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143 specification, three retorts or ovens are SAMUEL BROWN, OF GRAVEL - LANE, shown, as heated by the fire of one furnace ; SOUTHWARK, ENGINEER, for improvements each of the chambers is covered by an arch, in the manufacture of metallic casks or vesover which the furnace flue is led, so that sels, and in tinning or zincing metal for the heat may be transmitted downward, such and other purposes. Enrolment Office, through the arches, to the materials placed February 11, 1842. within the chambers. In each chamber there The improvement “ in the manufacture" is a trough of stone, such as is used for the consists in a mode of fixing the heads and condensers and flues of alkali works; or the ends of metal casks and other vessels by troaghs may be made of fire-clay, moulded means of tinning or soldering. The metal into the required shape. One side of each of which the cask is made having been prechamber is furnished with a leaden door, and viously tinned, the head is slightly forced at the opposite side there is a pipe of lead, into its place, and having been dipped into or earthenware, for the escape of the chlorine. powdered rosin, is held by a suitable appaThe fire being kindled, and the chambers ratus, and lowered into a shallow vessel consufficiently heated, lumps of manganese are taining melted tin, in which it is kept implaced in the troughs, and the doors closed; mersed for five or ten minutes. In some muriatic acid is then introduced through cases a hoop is driven on to the end of the glass tubes, conveniently placed for that pur cask, and fixed by the tinning process at the pose, and the chlorine is given off. The same time as the head. muriate of manganese is drawn off from the The improvement "in tinning, or zincing" troughs, on the completion of the process, sheets of metal consists in the employment by means of syphons.

of a hot plate on which the coated metal is The claim is, 1. To the mode of manufac laid after tinning or zincing (which is contaring chlorine by the use of retorts or ovens, ducted in the usual manner,) while the superso arranged as to have the heat required for fluous metal is wiped off its surface. the process transmitted downward, through The claim is-1, To the mode of fixing the covering or arch of the retort ; 2. To the the heads or ends of casks or other vessels, mode of constructing the troughs or bottoms by immersing the ends of such vessels in a of ovens or chambers for evolving chlorine bath of suitable melted metal,

as above when fire heat is used below, or at the sides, described. or tops, each of one piece of stone, or 2. To the mode of keeping sheets of metal moulded fire-clay, as described.

heated (in order to the superfluous coating Jonn SEAWARD AND SAMUEL SEAWARD, metal being removed) by the application of a OF THE CANAL IRON-WORKS, POPLAR, EN hot plate, as described. GINEERS, for certain improvements in steam WILLIAM HALE, ENGINEER, AND EDengines. Enrolment Office, February 10, WARD DELL, MERCHANT, both of Wool. 1842.

wich, for improvements in cases and magaThe improvements comprehended under zines for gunpowder. Enrolment Office, this patent are divided into four branches. February 12, 1842. The first comprehends various new modes of These improvements consist in the conconnecting and disconnecting the paddle struction of covered cases and magazines for shafts of marine steam-engines. The second gunpowder of cast or wrought tin, whereby consists of an addition to the ordinary air cases containing gunpowder will not be che. pump bucket of steam-vessels of a sort of mically-injuriously acted on by the powder. false bottom, which, by excluding the water These cases are made six-sided, so as to that now ordinarily collects at the bottom of possess considerable strength, and at the the pump, facilitates the escape of the un same time, to allow of a number of them condensed vapour and gases, and thus helps being packed closely together. On the top to produce a more perfect vacuum. The there is a cylindrical neck, on which a male third branch embraces several modes of dis screw is cut or formed, blanks or spaces charging, at regular intervals, and in duly being cut in three equidistant parts, to adproportioned quantities, the brine, or satu. mit corresponding projections on the inside rated or foul water, from marine steam female screw of the cover to enter. The engine boilers. And the fourth consists of a cover is held to the case by a quadrant-shaped condensing and distilling apparatus, (super bolt or pin, which prevents its being detached seding entirely the ordinary condenser,) by when the case is opened. On the inside of which the spent steam of the working cylin the cover is placed a leather or other washer, der is, previous to its condensation, made to so that on placing the cover in its place, and assist in obtaining by distillation a con turning it partly round, a close joint is made. stant supply of fresh water. By adopting These cases may be cast in moulds of either the distilling part only of this apparatus, it sand or metal, or they may be made of may be used in connection with a condenser wrought tin soldered up. By this means, of the common form.

say the patentees, a covered case or magazine of any required size may be made, which, from the peculiar character of the metal, will retain gunpowder with great safety, and without the metal of which it is composed being prejudicially acted upon by the chemical properties of the gunpowder.

The patentees state that they do not confine themselves to the form, or to the mode of fixing the cover, both of which may be varied, nor do they confine themselves to the exclusive use of tin. But they consider tin, in an unalloyed state, to be best adapted for this purpose.

XOTES AND NOTICES. P«arl Fisheries of Ceylon.--The principal pearl fishery in Ceylon is that ott Aripo, where the oysters lie in from five and a half to seven fathoms water, protected on the west and south-west by a ridge of sand and coral; this ridge is considered by the natives to be a submerged island, but it is generally believed to be a rising bank of coral and sand. The age of the oyster, at its separation from the rock, is stated by an intelligent diver to be six years and a hall; the pearls are found in all parts of the fish; as many as sixty-seven have been found in ono oyster; they are not generally found in those oysters that would be considered the finest for eating, which favours the idea that pearls are produced by disease in the fish. A single diver will generally bring up in a day from 1000 to 1000 oysters; the fishing takes place in March.

Gold Dust.-The St. Petersburgh papers state that an iinportant discovery has been made by the expedition sent in search of deposits of sand containing gold. It consists of a bed of sand, near the source of the Nadejoni, not far from the washing station called Pesaskoi Tersinski; it is estimated to contain 100,000 lbs. of sand, and, to produce 3 pouds 9 punds 16 zols of gold. In the essays already made 4 punds 60 zols of metal, rich in quality have been extracted. The poud is rather more than 40lbs. English.

Progress of Rust.-M. Montgolfier, jun., having learned that a grating of iron wire from the church of St. Martin's, at Paris, was about being taken down, after having remained forty years without any repair, had the curiosity to prove these wires, after having carefully ascertained their number, and he was convinced that they had lost but one fifth of their entire strength. The increase of oxidation is not as rapid as might be supposed, for the first layer of rust which covers the surface of a bar of icon, instead of favouring this oxidation, proves a coating which is an obstacle to it.

Steam Navigation of the Indus.--A correspondent, on whom we can rely, has favoured us with some interesting information as to the navigation of the Indus, and the British craft now on it. Sir Alex ander Burnes had thought that a vessel of four feet water might always ascend it in safety; but it is found, by experience, that one drawing more than three feet water is useless, from the perpetual shifting of the river's bed and channel, and the peculiar formation of its bars. Vessels of that draught have ascended to Loodicana on the Sutledge, and could reach Kalabagh on the Attuck branch : the Rava branch is navigable to Lahore; and the Cheenab is believed to be navigable to a considerable distance from its junction with the main streain near Moul

taun. There are at present only three steam-vessels, all of iron, on the Indus-the Comct, Planet, and Satellite; the first of forty-horse, the others of sixtyhorse power. They draw thirty-six inches of water. A smaller vessel, the Meteor, is under repair at Bombay. Two of the Euphrates steamers, of bity and forty-horse power, have been ordered to Bonbay, most probably for the Indus. The commubicaiion between Bombay and Kunatchee is kep: open by the Indus steamer; but it draws too much water for the river.-Spectator.

India-rubber Welted Hose. The making of this description of hose is rapidly extending in France ; from some astonishing cause, the few attempts made in Nottingham have not succeeded. We be. lieve the causes are-first, that the English web is deficient in the number of warp-threads; secondly, that the web is stretched too far on the needles ; thirdly, that the weavers do not turn the welt down over the stocking, which increases the comfort to the wearer; and, lastly, that the hose and hall-hose are not made that extra length to allow for such turning down. We speak for ourselves when we sy that, having worn stockings with India-rubber welts, nothing can excel their comfort, as they act as an elastic garter, without the trouble of buckling and unbuckling, and wholly prevent that most uppleasant circumstance-the stockings coming doma about the heels of the wearer. The India-rubber will wash, but it is rather injured by long boiling. Always anxious for the good of the English hosier, we advise them that Prench India-rubber welt.d hose have made their appearance in London; ve saw large quantities in Paris, in September last.Nottingham Journal.

Sheathing Sleam-boilers with Lead.- A correspondent of the Mining Journal states that, at a manufactory in Newcastle-on-Tyne, the boilers have been cased with sheet-lead, one-eighteenth of an inch in thickness, and weighing four pounds to the foot; and that the amount of the radiated heat is thus so much diminished, as to be equal to a saving of 17 per cent. in fuel. “The average consumption of coal, by these boilers, previous to the adoption of this plan, was 60 cwt. per day, but now 50 cwt. is found to be amply sufficient; therefore a positive advantage is obtained of 10 cwt. per day, which is one-sixth, or 17 per cent."

Iron Wire Rigging.—A vessel, " the Marshall of Grimsby," is now in the river off Hermitage Stairs, the rigging of which is all of wire, (Smith's patent wire rope). It has been learly six years thus ütted up, and the rigging is stated to be nearly as good as new.-Taking a 3-inch wire rope, and comparing its size, weight, and cost with hempen rope, or chain, of equal strength, the results are found to be A 3-inch patent wire rope, weight 61 lbs. per fathom; hemp rope, of 8 inches, 147 lbs. ; and chain, 36 lbs.-equal to a strain of 16 tons. The comparative cost being—3 inch wire rope, 3s. Id. per fathom ; 8 inch hempen rope, 6s. 3d.; and 13 chain, 7s. 6d. per fathom.

Intending Patentees may be supplied gratis with Instructions, containing every particular necessary for their safe guidance, by application (post-paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT, (from 1617 to the present time.) Patents, both British and Foreign, solicited. Specifications prepared or revised, and all other Patent business transacted.

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Omice,

No. 166, Fleet-street.--Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W, C, Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

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The marine steam-engine about to be informed me it would be considered with described was modelled for the first time reference to the most improved engines at the request of Mr. George Rennie, in Her Majesty's service, namely, the and examined by Mr. Lloyd, at Wool Gorgon engines, and those of Messrs. wich, by order of the Admiralty, in Maudslay and Field's invention, and not May, 1841. At that time, the method the oid engines with side levers.

As reof connecting two engines on the prin spects Messrs. Maudslay and Field's enciple shown by the model was not ex gines, the comparison would be quite plained, and Mr. Lloyd considered an fair ; they have the advantage of a long intermediate shaft would be necessary, stroke and long connecting-rod, and are with a greater length of hatchway across contained in much less space than engines the deck of the vessel than he approved having side levers, which are the very of, or than was, perhaps, convenient. advantages aimed at in my design; Since then, however, I have devised con whereas, in the Gorgon engines, neither necting the engines by a single link, the one nor the other is considered. which is simple, and, from its accommo In effecting this improvement, Messrs. dating nature, well suited to marine en Maudslay and Field have been compelled ginos having foundations, at best deficient to divide the cylinder into two parts; and of rigidity. This mode of connection is by placing one of them a little distance shown by the accompanying drawings, from the other, space is afforded for the and its action was clearly defined by a connecting-rod to vibrate between them, second model that was submitted to the by means of a T..formed cross head. notice of the Admiralty.

The top connects the piston-rods of the Mr. Lloyd also objected to the appa. separated halves, (as a matter of course,) rent inconvenience there might be in formed into cylinders, and the leg drops keeping the packing tight round the pis between them, and gives motion to the ton-rod, from the stuffing-box being be connecting-rod from a joint at the end. low the cylinder, and the screws which The plan is highly ingenious, but whether compress the packing less accessible than separated pistons, working in separated when placed above the cylinder in the cylinders, connected by a cross head of ordinary way. This defeci bas also been the above form, is not more liable to deremoved by substituting a weight and rangement than the single cylinder, in the lever for the screws, making, in fact, the position I have placed it, remains to be stuffing-box self-adjusting, and thereby proved. What the space which Messrs. avoiding the trouble of screwing it up. Maudslay and Field's engines occupy, The piston-rod is lubricated from an es and their cost, may be, in comparison ternal chamber by an induction-pipe, and with mine, there is nothing to show, but the same method is used to lubricate the I think the advantage would be on my piston-rod of the slide-valve.

side, By my arrangement for marine en From the arrangement of a Gorgon gines, the crank-shaft is placed upon the engine, as it is termed, the stroke of the top of the cylinder, which is inverted, engine and connecting-rod is unavoidand requires to be removed when the bly short. The stroke of every engine cylinder cover is taken off. To some in being double the length of the lever or dividuals this has appeared a serious crank which it turns, it follows that the matter; with me it has little or no paddle-wheels of these engines must be weight. Having placed a man-hole in driven by a reduced leverage power. the cover, the trouble of removing either To make good this defect, the cylinder of the cover or crank-shaft will be avoided, the engine is enlarged, and the velocity unless the piston or piston-rod should of the piston is impeded, to economise want a thorough repair. By the present the steam. To obtain adequate results mode of managing marine engines, there from such an arrangement, the force of is no such convenience, and the cylinder the steam power must be increased in cover is always removed when the en- proportion to the diminished length of gineer thinks it necessary to have a peep the crank: this is easily effected, but its at the inside.

evil consequences are, perhaps, not so When Mr. Lloyd inspected the model easily avoided. that was made at Messrs. Rennie's, he If two engines were placed in the same

DESCRIPTION OF THE HADDINGTON MARINE STEAM-ENGINE. 147 vessel, but not connected, so that each ing-rod,

and the bearings of the crank might drive its own paddle-wheel, and shaft. The circumstance of impeding one of them were 100 horses power, with the velocity of the piston only serves to a 6. feet stroke, and the piston travelling economise the steam, but in no respect at the rate of 200 feet per minute, while lessens the strain on any of the moving the other had a stroke of 4 feet, with the parts of the engine which are employed piston travelling at the rate of 133 feet in conveying the motive power to the per minute, the latter must exert a force crank shaft. Neither can it lessen the on the crank-pin equal to that of 150 strain on the framing of the engine, or horses power engine to be a match for ship, but substitutes, as it were, an enthe former. Both paddle-wheels would gine of 150 horses power to perform the then make the same number of revolu labour which can be done by another of tions; but the immense difference be 100 horses power, the piston of the tween the forces employed to effect this former travelling at the rate of 133 feet adds greatly to the strain on the crank per minute, and that of the latter at 200 pin of the short-stroked engine, and to feet. the friction on the brasses of the connect

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The usual way to determine what should feel the force that propels them in the be the length of a connecting-rod of an highest degree. As the crank moves engine, is by the length of the crank it round from its extreme leverage, the turns. With land engines it is generally length of the connecting-rod may be said made six times the length of the crank; to be virtually increasing, but the proporin the case of marine engines with side tion of 3 to 1, in my opinion is much levers, somewhat less than five ; and with too short when the crank is at right the short-stroked Gorgon engines, only angles to the piston-rod, and in the posithree. A connecting-rod only three times tion described as respects its effect on the the length of the crank lies in a very paddle-wheels. From this view of the oblique direction when the crank is in subject two evils are combined in the ar, the position of communicating its greatest rangement of the Gorgon engines. One power to turn the paddle-wheels; conse is, the introduction of a much greater quently, acting with more friction and mechanical force to propel the paddleless effect at that important portion of the wheels than is necessary; and the other, crank's revolution when the paddle-wheels losing the full advantage of the crank’s

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