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the pumps.

persede the necessity of turning round: may be attached, or, if it is preferred to and about mid-ships are placed two pad work but one more powerful jet, the sedle-wheels, P, the paddle-shaft, carrying cond orifice is closed by a screwed cap. bevelled wheels, to admit of its being When a single stream is delivered, the connected by sliding-gear with the cranked jet may be I inch, 15, 17, or 14 inches in handles, when they are disconnected from diameter, according to the elevation re

quired, with a nose-pipe 1] inches in The prefixed engraving is a side eleva diameter; the height reached is about tion of the engine, showing the situa 120 feet, or 136 feet horizontal. If twu tion and arrangement of the cranks, jets are employed, nose-pipes ths of an levers, &c.

inch in diameter are used. A, is one of the three working barrels, The working of the pumps, levers, all of which deliver their contents into &c. is exceedingly smooth and steady the air-vessel, B. C is the main crank —that of the toothed gearing remarkably shaft from which the connecting-rod, d, so; there is no shake or rattle in any passes up to the over-head lever, E. É part of the machinery, and the presence is the piston-sling, the piston-rod working of toothed gearing cannot be detected in a guide fixed on the top of the cylin- by the ear. The streams of water are der, A. On the upper part of the air beautifully compact and steady, and vessel, B, there is a revolving T-piece, capable of being directed with great precarrying two male-screwed nosels, to cision. which two separate lines of leather hose From the circumstance of some mis


calculations having been made, with re to "go on," have been frequently comspect to the propulsion of the boat, either pleted within one minute. by underrating the power, or overrating the The Sovereigns of Prussia and of resistance, the speed at first attained was Russia have now, the one the finest by no means satisfactory, being little more steam fire-engine, the other the finest than six miles per hour; but the manual marine fire-engine in the world. power was so greatly in excess, that when The exertions of the West of England paddles of a proper size have been fitted, firemen, under their excellent foreman, there is no doubi that a speed of upwards Mr. Connerton, continue to merit especial of eight miles an hour will be realized, notice. The promptitude of their attendwithout any particular exertion on the ance may be very well illustrated by menpart of the rowers." The rapidity and tioning that, in upwards of fifty instances, ease with which the power of the men they have shared the rewards for early could be transferred from the paddles to arrival, which are only allotted to the the engines, and vice versa, greatly first three engines - including among astonished ail who saw it.

these, their attendance at Camberwell The signals, “ease her," "stop her," (twice,) Deptford, Greenwich, Blackthe shifting of the gearing, and the order heath, Islington, Hammersmith, and



179 other distant places. Their zeal and The paper already quoted, commenting activity in getting to work, on arriving on the refusal of the Glasgow Police Board at a fire, have been fully equal to their to send out their engines when a fire is expedition in reaching it; and there have raging, destroying thousands of pounds' been few fires of any magnitude in the worth of property, and throwing hunmetropolis, at which the West of Eng- dreds of work people into a state of starland firemen have not borne a conspi- vation, observes They are not required cuous part, and greatly distinguished one has ever required them--to themselves. The West of England send their engines beyond the police Company are particularly fortunate in boundaries for nothing. The very Act of their servants, as their good success is by Parliament which places the fire departno means confined to the metropolis. At ment under their control, gives them Exeter, Glasgow, and in many provincial undoubted powers to recover the expense towns, their achievements have called incurred in extinguishing fire beyond the forth the warmest eulogiums of the Royalty ; and yet, with this guarantee, public press. Upon the occasion of a with the additional guarantee of the prorecent fire at the extensive cotton spin- prietors, and the official and personal ning works of Messrs. Bartholomew and guarantee of the Lord Provost to back it Co., at Barrow field, near Glasgow, the —with a recklessness of life and property, West of England men won “golden unequalled, we may safely say, in any civiopinions from all sorts of people.” These lised society, they direct their superinextensive works were discovered to be on tendent to refuse assistance, whatever may fire shortly before three o'clock A.M., on be the obvious destruction to follow from the 23rd of November last. Information their dogged and unjustifiable conduct !" was immediately sent to the Fire Police The year just ended has been one of of Glasgow, but from the preremptory great fatality to the firemen. The first orders given to Mr. Robertson, the su victim to the perils of his calling was perintendent of the Fire Establishment, M. West, aged 33, a fireman of the by the Glasgow Police Board, “ that he County Fire Office, who was killed by was not on any pretence whatever, 10 go the falling of part of the house of Mr. himself, or allow his men or engines to Salmon, in Piccadilly on the 12th of Sepbe sent, beyond the bounds of the Roy tember, as already described. West was alty;" he could not move in the matter. a most skilful and intrepid fireinan, and No sooner was the alarm of fire re had, on many occasions, particularly disceived in Glasgow, however, than the tinguished himself; his exertions at the splendid engine of the West of England House of Lords, at Hatfield-house, and Office and their fire brigade, proceeded elsewhere, have been duly recorded in to the spot as fast as horses could take

your pages. The day of his death was them, and rendered the first and most also the anniversary of his birth, and efficient assistance. The Glasgow Con West had been unusually low-spirited stitutional remarks that, “the rapidity and melancholy throughout; whether with which the engine of the West of from a presentiment of some approaching England Company was brought forward, calamity, or from the meditations which the activity, industry, perseverance, and the return of his natal day suggested, is fearlessness of the brigade attached to it, known only to Him“ from whom no merit the approbation of all concerned ; secrets are hid.” West's wife, who was and though no part of the building or near her confinement, had a strong prestock was insured with that office, Mr. sentiment of her loss, declaring in the Wardlaw, the agent, was present during morning, when he did not return with the whole period, lending every assist the other firemen, “ that she had seen ance in his power."

him at her bedside in the course of the The West of England engine was fol night, and that she was confident he was lowed by that of the Anderston police,

no more." others from the city, and one from the On the Thursday following, the recavalry barracks most admirably manned mains of West were deposited in the by a party of artillerymen. These were cemetery established by the late Barber subsequently reinforced by the two en Beaumont, Esq., (the founder of the gines of the Glasgow Fire Police, which County Fire Office) at Mile-end. the Lord Provost eventually forwarded The burial service was read by the Rev. on his own responsibility.

N 2

Dr. Croxton, who, after its conclusion, de nagement of the London Fire Establishlivered an impressive and eloquent address ment, and Webb's widow a similar sum; to the firemen present, touching upon the in addition to which, Mrs. Webb also excellent character which the deceased had received upwards of 61. subscribed for maintained, as an example to them, and her by the constables of the M division also on the arduous duties which firemen of police, as well as other sums from generally have to perform; earnestly ex private sources. horting them to prepare for a future The London Fire Establishment, (maworld, none of them knowing how soon nagers and men) are also straining every they might, like their late companion, be nerve to get Webb's infant son (two years called into eternity.

old) into the Infant Orphan Asylum at Mr. Beaumont, the present owner of the forthcoming election in April; and it the Cemetery, gave the ground. The is most sincerely to be hoped, that their expenses of the funeral, and of a tablet benevolent efforts will be crowned with to be erected to the memory of the de well-deserved success; when that is done, ceased will be defrayed by the County it is understood the child's board, from Fire Office, by which, also, an annuity, the time of the accident till its admission with a residence, have been provided for into the asylum, will be reimbursed by the widow.

the Establishment. In little more than a month afterwards, It is also right to mention, that every viz., on the 31st of October, Richard expense incident to the three funerals, Wivill, (aged 23) a junior fireman in the including mourning, has been defrayed London Fire Establishment, was killed by the Committee of Management of the in the discharge of his duty at the Tower, London Fire Establishment. as already narrated. Wivill was a good, All the machinery of the Establishthough young fireman, and bore a most ment continues in excellent order, and exemplary character ; he was unmarried, the efficiency of the men, from Mr. and was the principal support of an aged Braidwood, the superintendent, to the mother. His remains were buried on the last junior fireman, continues to promise Sunday following that on which he died,' the utmost protection that bravery and at St. Saviour's, Southwark, with all the skill can accomplish. honours that admiration of his conduct There are among them, those, who, and sympathy for his melancholy fate under the protection of an all-wise and

overruling Providence, have grown hoary On Sunday, the 14th of November, in this perilous calling; may His omni. Joseph Parkes, aged 25, and William potent arm still watch over and protect Webb, aged 24, fell victims to their own them, amidst every danger, is the sinimprudence and disobedience, at the fire, cere prayer of which destroyed Messrs. Kindon's floor

Sir, your obedient servant, cloth manufactory, in Blackfriars-road,

William BaddeLEY. the particulars of which are before re 29, Alfred-street, Islington, corded.

February 21, 1842. It is painful to reflect, that in each of these cases the heat of the battle was over, the victory completed, and all occasion for exposure to danger removed.

NATURAL LINEAR STANDARD. On the following Sunday, the remains Sir,-May I request you will submit of the two unfortunate men were interred to the judgment of your more learned in one grave, at St. George's, Southwark, readers the following with the same honours as they had as

Proposition : sisted to pay their deceased comrade only The steel-yard with arms as 1 to 4, being a fortnight before.

retained in equilibrio by weights which The bereft mother of Wivill received are as 4 to 1, is balanced, also, by a body a donation of 201. from the Board of e-fourth the less weight let fall on the Ordnance-61. from the officers of the end of the longer arm when its momenScots Fusileer Guards, per Col. Eden tum has quadrupled its own weight. The and 11. from Mr. Robarts, the Banker. length of the fall is a fixed quantity, and The widow of Parkes received a dona always obtainable under equally propor. tion of 251, from the Committee of Ma tional circumstances.

could suggest.


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At the Birmingham Public Office a case of considerable importance to carriers and toll collectors lately came on for hearing before J. T. Lawrence, Esq., and Dr. Melson. It was a complaint by Mr. Robert Howson, agent to Messrs. Pickford and Co., the extensive carriers, against John White, late toll keeper of Spark Brook turnpike, for demanding and taking from Daniel Camden, one of Messrs. Pickford & Co's. wagoners, £5 more toll than was authorised by the act. The wagoner refused to pay the defendent's demand, and the latter seized one of the horses, which he afterwards sold, appropriating the money in payment of his claim.... Mr. George Edmonds appeared for Messrs. Pickford, and said, that on the 26th ult., two caravans, constructed with springs, and loaded with goods, went through the turnpike gate at Spark Brook. They were taken over the machine and were found to be over weight. The only question, however, was, not as to the weight of the wagons, for this was agreed to on both sides, but as to the amount of over weight which the act allowed to vehicles of this description. The defendant alleged that 3 tons 5 cwt. was all that they were entitled to carry, and the complainants, on the other hand, contended that they were entitled to 3 tons 15 cwt., being 10 cwt. more. For this weight Messrs. Pickford had tendered the proper amount of toll, and all that they required the magis. trates to decide was, which of the parties were right in their construction of the act. Mr. Edmonds then proceeded to direct the attention of the magistrates to the acts of parliament regulating the amount of goods

to be carried by certain descriptions of wagons. The 3rd Geo. IV., c. 126, sec. 12, created a graduated scale of weights to be allowed in summer and winter respectively to two classes of carriages therein mentioned ; the first of which he should designate as broad wheels," or such as had wheels of the width of 4} inches and upwards, and the second he should call“ narrow wheels," or such wheels as were under 41 inches. The weight allowed to be carried by the first description of carriages was 3 tons 15 cwt., and upwards, and for the second class 3 tons 5 cwt.

The carriages spoken of in the 12th section were called wagons, wains, and other four-wheeled carriages, but in the 13th section a new class of carriages was introduced, which, in order to distinguish them from the former description of carriages, were called “ caravans or other four-wheeled carriages for the conveyance of goods, and built and construct. ed with springs,” and to those carriages 3 tons 15 cwt. was allowed in winter, without reference to the width of the wheels. Upon these two sections alone it was admitted that the carriages in question came within the latter description, (the 13th section,) and would be entitled to carry 3 tons, 15 cwt. ; but an act 3 and 4 Wm. IV., c. 81, was passed, which, as was contended by the toll collector, repealed the privilege of the extra 10 cwt, allowed to spring carriages, and put them under the 12th section, in the same class as common wagons. The act 3 and 4 Wm. IV., after reciting the two sections of the 3rd Geo IV., already mentioned, and stating also that doubts had arisen whether the 13th section (that allowing to all spring

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carriages a fixed weight of 3 tons 15 cwt. and keep of the horses while in his custody,
without reference to the width of the wheels) amounting to 21. 138.---Mr. Edmonds then
might not extend to all wagons, &c., if on applied for the infliction of a penalty which
springs, although if not on springs they the act left at the discretion of the magis.
would be comprehended under the other sec trates. He did not wish for any heavy fine,
tion, and might be allowed a graduated but as the Messrs. Pickford were not re-
weight up to 6 tons—then enacted that the quired to pay in similar cases on any other
said 13th section of Geo. IV. " should not road they travelled, he thought that some
extend to wagons, &c., having the felloes of trifling penalty was necessary, in order to
the wheels thereof of the breadth of not less mark the magistrates' opinion of the case. —
than 4} inches at the bottom or sole thereof, The defendant pleaded his inability to pay,
notwithstanding the same may be built and and also exemption under a clause in the
constructed with springs.” Mr. Edmonds act. The complainant ultimately agreed not
contended that this clause did not apply at to press for a penalty, upon the understand-
all to wheels of less than 4 inches but ing that every matter relating to the question
left them entirely under the 3rd Geo. should be considered as settled by the deci.
IV. the act of William applied to wagons sion of the magistrates. To this proposition
of not less than 41 inches; that was, of the defendant agreed ; and Dr. Melson said,
a width of 4} inches " or more, and which if a similar case again arose, the magistrates
would come under the designation of "broad should certainly inflict the full penalty of
wheels.” Supposing, for instance, a spring 51.--Midland Counties Herald.
carriage to have wheels of 9 inches in
width, under the 12th section of Geo. IV.
such carriage would be allowed 6 tons, but if
placed under the 13th section it would only
be allowed 3 tons 15 cwt. The act of Wil.

ON THE CAUSES OF INJURY TO BOILERS. liam therefore declared that the 13th section

BY C. W. WILLIAMS, ESQ. should not apply to the broad-wheeled spring carriages, but that they should be entitled to Sır,-In following up the subject of the the extra weight allowed by the 12th section conduction of heat through metallic plates .... The description of the caravan, and and bars, my object is to show how inthe width of the wheels, with the weight of timately connected are the scientific degoods carried, were proved by Camden, the tails of the subject, with the amount of wagoner ; and Mr. Howson also deposed to

evaporation effected, or of injury sushaving tendered to the defendant the amount tained, by a judicious application on the of toll to which he considered him legally one hand, or any derangement on the entitled, before the horse was sold, and

other, of their conducting powers. That which he refused to accept. The magistrates

the causes of such injuries have not been having consulted for a few minutes, Dr. Melson said that the 13th section clearly

sufficiently inquired into, is evident from

the unsettled state of the question, and entitled the complainants to the extra 10cwt. The ambiguity in the act of Wm. IV. ap

the absurd and contradictory causes to peared to him to arise from the introduction which even some practical men attribute of the second negative in the sentence already

them. Among many instances, I may quoted, namely, “ should not extend to mention the following. In one case, a wagons, &c., having the felloes of the boiler was seriously injured, and the prewheels thereof of the breadth of not less than mises set on fire, by the overheating of 45 inches," &c. If the word “more the plates, even to redness, in consebeen substituted for the words “not less," quence of an accumulation of deposit the meaning intended would be more clearly within (above four inches thick), and expressed, viz., that the clause allowing the which, after an interval of rest, had befixed weight of 3 tons 15 cwt. should not

come consolidated on the bottom, as deextend to wheels of more than 4] inches, or

scribed in my former communications. “ broad wheels." The wheels in the present

This indurated mass being a bad reci. case being “ narrow wheels," the weight was entirely regulated by the 13th section of the

pient, and worse conductor of heat, pre3rd Geo. IV., and the 4th William IV. did

vented the access of the water to the not apply to them.-The defendant said that

plates, and thus caused the overheating. himself and his fraternity had always read

This injury, however, was very learnedly the act differently, and had so acted upon it.

attributed to the generation of a com—The magistrates ordered the defendant to bustible gas in the boiler, and which, on refund the overcharge, amounting to 51., and exploding, was supposed to have occato pay, in addition, the expenses and loss in sioned the setting fire to the premises, curred by Messrs. Pickford, in the detention Yet, all this while, no reference was

" had

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