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HINDU PROCESSES OF QUARRYING AND POLISHING GRANITE. 123 der which a person resident in the coun cess is employed, combining the principles try, without friends whose taste leads of the two former. The rock is heated, as them to the same pursuits, attempts to
in the first mode, and the separation is combring forward a subject of so much im pleted by driving wedges into a chain of portance; but as it appears to me to offer
holes, as in the second. In this way Lieut. à foundation on which many very inter
Newbold has seen blocks of 80 feet in length esting explanations may rest, I am anx
separated. He also observed that the Hinious to have it rightly comprehended,
dus take advantage of the calorific action of and shall always be happy to discuss any
the sun's rays, in promoting the separation
of the granite slabs; and that they, therepoint which may appear to be doubtful,
fore, select the hot season for their work. either with Mr. Pasley, or others of your He found the temperature of a rock at Dewcorrespondents.
anconda to be 12030, while that of the surI remain, Sir,
rounding air was only 100° in the sun, and Your obedient and obliged, 95° in the shade. Sometimes they pour
E. A. M. cold water into the clefts made by the wedges, February 2, 1842.
which greatly hastens the separation of the block. The polish given to Indian granites
is at least equal to what is found in Egypt; QUARRYING
and good specimens may be seen in the Mausolea of Golconda, at Bejánugger, Gal
berga, and many other places in the penin(We extract the following interesting de sula. To effect this beautiful polish, two scription of these processes by Lieut. New
processes are followed. When a flat surface bold, from Minutes, in the Atheneum, of the
is required, the granite is slightly smoothed Transactions of the Asiatic Society. ]
and flattened by an iron tool; and is then The most usual mode followed in India is
rubbed with a large and heavy block of grato employ the agency of fire. In this pro nite, hollowed on its under surface, and have cess, the granite rock is covered with drying the hollow filled up by a mixture of bushes of the various acacias common on the lac and corrundum. The mixture adheres plains, which are then fired, and kept burn strongly to the stone, which is tightly fixed ing until quite consumed. The intense heat between two rods. The extremities of these causes a separation or exfoliation of the gra rods form the handles for two workmen, who nite, to the depth, perhaps, of 24 inches, in draw the stone backwards and forwards over the centre of the fire, but gradually thinning the block to be polished, occasionally throwoff towards the edges. The piece thus ex ing water on the surface, to prevent the lac foliated is then detached, by driving in small from melting. When the piece to be polished iron wedges at the extremities, and is finally is of a more varied form, as a cornice or raised by a powerful lever. Sometimes the moulding, or figure, a piece of wood, with rock proves more refractory than usual, and the corrundum mixture, or even a lump of then it is customary to pour cold water upon the mixture alone, is used instead of the grait when hot, or to drop on the surface a nite polisher. Any one who has seen the heary boulder of greenstone or granite. process will be strongly reminded of it by When blocks are required for statuary or the paintings at Thebes, representing sculpmill stones, or for any other purpose where tors polishing a statue, which are copied by greater thickness than one or two feet is Rosellini, and in Wilkinson's “ Ancient requisite, another process is followed, pre Egyptians.” Lieut. Newbold mentioned a cisely similar to that employed by the ancient remarkable fact connected with the granite Egyptians in quarrying the granite of Syene, of India; that much of it was in the form of A great number of holes, an inch square, spheroids and bosses, having a concentric and of different depths, according to the size laminar structure, like the coats of an onion, of the block wanted, are bored in the rock, which frequently exfoliated by the action of close to each other, forming a connected the air, throwing off curved laminæ of very chain around the piece to be detached. Each varied magnitude. This exfoliation of mounhole is then fitted with an iron wedge, and tain masses produces some of the most picthe whole are simultaneously and unremit. turesque features of the Indian landscape. tingly struck with iron hammers, until their It is the cause of its singular dome-shaped united force overcomes the adhesion of the mountains and mamillary masses, crowned block. The chisels used in piercing the with tors which would in England be consi. holes are kept cool, by pouring water upon dered Druidical. Rough sketches of some them while working, as is done in Europe. of these, from Bellary and Bavagudda, were When long and thinner slabs are required for shown to the meeting, strongly resembling bridges, pavements, lintels, &c., a third pro the Cheese-ring and Logan-stone, so well
known in Cornwall. The paper concluded bass, which is considerably the largest, and with some account of the uses to which gra is fitted in the remaining partition of the nite is applied in India ; and a brief notice frame. of the colossal temples and figures, and of The third improvement relates to an im. the pillars, obelisks, and bridges of this ma proved mode of applying the bridges; these terial existing throughout the peninsula. are of beech, 4 feet long, and half-an-inch
wide at the treble end, gradually widening to three-quarters of an inch at the bass ex
tremity. The bridge is arched into twentyAPPLICATION OF THE ARCHIMEDEAN
one abutments, each of which rests upon the
sounding-board. The pins for the lower Sir,- In your last Number, 965, there is frets are placed on the top of the bridge, an error of the press, of much consequence (which is perfectly straight,) as usual. to my statement. For 1837, read 1827, The fourth improvement consists in a new which was the year in which I presented my mode of stringing, by hanging the wires in Screw, or “ Archimedean” Ship Propeller, small slides fixed in the upper edge of the to the Lord High Admiral, which he thought stud-bar, whence the wires are carried proper to reject as quite inapplicable. to the pins at the lower edge of the bar, I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
forming the upper frets; the strings then F. MACERONE. pass down to the bridge in the ordinary way,
forming angles between the respective pins
placed therein, and after passing below the THE PECULIAR CASE OF OXYDATION. bridge they are hooked upon steel wires Sir,- In Number 963 of your valuable
ten inches long, twisted double, with an Magazine, a “ Constant Reader" wishes to eye at one end and a hook at the other. The obtain some information respecting a pecu
eye is attached to one of the screws of the liar case of oxydation in a carpenter's stove ;
screw-bar after passing the tension-bar; the I beg leave, through your pages, to give him
other end has a strong steel or iron wire hook, what knowledge I may have upon the subject:
to which a string is attached ; it is then turned When he has covered the carpenter's stove
in the usual manner. with plank outside of the flanges, leaving
The fifth improvement consists in apply. sufficient space for sawdust, he finds the
ing the action to upright piano-fortes, by stove to be rusted 4th of an inch. Now, placing the action underneath the keys, and I think that the sawdust must either be causing the hammers to strike the wires in damp, when placed between the iron and two distinct lines. The first line of ham. the plank, or the steam might possibly get
mers begins at the highest treble wire, and through the flanges, and damp the sawdust, proceeds gradually downwards beneath the which would then oxydise the iron.
stud-bar to the centre of the scale. The The insertion of the above will oblige second, or bass line begins at the usual disyour obedient servant.
tance from the feet placed on the bridge, and W. is progressively carried up in an oblique di.
rection to the last note of the bass. A descending wire, or other appropriate connection
is adapted to the end of each key, its length ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH
being varied to suit the position in which each
particular hammer is required to strike its John STEWART, OF WOLVERHAMPTON, string. Esq., for certain improvements in the con OWEN Williams, OF BASING-LANE, struction of piano-fortes.-Enrolment Office, LONDON, ENGINEER, for improvements in Jan. 7, 1842.
propelling vessels. Enrolment Office, Fe. The first of these improvements, which bruary 4, 1842. are five in number, consists in forming The first of these improvements in prothe frame of metal divided into compartment pelling is carried out in the following manfor the reception of the sounding-boards, ner :-Two cranks on each end of the engine which are only connected with the frame at shaft project beyond the sides of the vessel ; intervals.
to these cranks two rods are jointed, to the The second improvement relates to the lower ends of which floats or paddle-boards mode of constructing and applying sounding of wood or iron are affixed. boards. These sounding-boards, three in Immediately under the crank-shaft are two number, are denominated the treble, adapted axes or guides, through which the paddle. to the smallest partition of the frame; the rods slide freely, the guides at the same time tenor, occupying the middle compartments, turning in a horizontal direction. These and a size larger than the former ; and the guides act as fulcra, and also regulate the
PATENTS RECENTLY ENROLLED.
SPECIFICATIONS OF RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS.
125 ingle at which the floats enter and leave the preferred to the paddle-boards, both in enterwater.
ing and leaving the water. A second improvement is intended to take JAMES WARREN, OF MONTAGUE-TERadvantage of the pitching and rolling motion RACE, MILE-END-ROAD, for an improved of the vessel, and thereby
effect its propulsion ; machine for making screws. Enrolment for this purpose, two flat horizontal floats, Office, February 4, 1842. or buoyant surfaces, are placed one under The object of this invention is the enabling each quarter, and attached to two upright of moulds for casting screws to be made in rods or stems. These rods are connected by moulding sand, by screwing patterns of the pin-joints and two parallel bars to the ves screws therein, and then withdrawing them sel's sides; the rods passing up into the by unscrewing, so as to leave patterns of vessel, are there attached to the end of pump such screws impressed in the sand, or such levers, which raise and force water out of the like material. Two rails, or tramways, are stern, and thereby propel the vessel. The fixed lengthways on the top of a strong bench, floats may either be immersed in the water, upon which a plate of iron traverses to and or float on its surface, and may be applied, fro, by means of four small wheels or rollers. in any convenient position, either to work A moulding head plate, having the patterns pumps, or, by the intervention of suitable of the heads of the screws upon it, and promechanism, give motion to any kind of pro perly gitted and sprayed, is placed in the pelling apparatus. How much oftener will sand tub, and a moveable iron mouldingthis delusive scheme be patented ?
box placed upon it; this box is then filled THOMAS STOPFORD JONES, OF TAVI. with sand, slightly pressed and levelled. A STOCK-PLACE, RUSSELI-SQUARE, GENTLE board is then laid on the top of the box, the MAN, for certain improvements in ma usual way, and turned over, when the upper chinery for propelling vessels by steam or part of the sand will retain the impressions other power. Enrolment Office, February of the heads of the intended screws, and also 4, 1842.
of the gits and sprays. This box is then These improvements consist in the em placed upon the iron plate on the carriage, ployment of two series of cranks for causing with the patterns upward, and rolled under the floats or paddles to describe an elliptical a screwing frame; three plates, the head path, and to enter and emerge from the plate, the steadying plate, and the guide water at favourable angles.
screw plate, are brought down upon the For this purpose, a main crank-shaft, of moulding box, and secured there by studs. any given throw, projects from the engine Each of these three plates contains as many shaft, beyond the side of the vessel. Imme. holes as there are patterns used in the machine. diately over it, but at such a distance as to In the upper part of the machine there are allow the two cranks to revolve clear of each three cog-wheels, which are worked by turnother, is placed a second crank, having a ing a handle affixed to the middle one, and smaller throw than the former. The neck give motion to the outer two, to which the of the main crank works in a suitable bearing motion cranks are attached; these cranks on the upright stem of the paddle or float give motion to a crank-plate, having the board, the head or upper part of which stem same number of holes as there are patterns has a slide drop link groove, within which employed. Each of the pattern screws terthe brasses in which the upper and smaller minates at top in a crank, which takes into crank work slides up and down, as the crank the crank plate, so that on giving motion to revolves, thereby compensating for the dif the working cranks, all the screws are simul. ference between the circles described by each. taneously turned round and screwed into the By this means the paddle or float board is sand, by means of suitable guide-screws, &c. made to describe an elliptical path, and also On reversing the motion, they are unscrewed to enter and quit the water at a favourable and withdrawn, leaving the pattern of the angle.
screw impressed in the moulding sand. The When two or more paddles are employed, screwing-frame is then raised, and the mouldthey are placed one behind the other, in the ing-box drawn out, to make room for another. direction of the vessel, each paddle stem A corresponding moulding-box being filled having a large and small crank, connected with sand, its smooth surface is placed upon together so as to be driven by the main the impressed surface of the first, and being crank shaft of the engine ; three of these clamped together, the fluid metal is poured propellers are shown as thus applied.
in. When the boxes are separated, the screws The claim is to the two cranks of different will be found perfect, except the nick or slit throws for each paddle-shaft, and the link and in the heads, which may be made with a cirsliding brasses by which the two cranks of dif. cular saw, in the usual way; or the nicks ferent throws are enabled to act in unison, and may be cast in the heads of large screws, by thus give any degree of an angle that may be making them in the patterns.
RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS.
severed by cutting it entirely across, or in. [Selected and abridged from the Franklin Journal.] cisions of suitable extent may be made for HORSE POWER FOR DRIVING MACHI.
the convenient and necessary application of NERY; George Strenge and Jacob Rohrer,
the said apparatus. The claim is to the This is for an improvement in that kind of “ mode of repairing lateral breaches in hose horse power in which the power is applied, by means of screws, as set forth. Also of by causing the horse to walk in a circle, and repairing larger breaches in the same by to draw by means of a lever or sweep at
means of metallic plates and flexible tubes, tached to a vertical shaft; and it consists in
inserted in hose, constructed and secured in the peculiar manner in which the levers or
the manner described," sweeps are attached to the main driving
IMPROVEMENT IN RIFLES AND OTHER wheel. The patentees observe, that “sweeps
FIRE-ARMS ; James R. Thomas. This paof this description have heretofore been fast tent was granted for an improvement on ened to the main shaft, in such a manner as
that kind of guns in which a separate chamnot to allow of their having any vertical her, removeable from the barrel, is used. play, in consequence of which, a consider The separate chamber is made with a proable portion of the power of the horse or
jection around the forward end of the bore, horses has been expended without the pro
which fits into a recess in the barrel, the duction of any useful effect, and has, in fact,
breech of the gun being made to receive the been productive of injury, by racking the
said chamber. Near the top of the back machine.” In this machine the sweeps pass
end, the chamber is provided with a hole, through staples attached to the main wheel,
which receives the end of a spring bolt to which staples are so formed as to confine the hold it in place. The spring bolt is drawn sweeps laterally, whilst they are allowed to back by a projection from the tumbler, which play vertically. The inner end of the sweeps
acts against an offset on the bolt, so that are received within mortises in the upper end
in bringing the hammer to the half-cock, of the shaft, and there are springs on the
the spring bolt is drawn out clear of the upper and lower sides of the rear ends of
hole in the back of the chamber, and on the sweeps, which bear respectively upon the
cocking, the projection on the tumbler clears main driving wheel and upon the upper part
the offset on the bolt, and allows it to return of the staples. The upper springs are pro
by the action of a spiral spring coiled around vided with an off-set to operate as a latch in
A part of the lower part of the back of confining the sweeps in place.
the chamber is bevelled off, so that in putting STOPPING LEAKS IN Hose ; Ralph
in the chamber, the bevelled part will force Bulkley. This patent is taken for a mode back the spring bolt until the chamber is in of stopping breaches in leather hose, whether place. When the hammer is at half-cock, small or large. Small breaches, or holes,
the chamber is forced up out of its place by are to be closed by a conical screw plug with a pin passing through a hole in the bottom a flat head. The point of the screw is to be
of the case which receives the chamber; this inserted in the aperture, which, by screwing,
pin is attached to the end of a spring screwed is gradually enlarged, embracing the screw
to the under side of the barrel. until the water is prevented from flowing
EvaPORATING SOLUTIONS, DECOCTIONS, out. But if the aperture be a slit passing
&c., FOR THE PURPOSE OF CONCENTRAT. lengthwise, it may be temporarily repaired
ING THEM; James W. W. Gordon. The for use by two corresponding plates of metal, patentee says, “ The object of my improve. the one to be placed inside of the aperture,
ment is principally to obviate the danger of and of sufficient length to cover it, there injuring the preparation, which in articles of being a corresponding plate upon the outside great delicacy sometimes takes place, by the of the aperture; the two plates are to be
application of the heat of a water or steam drawn together by screws, previously fitted
bath only; and this I effect by means of a to them, thus firmly binding the edges of the
machine which produces rapid evaporation leather between the said plates of metal. If at the ordinary temperature of the atmo. the aperture be so large, or of a description sphere." that it cannot be secured by such screws or
FLYER FOR TWISTING SILK, &c., Ed. plates, then a section of metal, or other de ward L. Young. This flyer, instead of har. scription of pipe or tube, of suitable dimen. ing two guide wires run out their whole sions, may be inserted within the defective length parallel to, and at equal distances part, and the apparatus denominated "breach
from the axis, has one short and one long clogs” is to be applied thereto; but if the guide wire—the short wire, or arm, extends breach required to be stopped be not in itself as far only as the middle of the bobbin, and large enough to admit of the application of the longer arm extends to some distance be. the “ breach clogs," the water hose may be yond the end of the boblin, and is there
RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS.
127 curred so as to bring the guide in a line with the cutters for cutting the screws on the ends the axis of the bobbin—the guide wire being of the rails, by making them a part of, and sufficiently long to admit of putting on and one with, the sockets, or female screws. taking off the bobbin without moving the Also, the manner in which I have combined flyer. A ring is attached to the two guide and arranged these sockets, the screw shafts, wires of this flyer, near the extreme end of and standards (puppets) with each other, for the short arm, to prevent the centrifugal the purpose set forth." force from throwing out the guide wires MACHINE FOR CUTTING CORK; Charles which constitute the flyer.
R. Macy. The pieces of cork, called blocks, The claim is to the method of construct cut into proper lengths, are held between ing the flyer.
two revolving spindles which grip them, and FIRE ARMS; Silas Day. This patent is as they revolve, the cork is cut round by a obtained for an improvement on that kind of revolving cutter wheel, the arbor of which is fire arms that load at the breech, and it con horizontal and has its bearings in a sliding sists in making a curved chamber at the frame. This frame rests upon two cams, on breech, which opens at the side of the barrel, a shaft parallel to, and under the shaft of the for the reception of the load. The side aper cutter wheel, the cams being of such form as ture is closed by a valve which works on a that at the commencement of each operation pin and is provided with a handle and catch ; the frame and knife will be lifted up, and the valve works in a slot made in a block of cause the edge of the cutter wheel to apiron that projects from the side of the bar. proach the piece of cork to be cut, and rel, and in which block a part of the curved when the cork has been cut, the frame chamber is made.
and cutter wheel are let down to allow the “ I am aware,
says the patentee, “that revolving gripes to receive another block. guns bave been made to load at the breech The edge of the cutter wheel is kept sharp by having a sliding valve to close the aper during the operation, by means of two roture through which the charge is inserted, tary disks, one acting on each face. The but not constructed like the plan herein de faces of these disks are covered with leather, scribed, and therefore I do not claim the and emery, or any other substance which principle of loading at the breech as my in will give an edge. As the cutter wheel revention, but what I do claim as my inven volves, to cut the cork, every part of its edge tion, and desire to secure by letters patent, is brought round to these grinding disks. is the curved chamber, and in combination The blocks are fed in through a box, from therewith the sliding valve and its appen which they are taken by a jaw which slides dages, consisting of the slot and lever, for forward and places them between the gripes the purpose, and in the manner herein de of the revolving spindles. scribed.
The claim is, first, to the "combination of CUTTING SCREWS ON THE RAILS OF the rotary cutter wheels with the sharpening BEDSTEADS; Jacob Lindley. The ordinary rotary disks, one on each face of the rotary method of cutting screws upon the ends of cutter for the purpose and in the manner debedstead rails, is well known to all who are scribed. acquainted with the making of such articles. “ Secondly, to the method of moving the In the improved mode, the rail is held in the rotary cutter wheel up and down at the middle by a clamp attached to a bench, on commencement and end of every operation each end of which there is a puppet head in by means of the sliding frame, acted upon which works a screw, mandrel, or shaft, by the cams, for the purpose and in the manprovided with a winch on its outer end, and ner described. on the inner end of each of these is fitted a “ And thirdly, to the method of feeding socket, very similar to those usually em the machine with the block by means of the ployed for cutting wooden screws, excepting slide and jaw, in combination with the rethat they are made of steel, and the cutter ceiving box and spindles as herein described." is formed by it, instead of being attached The attempts at cutting corks by mathereto. These sockets are fitted on to the chinery have been numerous, and have uni. inner ends of the screw, mandrel, or shaft, formly proved failures ; not that corks have by a socket, and secured by a thumb screw, not been cut by machinery, but because they by means of which the precise point at have not been so well cut as by hand, and which the threads, on each end of the rail because the preparing and assorting of the shall end, can be regulated. That end of the blocks to be cut by the machine have resocket, on which the cutter is situated, is quired a degree of care and attention which bevelled off, and the cutter is so formed as are not repaid by the result. to cut under the shoulder.
IMPROVEMENT IN THE MANUFACTURING The claim is to the “manner of forming OF CLOTHS OF WOOL, OR WOOL AND SILK;