratifying a very large portion about five of the spring and summer months. of our visitors, who are naturally partial to Even this limited intercourse promises shortly


199 to become extinct from ten principal causes : It is said, that the iron railing round St. The diminished time-distance from London Paul's is constructed of Sussex manufactured to Southampton,—the very convenient port iron; but where is the man living, that can which Southampton possesses to embark and remember its manufacture or erection, so as sail from,-its convenient, commodious, and to be able from personal knowledge to record economical harbour, to prompt Steam Navi its durability ? True it undoubtedly is, that gation Companies, to cause their vessels to this railing having been so many years ex. resort to it;-the beauties of the place and posed only to atmospheric air, and distilled its vieinity, to prompt Foreign and British water in the form of rain or snow, the action travellers to pass through it,-its contiguity of such elements must be widely different to the garden of England—the Isle of Wight; from the action on cast-iron immersed in -its proximity to Portsmouth, our chief na salt water; but where is the wood to be val depôt;—the passage of its packets through found that would have lasted thus long, exthe assemblage of naval shipping at Spitposed to the same elements in the same sihead,—the superiority of the town and port tuation as that railing? And by parity of reaof Havre to that of Dieppe ;-the delightful soning, where is the wood to be found for river navigation of the Seine from Havre to piling and bracing that is equally, or a fifth Paris; and finally the contemplated railway, part so durable as cast-iron under water, which is to connect Havre with the capital protected or unprotected? But I propose of the French empire, to which so many of protection from the action of such water, as the English annually resort. What need we, well as the aids of science (which I now into add to our natural advantages, to enable voke) will enable, and without which, if the us not only to participate in the benefits re judgment of an extensively experienced and sulting from such intercourse, but to enjoy well-informed person is to be relied on, (of the superiority? I know of nothing but a which I have no reason to doubt,) such plates safe, convenient, and commodious harbour; would last half a century, and a proportion. for, possessing as we do the great advantage ably longer period with protection, in the over Southampton of being 27 miles nearer ratio of the efficacy of the method adopted. the metropolis by railway traffic, and 29 And where are the wood piles, even when miles nearer Hayre, we have but to add this studded with wrought-iron nails, and coated great desideratum to our varied and exten with gas-tar, to preserve them from the desive acquisitions, and then we shall make structive ravages of sea lice, (which improveanother rapid and permanent stride in the ment is now adopted for all the new piles, maintenance of our supremacy. Much am which are occasionally substituted for those I mistaken in the character, disposition, that have been thus destroyed,) that will stand spirit and enterprise of the inhabitants of for a period in any way approximating to the Brighton, if they do not simultaneously come durability of cast-iron? forward and declare, that nothing but a de Should there be any doubt on the mind of fensive, safe, convenient, commodious and

any one, as to the shortness of the durability ornamental harbour, will suit their purpose, of wood piles without such an expensive proor that they will ever sit down passively tection, let them go to the Chain Pier, to content without it.

Shoreham harbour piers, and to our groynes, VII. The Suitability of the Material, and and examine the condition of some of those the proposed Principle of Construction, for piles, not only as relates to the decay of that general adoption in the formation of Har portion which is immersed in sea water, from bours, Piers, Jetties, Wharfs, Docks, Em. the devastation occasioned by sea-lice, but bankments, Groynes, &c., throughout the the decay also of that portion which is above Kingdom.-We now have iron ships, and water from the effects of the dry-rot. why not iron harbours ? Wrought iron, of Or let them visit and revisit my model at which such vessels are formed, is liable to be the Town-ball of this place, and inspect spedestroyed by oxidation as well as cast iron ; cimens taken from two piles, one of fir, and if men can trust their capital, their per which has been fixed but for the short term sons, and their merchandise in vessels formed of three years, and the other of beech, of five of that material, why should they for one or six years' standing only, and let them moment hesitate to embark their capital in judge, from the extensive ravages committed that which, if protected by suitable means, on them by sea-lice, if any unprotected wood is not more subject to destruction than the structure would be either safe, suitable, or other in salt water, and much less so in air ? ultimately economical; and if protected, let And what material is there to be found that them ask themselves or others the question, is not subject to decay ; and what can be whether the additional cost of such protecfound less subject than the combined mate tion will not render the immediate cost of rials which I have selected for the purpose, the structure of far greater amount than the with the adoption of that suitable protection ? material which I have chosen, and whether

the customary external coating will preserve sertion of so long a communication to it from the destruction of the dry-rot within ? occupy your valuable space, on a subject, With a view to ascertain the probable dura the greatest portion of which can be but bility of cast-iron pipes constantly immersed of local interest, may justly be considerin, or filled with, salt water, I have made ed intrusive, yet, as the appropriation of inquiry at several of the principal baths in the materials and the adoption of the this town, how long their cast-iron suction

principle recommended, may some day pipes last, sound and good ? These pipes are

become of extensive application, I trust laid for a considerable way under ground,

that the subject may also be found of and extend some distance into the sea ; they general interest, and the expectation be are subject in some parts to external friction

deemed a sufficient apology for the refrom the rising and falling of the tides, from the beating of waves, and from the collision

quest, of sand and gravel ; they are, besides, always

And am, Sir, your obedient servant, full of water, and subject to the internal

GEORGE ADOLPHUS WIGNEY. friction of such as is drawn through them, as

Brighton, February 19, 1842. well as any action which such water is capable of producing on them : and, moreover, they are laid down without the least internal or

PROGRESS OF FOREIGN SCIENCE. external coating or protection. The answer

[We have made arrangements for giving, in a

series of articles under this head, early notices of received from Mahomed's bathing establish

all the more remarkable discoveries, inventions, ment was, that their pipes have been own and improvements of our continental neighbours : twenty-two years, and there is no apparent and as the articles will be original, and procured at defect or deterioration in them, and that they

some cost, we hope that such of our contemporaries

as may avail themselves of any of them will bare are still perfectly effective in operation. At the candour to acknowledge the source to which Wood's baths, I was informed that the cast they are indebted.-ED. M. M.] iron pipes leading from their establishment FRENCH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. to the palace had been down twenty-five M. Poncelet, whose works on Mechayears, and were still found in operation as

nics have made his name celebrated in effective as ever ; nor were they aware of any

England, is President of the Academy decay in them, although they were constantly full of salt water, and that subject to con

for this year; and M. Dumas has been

elected Vice-President. tinual change. At the other baths, their pipes had been down a shorter period, but Resistance and Wear of Roads and all were in good condition. I have also con.

Carriages. sulted the oldest iron-founder in this place, A commission, named by the Aca. and he states that there is a great difference demy, consisting of Arago, Poncelet, Coin the quality of cast-iron, and that he would riolis, and Piobert, have reported on seengage to put down cast-iron pipes, immersed veral memoirs presented by M. Morin, in salt water, of such a quality as should last

on the subject of the resistance to draft a century. The medium of protection which he recommends as preferable to any is, an

in wheel carriages, and the wear which admixture of boiled linseed oil, red-lead, and

they produce on roads. The subject is lamp-black.

one of great importance to the engineer, Not having yet had time to make out

and has occupied the attention, amongst plans and estimates of the probable cost for

own countrymen, of Edgeworth, a definite amount of work with such mate

Rumford, and Macneil ; and on the conrials, to enable others and myself to appre

tinent, of De Gerstner, Navier, Müller, ciate the comparative value of the system,

Kronske, Fuss, and others: none of them, against such modes of construction as are however, has, as yet, succeeded in deveusually adopted for works comprised under loping experimentally the mathematical the heading of this last subject of considera laws of the subject, nor has the present tion, I am not prepared to furnish to the author been more successful. His re. public that information which some may sults, however, are considered by the refeel desirous to receive; but should any porters as of considerable practical im. parties feel a wish to ascertain the cost for

portance. any particular work, I doubt not, but that

The report is by far too voluminous to on application, with the requisite information connected with the work required to

be given at length. The principal results be performed, I shall be enabled to furnish

stated are as follow:them with what they need.

1. The resistance to rolling produced by

different sorts of ground, (or road sur. I am fully aware, that to solicit the in. face,) in carriages, is proportionate to


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