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Mechanics' Magazine, MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE.

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seda test simples Salles De Pe stributed the superior qualities of the coal tar The Bus antes e a lupte pbe-pressie acid, which inevitably destroyed anita

Tegetable life. A member had observed, at fer a zeinzut si a sis etfire

Yes, that piles prepared by kyanizing had been mit sziesz inndet - utapataas

destroyed is the same situations, where timber,
Fiica bad been saturated with coal oil, had resisted

the attacks of the Teredo. The statement of the Der Kulisen taze aitzel tae French

last speaker was confirmed by a member, who stated, Emre o Cammenz. Semes sa the portance warm were most extensive, the vessels being rarely

that in the Mediterranean, where the ravages of the stingaang an mit & messen sie se fiece coppered, were entirely protected by prepared coal sinines can test at any te pore exerted. BREE 2 se sme zazad. The Society observe, that

tar. The coal tar must, however, be deprived

the ammonia, as that substance produced immemed sepase sa te 133 Se France she be the tageously used for manure in peaty soil, as it de

diate decay in timber: ammonia inight be advanof 3 metra in 1 second Te this unit they propose

stroyed the vegetable fibre with great rapidity, and That be name of igne. Som the Grees root, signify

produced rich soil. ing moring fores, saceld be applied, and then

Earthquake in Cornwall.–A severe sbock of that it sankt be esmpecaded with Greek and Latin

earthquake was experienced on Thursday morning vards, in the same way as the metre, the gramme,

the 17th ult. at about half-past eight, through

the great mining districts of Cornwall, extead tt Thas the biodyne would signify a thousand

ing from the sea shore to the south of Helstede tistes this unit, and the millidyne would signify

almost the opposite coast, north of Redruth. the thousandth part of the same unit.

shock was distinctly felt at Flushing. Falmouth Care for Damp Room.- A correspondent of the

Penryn, Gwennap and Redruth, but did not res Bengal Harkars asks, "How the floors of lower

so far eastward as Truro. The miners at vort roomed houses may be cured of humidity !" By a

the lower levels at Trewavas, which are under barrel or two of tar laid on and covered with fine

sea, in the parish of Breage, hurried to the surfa sand, and then beaten as floors are wont to be. The

supposing that an irruption of the sea bad tak remedy is cheap and infallible. A suite of rooms, to

place into the mine, as they heard a confused me our knowledge, which were so damp that the mats

which accompanied the shoek. This phenome Totted in a month, were thus laid with tar, and

is exceedingly rare in Cornwall. there has not been the slightest symptom of damp

Electro-Lace.- At the London Electrical Soci ness for the last six years. A set of mats now lasts

(Feb. 15,) the Secretary read a description of * two and three years, and the white ants have dis

tro-lace," a novel, but pretty application of the appeared.

trotype. The basis is net, prepared according Naval Architecture.-We have seen a model of a

the usual plans. A few hours' action so core vessel, of a curious and novel construction, to which

with copper, that it seems converted into that no we would direct the attention of nautical readers.

Specimens were exhibited, which were muel The object is-swift sailing with facility of ma

mired. It opens a new and wide field for næuvring, in order to accomplish which, the keel

extension of this art to the production of thas is made very deep at a point in the centre, and licate and chaste ornaments, and fancy articles slopes upwards towards the bow and stern in the

constructed of perforated cards, &c. The k form of an obtuse angle The inventor supposes readily plated; nor is the application confin that a vessel with a keel so constructed, would sail this article alone, but may be extended to very close to the wind, while it would obey the helm

various gauzes and delicate fabrics with whi much more quickly than an ordinary vessel, as it market abounds. would turn in the water as it were upon a pivot. The Little Western is certainly a favourat There is also a peculiarity in the rigging, the masts, ample of the skill of Bristol mechanicians, bi three in number, radiating from the centre, the there is any thing either in the structure of mainmast being upright--the foremast sloping for or machinery pre-eminently excellent, we ward, and the mizen having a similar rake back

deny. In the production of the resse) there ward. This arrangement is to suit the form of the

to have been too great a straining after sails, which are, with the exception of some of those

and there are evidences of a disposition on the mainmast, triangular, with a view to have

arrangements, not so much by the consider

what is excellent, as of what is unusual. the principal pressure on the canvass as low as possible for the sake of safety, and also to facilitate

lowing are some of the proportions of the ye facking. It is impossible to explain the plan engines : she is 721 tons; measures betw thoroughly without diagrams, and we question pendieulars, 200 ft.; over all, 216 ft.; keel. whether even nautical men could renture a decided

breadth of beam, 27 ft., and, including padd! opinion en its merits without an experiment on a 47 ft.; length of saloon, 44 ft., by 24 nt. wide Neanwhile we think the inrention

cabin, 20 ft. long.—The Civil Engineer ant

tedt's Journal. wurthy the attention of the Northern Yacht Club, er sne gentlemen interested in maral arediteeture. The construetar of the model is Mr. Demyster,

Intending Patentees may be Aingerne ww Playos.

gratis with Instructions, by applicati Crown Skratten peper by Mr. Tuixa, **s mw at the Institutioner er Dancers PA pand) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson

166, Fleet-street, by whom is ke dve draws to poucation and to the der wel

COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATEN wen poupard and send there

(from 1617 to the preraat time

Britis and Fare *** De parties for a

wegetale ten ari de la pre

prepared armen w the time the ww caring a wang Na maan pun the meth Sinne

large scale

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THE

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF CAST-IBON AND CONCRETE BREAKWATERS YOR

PORMATION OF HARBOURS, PIERS, JETTIES, WHARFS, DOCES, EMBANKMENTS, GROYNES, ETC. BY MR. GEORGE ADOLPHUS WIGNEY, BREWER, BRIGHTON. Sir, — Having conferred on me the of your numerous correspondents, not only to favour to insert the principal portiod oblige me through the medium of your pages (No. 963, page 70, of the present volume with any useful suggestions they may be able of your valuable work) of my Address to furnish, but also to point out any defects to My fellow Townsmen,” relative to

which they may perceive in the principle or the formation of a harbour of refuge,

materials of the proposed structure. I trust and for pleasurable purposes, for the

that my deviation from my profession as a town of Brighton, constructed of solid

brewer to take up temporarily the profession breakwaters, composed of cast-iron plates

of an amateur engineer, will not induce any filled with concrete, I now send you a

gentleman of that profession to withhold any perspective sketch of the same, and of useful information, the more particularly as

to their contributions to your pages, I stand the lighthouse, the two adjoining towers, and intermediate caissons, which I sug

principally indebted for that little portion of

knowledge which I possess in this departgested should be first constructed and ment of the sciences. Should the gas-tar put down as an experimental test of the thus applied be deemed, or found insufficient principle, and with a view to the ob to furnish the required protection, it betainment of requisite experience, prepa comes a question of efficacy and cost, wheratory to the execution of the whole. ther zinc might not be advantageously em.

Having furnished explanatory details ployed to protect those plates which may be relative to the work as a structure, in

constantly and occasionally immersed in the Address referred to, and which, with

water. But, independent of either resource, the accompanying sketches will furnish I presume that their durability would be sufficient information to your readers of

very considerable, and much more so than the materials, and the mode and principle

wood, which is so subject to the ravages of of its construction, a few additional

sea lice, of which the piles of our chain pier

particulars omitted in that Address, and

already furnish a demonstrative proof.

The whole of the flanges I propose to turn furnished in the same consecutive order,

inwards, with a view to protect the bolts will alone be requisite to convey to their from oxidation. The concrete may be comminds, all that appears to me to be need posed of lime, sand, and gravel, and concened on the subject.

trated gas-tar and gravel, the latter material 1. The Breakwater considered as a Struc to be placed in contact with the plates within ture.-A perspective design of the harbour, in the form of blocks, and the centre to be and a model of the lighthouse, the two ad filled with the former. I feel pleasure in jacent towers and the intermediate caissons, being able also to record for publicity, that have for the last six weeks been exhibited at which appears to me to be a most valuable the Town Hall of this place, and the only suggestion for the improvement of the prinobjection, which has yet met my ears to it

ciple of construction of my breakwaters, as as a structure is, the anticipated destruction furnished me by Mr. Matthews, who has of the cast-iron plates by oxidation. To for about the last 20 years acted as the obviate such apprehension, I beg to state, managing master of the chain pier, and that the coating of them with gas tar, I whose judgment and experience in such subpropose should be accomplished in a way

jects, I think no one will doubt. To disuggested to me by Mr. Rutter, Manager of

minish the force of the waves, Mr. M. sug. the Original Brighton Gas Company's Works, gests, that both towers and caissons should by causing each plate, when cast, and cooled be perforated with a series of cast-iron tubes down to a suitable, yet elevated temperature, passing through the concrete and the sides, to be plunged into a tank of gas tar, when, open at both ends, flanged at the extremities, being in an expanded state, the tar will, in a and thereby connecting more firmly together slight measure penetrate its pores, and by the opposite sides ; placed of course at a subsequent contraction retain it within them. suitable angle from a horizontal position, Concurring with Mr. Rutter, in opinion, dipping toward the exterior, (or as it may be that by such a procedure, they will also ac termed, the storm side of each breakwater,) quire a highly glazed and concentrated coat, in order that a portion of the water comwell calculated to resist the action of salt posing each wave, may pass through each water, I avail myself of this opportunity to tube, and thereby break and divide its imacknowledge and state his suggestion, and pulsive force. Being posited at such an angle, at the same time to express a request to any

such portion of the water of each wave, as

WIGNEY'S BRIGHTON HARBOUR.

195 is not forced through to the inner basin, for But such cannot be said of our defensive want of a sufficient impelling force, would resources ; for where between Dover and return again to meet, and in a measure break Portsmouth (without travelling further) is the force of each succeeding wave.

there a single port fit for the entrance or II. As a fortified Harbour and an armed exit of a defensive fleet? Or where is there line of defence for the Town in time of War. a battery fit to repel a single ship of war?

- The paramount duty of a paternal govern Having heard of and seen, and somewhat ment, appears to me to be, to provide for felt, the general consternation and dread that var in the time of peace, not only with a view prevailed along the southern coast, in early to prepare for inevitable defence, but also to life, when those formidable and extensive repress any agressive disposition which may preparations were made on the part of France be entertained by latent enemies, by our ex for the invasion of England—when mercehibition of real defensive and offensive power, nary troops were hired and encamped along ever ready to be brought into prompt and our shores—when Sussex guides were apenergetic action. The measures which our pointed to lead the aged and the young, executive have adopted for offensive opera together with the weaker sex, into the infions, both as relates to the navy and army, terior,—when the land defences, the Mar. recent events have proved to be adequate to tello Towers, few and far between, were present wants, and offer the satisfactory pro erected—and which invasion, with all its atmise of capabilities equal to any future need. tendant horrors, only appeared to be pre

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arise?

rented, by the diversion of those immense cumstances may have placed our floating bul. forces which were collected at Boulogne for warks at too great a distance, or beyond the the purpose, caused by the threatening and reach of rescue, to arrive in time to avert the aggressive attitude of the great Northern impending evils that may be poured upon us Powers–I cannot but put the question to at every turn and opportunity. Where are the others and myself, why may not danger of improvements of defence which have been, an equal, or far more serious character, or rather might have been, effected along our

What may be the promptings to unsheltered coast? At the time I allude to, aggression, and what the increase of power Brighton, though in its infancy, was crowned to inflict misery and devastation on our with three batteries,-a western, eastern, and shores, it is impossible to foretell; consider a central; but since then, it has risen to a ing especially the facilities which steam ves. high state of opulence, and grandeur, and sels of war, and improved projectile imple those defences are diminished from three meats of warfare, in existence and in embryo, to one, and that one, as compared with the afford to powerful and ambitious neighbours marine frontage, and extent of the town, to carry schemes of devastation, (if not of may fairly be termed but a state toy, merely conquest,) into sudden execution, while cir. kept up for the purpose of firing royal

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