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I saw the second part of that review inserted Mr. Williams's principle of letting in cold in the succeeding Number for January 29th. air at or beyond the bridge of the furnace

has been carried out under the same cis. Not, however, being blessed with that cumstances. morbid thin-skinnedness, so characteristic Another of several of the patent furnaces of Mr. W.'s countrymen, as to feel very examined by me was on the premises of extremely alarmed at the first flash of his those same agents, Dircks and Co., engi. double-tubed pop-gun communication,* * * neers, &c., Vulcan-street, Liverpool, which I was induced to lay by my reply

the public were repeatedly invited to inspect to be used at a more convenient season, by public advertisement, and which I de. “ for reasons," as he has it, in his own scribed and condemned in the Lirerpool cantationat page 111 of your last Ma Mercury twelve months ago, as well as in gazine but one, " which will appear here. your Magazine for March 6th of last year. after."

It is certainly true that Mr. W. threw the Although you declined to publish my last legal responsibility for the damage done to letter in reply to Mr. Dirck's attack on me the boiler, in the first case above mentioned, last year, respecting this same “smoke on his agents. But, if Mr. Williams really nuisance"

controversy, I still confidently thinks it necessary to endeavour to get rid expect that your sense of justice and pro of these facts on the ground of his not being priety will induce you to insert unmutilated responsible for his agents, then, indeed, his the enclosed copy of my report on the failure case is more hopeless than even I had supof Mr. Williams's patent furnace at the

posed. works of Messrs. Hamnett and Co., of Man. The desperate case in which Mr. Williams chester, and which report was first printed finds himself is still, however, more clearly by me in July last, and since published in evinced by this last strange exhibition of the Mining Journal and elsewhere.*

himself in your pages. In page 88 of the After perusing this report, I trust your Mechanics' Magazine, he gravely states that readers will be able to appreciate in a proper I wrote to his agent a letter of " recanta. manner Mr. Williams's repeated assertion tion," which he professes to quote from, bethat I made that report before I had seen ginning as follows:-"I find that the opi. "a single furnace erected by him," or by nions expressed in my report before named his “ directions." Why, this very furnace were formed on erroneous data,” &c. &c. was erected by his advertised agents Dircks Now, for a reckless audacious assertion, and Co., Mr. Williams himself being present such as I have before had occasion to give when it was tried, and a witness to its failure. to its author its only proper name, this deAn alteration was afterwards made by Mr. liberately written one beats all that I believe Williams's direction, and then it failed again was ever before recorded in the annals of by the giving way of the boiler : as it is de mendacity, and really deserves a patent for monstrable it always must do, whenever the its originality;* for I not only never wrote a engine is fully loaded, or a considerable sup single line or a word of what he charges me ply of steam is wanted from the boiler, so as with, nor authorised any one to do so for to require tolerably hard firing.

me, nor have I ever expressed a single syl. The above facts have been verified to the lable, either verbally or otherwise, to the satisfaction of every one who has chosen to effect stated by him; but I have never even inquire of the proprietors of the boiler in had the least communication with either himquestion ; and the same consequences have self, his agents, or his solicitors, in any way, ensued, many of them fatal to human life, or on any subject whatever, since the letter, and must inevitably ensue again, wherever from which the extract referred to in the

above-quoted passage appears to have been • The truth of the report referred to is deuied by taken, was written; that letter being written Mr. Williams, and Mr. Armstrong afterwards admits that it is the subject of an action pending

by himself, or his agents, and sent to me by against him for libel We do not, under these cir

his solicitors, annexed to one from themcumstances, consider that we should be acting either with " justice," or "propriety," were we to comply • Mr. Armstrong is aware that Mr. Williams re with his request. When proved to be no libel, we called the statement in question of his own accord, shall be very ready to give it a place in our pages; the moment he saw it in print--for this is what he but if it be one, it has had more than sufficient previously alludes to, as Mr. Williams's “recantapublicity already: We may here add, in explanation iion at page 111;" and to speak of an acknowledged of the asterisks in the first paragraph of this letter, mistake in such terms as these is not right. We must, that they denote parts which we have left out, be in justice to Mr. Williams, add, that he wrote to us cause we cannot allow our pages to be made, on any to make the necessary correction in the statement, pretest, the medium of wanton insult to any one, even before it appeared in print; but in consefar less to a scientific inquirer of so original, so quence of the Number in which it was published philosophical, so practically useful, and withal so happening to be printed off a day earlier in the week since responsid a stamp as Mr. Williams.-En. than usual, his letter came to hand a day too late M. M.

for the purpose.- En. M. M.


189 selres, dated the 10th of December last, in The valves are worked by the sliding-box forming me that they were instructed to before mentioned in the following manner :commence legal proceedings against me for a stud or pin projects from the front side of the recovery of damages for injury sustained

the box and works in the lower limb of a by the circulation of my report before named, T-shaped lever, centred in the middle of the unless that annexed letter of recantation was horizontal portion. At each extremity of signed before the expiration of the next day. the upper arms is fixed a pin, from one Accordingly, in a very few days afterwards,

of which a connecting-rod passes down to I was served with what is called a “copy of the valve-rod. As the box slides backward I writ,” desiring me to appear at a certain and forward upon the cylinder, a rocking or place in Westminster, in an inconveniently

oscillating motion is given to the lever, and short space of time. This proceeding, I the raising or depressing of the valve-rod confess, really did alarm me a little at the

effected. In order to reverse the motion of moment, rather more than any thing Mr.

the engine, the valve-rod is merely shifted Williams is able to write in your Magazine. from the one arm to the other, which brings I showed the document to several of my about the desired end. friends, who were all as much astonished at

Another arrangement for reversing the it as myself, knowing well that I had said

motion of steam-engines, without altering the nothing but what every one who knew me valves or gearing, consists in placing an inbelieved to be true; but they all advised me termediate slide or port-piece between the to put it into the hands of a respectable so D valve and the cylinder-ports, by shifting licitor, which I accordingly did, together of which, the induction and eduction paswith my "Copy of Report,” and his so

sages become reversed. licitor's letter above mentioned, where I For working the cold and hot water pumps, suppose they will all be dealt with according

the following arrangement is adopted. On to lax. What Mr. Williams's next move the opposite end of the main shaft to that at will be, I know not; but I think he is in a

which the crank is situated, the first motion fair way to prove himself almost as clever at

wheel is keyed, and on the outer face of this his own proper business, “ law," as he is at

wheel, a pin is placed eccentrically to its smoke-burning.

axis ; from this a connecting-rod passes I am, Sir, yours, &c.,

down to a triangular-shaped block of metal, R. ARMSTRONG.

working between two upright guides ; Victoria Arches, Manchester. February 19, 1842.

to this block, the piston of the cold water pump, and the plunger of the hot water pump, are attached,—the object of the weight

being to counterbalance the piston, air-pump, ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH


In lieu of the ordinary governor, the paJohn Thomas Carr, OF THE Town tentee employs the following apparatus :AND COUNTY OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, A pulley is driven by means of a belt on the for improvements in steam engines. (A driving-shaft, and upon the periphery of this communication.)

Enrolment office, Feb. pulley rests a smaller pulley, attached to a 21, 1812.

bell-crank lever in connexion with the The steam-engine constructed according throttle-valve of the engine. At the reguto these improvements, has its piston-rod lated speed of working, the two pulleys working through a stuffing-box, having the merely revolve in contact ; but should that character of a universal joint. This stuffing speed be exceeded, the small pulley is drawn box is a spherical box, working in a ball forward by the increased velocity of the upon the top of a box which slides to and fro larger one, and the throttle-valve being acted by dovetailed joints in the steam cylinder upon, partially shuts off the steam. cover. The piston-rod is jointed to the pis The claim is, 1. To the method and arton and attached directly to the crank of the rangement for working the valves of steamdriving shaft; the universal jointed stuffing engines, by taking the motion directly from box and the sliding-box, conforming to its the moveable stuffing-box of the piston-rod, movement and vibrating backward and for and conveying it to the valve-rod, and for ward to the extent of its deviation from the the arrangement for reversing the motion of perpendicular. The air-pump is placed im the engine ; 2. To the method of reversing mediately beneath the cylinder, and worked the motion of steam-engines, without alterby its bucket-rod, being attached to the ing the valves or gear; 3. To the method under - side of the steam-piston, passing and arrangement for working the hot and

a stuffing-box in the base of the cold water pumps, and for counterbalancing steam-cylinder.

the weight of piston, air-pump bucket, &c.;


4. To the method and arrangement for regulating the motion of steam or other fluid engines by means of a frictional governor.

CHARLES DE BERGUE, OF BROAD-STREET, LONDON, MERCHANT, for improvements in axletrees and axletree boxes. (A communication.) Enrolment Office, February 21, 1842.

The axletree has two shoulders of increased diameters near its inner extremity, between which a divided nut of iron, steel, brass, or other suitable metal, is placed. On the outside of this nut a male threaded screw is cut, and a corresponding female-threaded screw is cut in the end of the axletree box to receive it.

On putting this divided nut between the two projections on the axletree, and then screwing it into the axletree box, they be. come firmly and securely united together, and the wheel cannot come off until the nut is unscrewed. In order to prevent the screw working loose, it is screwed up the reverse way to the wheel's progressive motion. A small cap or chamber is screwed into the front of the axletree box, to contain a supply of oil for lubricating the axle; there is also a recess cut about the middle of the axle, and another in the box or bush around the inner shoulder, while an accurately-turned groove in the hinder shoulder is filled with sponge, or other suitable packing, to pre. vent the escape of the oil.

The claim is to the divided nut and the screwed part of the axletree box, as applied to axletrees and axletree boxes.

GEORGE Hickes, MANCHESTER, Agent, for an improved machine for cleaning or freeing wool, and other fibrous materials, of burs and other extraneous substances. Enrolment Office, February 21, 1842.

This machine consists of four equidistant horizontal shafts, running parallel to each other on a frame of wood or iron. In front of each shaft is a set of drawing-rollers, which deliver the wool to the beaters. Under each set of beaters is an open grate, so curved as to form part of the circle described by the extremities of the beaters as they revolve. A narrow plate is placed in a vertical position, immediately below the delivering-roller of each set, and on it the wool is beaten, as it is delivered; the burs falling through the grate as they are struck out from the wool. Each set of drawing-rollers is provided with a feeding-cloth, and when the machine is put into operation, the upper sides of the feeding-cloths move in the direction of the draw. ing-rollers ; the beaters on the first two shafts revolve at one speed, while those on the last two shafts revolve rather faster.

The drawing-rollers likewise correspond in their respective speeds. Supposing wool to be opened and spread on the feeding. cloth in front, it is received by the first set of drawing-rollers, when it is slightly drawn, and delivered to the action of the first beater, which partly frees it from bun and other extraneous substances, delivering the wool over the grate, on to the second feeding-cloth ; from this cloth it proceeds forwards to the succeeding rollers, when it is drawn, beaten, and finally delivered in : finished state into a hopper, or other suitable receptacle,

The space between each blade of the beater is filled up by sheet-iron, wire gauze, or other suitable material, to prevent the wool from adhering to the beaters, which must be sufficiently far apart to prevent the staple of the wool reaching from one to the other during the operation.

The under roller of each set is provided with a doctor, having an alternating end motion given it; and the doctor is held against the second of the set by a weight hung on a tail-piece, so that it has a con. stant tendency to press the doctor against the under part of the roller, and free it from any dirt or extraneous matter which might cause the wool to lap, and impede the action of the machine. The doctor, with the apparatus which supports it, is traversed back. wards and forwards by a crank, or eccentric, at the end of the driving rollers.

In another arrangement for delivering the wool from one beater to another, the feedingcloth is put in an inclined position, the end near the drawing-rollers being the highest. Immediately over the cloth is placed a mor. ing grate, the end of which is triangular. The wool is received against the upright side of this grate when delivered from the beater behind; the burs pass through the upright side, and fall on a tray inside the grate, while the wool is drawn down by the motion of the moving grate, and is carried forward between it and the feeding-cloth beneath, to the succeeding drawing-rollers.

The claim is, l. To the general construetion and arrangement of an improved machine, as regards the beaters being used in combination with a curved rack and drawing-roller ; 2. To the particular construction of the beaters, and the application of a doctor, used in combination with a curved rack and drawing-rollers; 3. To the plate on which the wool is dressed, or subjected to the action of the beaters ; 4. To the whole moving grate, with its rollers and tray on which the wool is thrown on leaving the beaters, as described and applied as above.


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NOTES AND XOTICES. Indicacy of Electro-Magnetism as a Moving Pieer.-M. J. P. Joule, in a paper on this subject, lately read at the Mavehester Royal Victoria Gal. lery, stated the following to be the greatest result he bad been able to obtain, with a powerful apparatus. Each pound of zinc produced a mechanical force which raised 334,400 lbs. to the height of one foot, Then the revolving magnets moved eight feet per serend. The duty of the best Cornish steam-engine in 1,500,000 lbs., or nearly five times the extreme duty he was able to obtain by the consumption of ose pound of zinc. This was so very unfavourable a result, that he almost despaired of electro-magnetism being applicable to mechanical purposes in the place of steam. He did not see how any ar. rangement of the apparatus could make the duty of a pound of zinc much superior to the duty of a pound of coal; and, even if it could be attained the experase of zinc was so great, compared with the price of coal, as to prevent such apparatus being ever used for any but peculiar purposes. Professor Phillips also stated, in the course of a discussion which folloved the reading of Mr. Joule's paper, that he had tzied every plan, American and German, locomotive and stationary, and never yet found one apparatus that could not be stopped with the finger. The most perfect plan he had seen was one where there were two horse-shoe magnets; the two póles were always in contact, and the centre of motion was the line sdjoining the two poles. Though it had a lifting Pemer of 200, he found it difficult to get a sufficient length of stroke; he was obliged to get it by a lever of the third kind, which reduced the power so much, that he could not get the lever to work. He tried A with a weight of 3 lbs., and it worked very well wlien the wheels were lifted up, but it would not move itself, it would not start. The distinction was orerlooked between pulling and supporting. A magDet rould support an enormous weight in contact, but, at a distance of a quarter of an inch, it would Dat, perhaps, pull 2 lbs. A magnet that would suppart 2 cwt, would, perhaps, pull only a quarter of a pound a quarter of an inch.

Captais Ericsson's Propeller. - The Kingston (Canada) Chroniele mentions a very successful application of this propeller to a steam-vessel called the * Vandalia," which plies between Kingston and Oswego. The vessel is described as of 140 tons barthen, 90 feet long, and 20 feet 2 inches wide; drawing, when light, 2 feet 6 inches, and when loaded, about 6 feet. The boiler is on the locomotire plan, with about 100 pipes running through it. The engine consists of two cylinders of about 12 inches diameter, and the motion is communicated directly to the crank or the shaft of the propellers, which are 4 feet 6 inches in diameter, and placed one on each side of the rudder, working towards each other, in the manner of sculling. The engine makes frorn 60 to 75 strokes a minute, and is worked generally with steam at about 55 lbs. pressure. The speed realized, under favourable circumstances, is frora 9 to 10 miles per hour.

" She has been to Hamilton," the account adds, "and up the Welland Canal, with cargoes; no perceptible motion occurs on the banks of the canal, more than occurs by vessels when towed up in the usual manner. She has encountered two or three heavy gales, and behaved exceedingly well; she steers admirably."

The Society of Arts and Patent Inventions.-In pursuance of a Report from a Select Committee of this Society, appointed to consider the best means a extending its usefulness, (t. e, of redeeming it from the state of comparative uselessness into which It has of late fallen,) notices of patent inventions, beretofore excluded from the class of subjects which the Society honoured with its attention, are to be reteired and read at the weekly meetings. “The reading of each paper," it is stated, “will be followed by a discussion, for the purpose of eliciting from the experience of those who are practically engaged in

the arts and manufactures such information as may give the subject a sufficient degree of completeness to make it serve as a guide for the public as to the real value of the invention.” We anticipate but little good from this scheme; none whatever for the public, and not much for the Society. The "notices" will be puffs, and the “discussions upon them either fulsome testimonials bespoke for the occasion, or unmannerly brawls bel ween rival pretenders and their partisans

Gifts to Mechanics' Institutions. The publicspirited and philanthropic Mr. Joseph Strutt has presented to the Derby Mechanics' Institution, of which he is President, 22 excellent paintings, by eminent ancient and modern masters, including a fine piece by Poussin, and some of the best productions of West and Fuseli, accompanied by a letter, in which he expresses a hope, (in which we cordially join,) that "they may prove to others a stimulus to increase the collection, and thereby encourage those among the students who are improving themselves in the arts of drawing and painting." The Aberdeen Herald records a siinilar instance of munificent liberality on the part of a Scotch nobleman. “Lord Panmure has formally made over to the new Me. chanics' Institution, Brechin, the handsome apartments which he erected for its use, together with the fine collection of paintings which decorate the hall. His Lordship at the same time handed to the President and Vice-President a check for 1,0001., to be vested in trustees for behoof of the institution. Thus, by the enlightened liberality of this nobleman, the youth of Brechin have been provided with elegant schools, and the mechanics with a splendid hall, and the means of obtaining instruction in useful knowledge and rational amusement in all time coming."

Coal in India.-Colonel Sykes, at a late meeting of the Asiatic Society, mentioned, as an instance of the long prevailing ignorance, in this country, of the resources of India, that though a few years ago coal was supposed to be utterly unknown throughout that vast region, there are no less than fiftyseven localities in which it has been now ascertained to exist.

The Artesian Well at Grenelle.-A new tube is now making for the well of Grenelle in iron, of such a thickness that it will bear the pressure of 50 to 60 atmospheres. Experiments have been tried on two tubes placed one within the other, as the tubes were in the bore of the well, to ascertain what degrees of pressure would be necessary to force them in; but though the hydraulic ram was employed, it required a pressure of from 12 to 15 atmospheres to produce any effect on the tubes. The water still flows as copiously as ever, moderately warm, and alternately limpid and black as the sewers of Paris. -Galignani's Messenger.

Swiss Watch Manufacture.-There is no branch of Swiss industry so prosperous as its watch manufacture. Four years ago 70,000 watches were annually made. At least 100,000 are now produced. A great deal of the work is done in the mountains, and nearly all the rough work is done there by women, the finer work by men. The wages are very low, considering the nature of the work; but the fact is, that there is no scarcity of that skill and sobriety, and steadiness of hand and eye, essendal to this class of work. It is in-door work, too, and suits them during the long continuance of weather too inclement in the mountains to permit of open air occupation. It is surprising how few are the tools, and how delicate the use of them by the artisan peasantry, who carry on this manufacture in Switzerland. Carouges and Geneva are the great marts of the trade, and thence work is given out to the surrounding villagers, and they must work hard to earn two francs a day; the majority do not average more than 30 sols, (15d.)- The superiority of the watch manufacture is a signal evidence of the skill and merit of the people. The perfection

to which the art is brought is universally acknowledged, and both for elegance, accuracy, and finish, the Swiss watches year by year, take a higher rank in European estimation. It is an achievement of mind and morals. Neither an ignorant nor an immoral people could excel in this difficult and delicate handicraft. - Correspondent of the Athenæum.

Mechanical Nomenclature.-The Industrial So. ciety of Mulhausen have addressed to the French Minister of Commerce, a memoir on the importance of adopting an unit of measure for the

of machines, considered not only in the power exerted, but in the time required. The Society observe, that the usual estimation of horse-power is not uniform, and propose that the unit for France should be the force required to raise one kilogramme to the height of a metre in a second. To this unit they propose that the name of dyne, from the Greek root, signifying, “moving force," should be applied, and then that it should be compounded with Greek and Latin words, in the same way as the metre, the gramme, &c. Thus the kilodyne would signify a thousand times this unit, and the millidyne would signify the thousandth part of the same unit.

Cure for Damp Rooms.- A correspondent of the Bengal Hurkaru asks, “How the floors of lowerroomed houses may be cured of humidity ?" By a barrel or two of tar laid on and covered with fine sand, and then beaten as floors are wont to be. The remedy is cheap and infallible. A suite of rooms, to our knowledge, which were so damp that the mats rotted in a month, were thus laid with tar, and there has not been the slightest symptom of dampness for the last six years. A set of mats 110w lasts two and three years, and the white ants have disappeared.

Naval Architecture.-We have seen a model of a vessel, of a curious and novel construction, to which we would direct the attention of nautical readers. The object is-swift sailing with facility of ma. næuvring, in order to accomplish which, the keel is made very deep at a point in the centre, and slopes upwards towards the bow and stern in the form of an obtuse angle The inventor supposes that a vessel with a keel so constructed, would sail very close to the wind, while it would obey the helm much more quickly than an ordinary vessel, as it would turn in the water as it were upon a pivot. There is also a peculiarity in the rigging, the masts, three in number, radiating from the centre, the mainmast being upright-the foremast sloping forward, and the mizen having a similar rake backward. This arrangement is to suit the form of the sails, which are, with the exception of some of those on the mainmast, triangular, with a view to have the principal pressure on the canvass as low as possible for the sake of safety, and also to facilitate tacking. It is impossible to explain the plan thoroughly without diagrams, and we question whether even nautical men could venture a decided opinion on its merits without an experiment on a large scale. Meanwhile we think the invention worthy the attention of the Northern Yacht Club, or some gentlemen interested in naval architecture. The constructor of the model is Mr. Dempster, Kinghorne.-Scotch Paper.

Copper Sheathing.- A paper, by Mr. Wilkinson, was read at the Institution of Civil Engineers, Feb. 22. A member remarked, that his attention had been drawn to protection afforded to timber by coal tar when properly prepared and applied; the experiment had been tried carefully on board an India ship-some portions being coated with vegetable tar, and others with coal tar; the latter had preserved the timber from the worm during a long voyage, while in many places the former had failed.

He attributed the superior qualities of the coal tar to its containing a quantity of sulpho-eyanic or sulpho-prussic acid, which inevitably destroyed animal or vegetable life. A member had observed, at Nex York, that piles prepared by kyanizing had been destroyed in the same situations, where tirobet, which had been saturated with coal oil, had resisted the attacks of the Teredo. The statement of ik last speaker was confirmed by a member, who stated, that in the Mediterranean, where the ravages of the worm were most extensive, the vessels being rarely coppered, were entirely protected by prepared coal tar. The coal tar must, however, be deprived of the ammonia, as that substance produced indediate decay in timber: ammonia inight be advantageously used for manure in peaty soil, as it de stroyed the vegetable fibre with great rapidity, and produced rich soil.

Earthquake in Cornwall.A severe sbock of an earthquake was experienced on Tbursday morning, the 17th ult. at about half-past eight, throughout the great mining districts of Cornwall, extending from the sea shore to the south of Helstone to almost the opposite coast, north of Redruth. The shock was distinctly felt at Flushing, Palmouth, Penryn, Gwennap and Redruth, but did not resch so far eastward as Truro. The miners at work in the lower levels at Trewavas, which are under the sea, in the parish of Breage, hurried to the sdrface, supposing that an irruption of the sea bad laken place into the mine, as ihey heard a confused noise which accompanied the shock. This phenomenon is exceedingly rare in Cornwall.

Electro-Lace. At the London Electrical Society, (Feb. 15,) the Secretary read a description of " electro-lace," a novel, but pretty application of the ekotrotype. The basis is net, prepared according to the usual plans. A few hours' action so corets it with copper, that it seems converted into that metal, Specimens were exhibited, which were much admired. It opens a new and wide field for the extension of this art to the production of those delicate and chaste ornaments, and fancy articles, Do* constructed of perforated cards, &c. The lace is readily plated; nor is the application contined to this article alone, but may be extended to all the various gauzes and delicate fabrics with which the market abounds.

The Little Western is certainly a favourable erample of the skill of Bristol mechanicians, but that there is any thing either in the structure of the hull or machinery pre-eminently excellent, we utterly deny. In the production of the vessel there appears to have been too great a straining after novelty, and there are evidences of a disposition to select arrangements, not so much by the consideration of what is excellent, as of what is unusual. The following are some of the proportions of the vessel and engines: she is 721 tons; measures between perpendiculars, 200 ft.; over all, 216 ft.; keel, 195 m.; breadth of beam, 27 ft., and, including paddle boxes, 47 st.; length of saloon, 44 ft., by 21 ft. wide ; ladies cabin, 20 ft. long.-The Civil Engineer and Archi tect's Journal.

7 Intending Patentees may be supplied gratis with Instructions, by application (pesipaid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Core 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT, (from 1617 to the present time.) Patents, both British and Foreign, solicited. Specifications prepared or revised, and all other Patent basiness transacted.

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Ofice,

No. 166, Fleet-street.--Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

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