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WRIGHT AND BAIN'S ELECTRO-MAGNETIC RAILWAY CONTROLLER. The frequent occurrence of railway power exerted by its attractive property accidents, and the awful consequences as a magnet, and also the deflection of attendant upon many of them, have di the coil and wire and magnetic needle. rected an immense mass of intelligence The patentees prefer to keep the needle to the study of means for giving increased fixed, and to make the coil to deviate, as security to railway travelling. Many the latter is not affected by the approxplans for this purpose have been made imation of masses of metal. The manner the subjects of recent patents, and several in which this is effected will be made of them have been very fully noticed in intelligible by reference to the engravings our pages. Our readers will, doubtless, on our front page, wherein fig. 1 represents have been struck with the similarity be an end view of a locomotive engine, with tween several of these plans, as well the indicator attached to the boiler, and in their mechanical details as in their Fig. 2 a pilot engine, by which the principles of action. The plans hither making and breaking of the current, or to published have, for the most part, electric circuit, is effected. consisted of various sorts of self-acting On the lower part of the fire-box signals, by which the presence of danger of the locomotive engine, fig. 1, is is communicated in time to enable an bolted the leg a, to which two springs, engineer to arrest the progress of a train, bb, are screwed. In the centre of and thereby avert the ihreatened danger. the sleeper dd, a block of wood, h, For accomplishing this object, various is pinned, in which are bedded two arrangements of solids and of fluids have lengths of hoop-iron, or other suitable been employed; but we have now to lay metallic connexion, e e, on which the before our readers a more recent inven. springs b b slide when the engine is in tion for establishing railway security, in motion. A side view of the same is which the most subtle of all agents is em shown in fig. 2, which is a section inside ployed, viz., the electro-magnetic fluid. one of the rails and frame of the pilot

This apparatus is the joint invention of engine, where a exhibits the side view Messrs. Wright and Bain, the latter of of a leg fitted with springs, b', which also whom is already well known to our read constantly press on the metallic coners, and to the world of science, as the in ductors e e. For the sake of distinctness, ventor of the electro-magnetic printing te we will call these conductors or wires, legraph, the electro-magnetic clock, &c. which lead to and from the battery, poIt consists in the conveyance of the electric sitive and negative; the positive wire ! fluid from a battery attached to the loco goes from the battery x up to the coil of motive engine, to a pilot engine by which wire which it forms, then to the electrothe former is preceded at a distance of magnet situated within the indicator at I, about a mile and a half. Should any and thence passes down to one of the obstruction in the road stop the pilot en springs b, so that the electric current flows gine, or disturb its course, the current of from the battery through the coil of wire the electric fluid is broken, and ocular around the magnet, while from the spring notice is immediately given to the engine b it flows along one of the hoop stretchers driver ; should this warning be disre to the spring of the pilot engine, fig. 2, garded, attention will be called by sound and thence to the spring c, which rests on ing a whistle, gong, or other alarm ; and the moveable stem d of the governor fi on this being still unheeded, the ap It then returns through the spring 9 paratus will then of itself turn off the (which is similar to the spring c, and also steam, apply the breaks, and stop the rests on the stem d) down to one of train, without the interposition of the the springs b', through which it flows to engine-driver. The invention is de the spring b, which is attached to the enscribed generally as consisting of the ap gine, fig. 1, and thence up to the battery. plication of the electro-magnetic current Thus the electric circuit is formed, the produced by the voltaic ery, to cer breaking of which gives the signals, &c. tain mechanical operations, principally as before described, and the following is through the temporary magnetism pro the way in which the circuit is broken duced in soft iron by induction, or the by the occurrence of any impediment


HARPER AND Joyce's stoves. on the line of rails :— The pilot engine pilot and the locomotive engine need precedes the locomotive from one to two never exceed two miles, it seems proiniles, or such a distance as will enable bable that this subtle agent may be ap. the engineer to overcome the momen plied in the manner proposed with every tum of the train; should any obstacle prospect of success. cause the pilot engine to stop, the go The action of the models now exhibiting vernor will of course stop also, and the at the Royal Polytechnic Institution is balls descending will force down the higbly satisfactory, and there would seem stern d, until one of the springs c, comes to be no reason to doubt the equal efficacy on the part o of the stem, which is made of the principle on the larger scale.-B. of ivory or any other non-conducting substance, thereby instantly breaking the electric current, which had been transmitted, as before described, from the bat

HARPER AND JOYCE'S STOVES-MORE tery through the coil of wire and magnet.

VICTIMS! The result is, that the coil of wire not being any longer under the influence

For our parts, we would not sleep with

one of these stoves in our bedchamber for of the electric current, returns to the horizontal position, and points to the

one night, for ten times the sum we have word “ dangerous.” A detent is at the

heard mentioned as having been offered to

the patentees for the invention. If the same time released when a piece of clock

crevices of the windows and doors were sufwork begins to run di wn, first striking ficiently tight there need be no doubt as to a signal on a bell k, or gong, or sounding the fate of the sleepers !” a whistle, and next, by means of the le Editorial remarks in Mech. Mag., vol. xxix. vers s t, releasing a weight u, which shuts Sir,--The above prediction has just off the steam. The clock work, or ap been most awfully realized, and two more paratus, by which the signal is sounded, human beings have been added to the steam shut off, &c., is so contrived as to list of victims. be wound up by the motion of the loco The patentees of this precious discovery motive engine, and is therefore always most positively asserted, that it gave out available ; at the same time, by means of " neither smell nor noxious vapour ;" a very simple provision, over-winding is the falsehood and fatal tendency of which prevented.

assertion, I was among the first to point In the event of any obstacle lying on the out to public attention. Notwithstanding rails, the slipping of an embankment, or the numerous cautions given in your displacement of a rail, by which the pro pages, the patentees have continued to gress of the pilot engine is impeded, or reiterate their assurances of the “safety diverted from its proper course, the sig. and efficiency" of their stoves and fuel, nalling and ultimate stopping of the train although the dangerous character of these is effected with certainty. It is also pro stoves and of the prepared charcoal has posed to connect the conducting wires been demonstrated by yourself, as well as with the gates at crossings, so that on a by M. Gay Lussac, Professor Everitt, gate being left open, the pilot engine and other first-rate chemists. stops short before it reaches it, and there. At an early period in the history of by prevents accidents. The intersec this invention, a gentleman who called at tions of cross lines of railways are also the establishment for the sale of these arranged, so that on two trains coming stoves was informed,

o that a person up to the crossing at the same time, the had slept in a confined apartment, with one that is foremost stops the approach one of these stoves burning all night, of the other until it has passed, and without experiencing the slightest inconthereby prevents collision.

venience; he was likewise assured, that Wih respect to the transmission of the if the prepared fuel was used, not the electric current of the voltaic battery, it slightest danger was to be apprehended !" has been proved by experiment, that for This is very wonderful-if true; and I a distance of five or six miles this may can only say, that in my opinion the be accomplished with certainty, and also party had a very narrow escape. Howthat the conducting power of the wires ever, upon this fact (if fact it be), the is not affected by moisture; as it is con patentees have continued to assert the templated that the distance between the perfect safety of these stoves and this

fuel, and one of the consequences of their employed, was the “prepared charcoal," heartless conduct is set forth in the fol- purchased only about a fortnight before lowing extract from the Weekly Dispatch at Mr. Harper's shop in King Williamof the 23rd ult. :

street, City, and therefore perfectly fresh “On Saturday morning last, much excite and genuine. Fortunately for science, ment prevailed in the neighbourhood of Mr. Long was not in the habit of using Church-street, Hackney, owing to the re any charcoal in his business, nor was ported death, by suffocation from charcoal, there any other than the “prepared" of two youths in the employ of Mr. J. Long, upon his premises. the confectioner. From inquiries made, it You pertinently asked (at page 208 of appears that the unfortunate youths, whose your 29th vol.) * if the death of any names are Frederick Thomas Hersant, aged party had taken place in consequence of 19, and William Long, aged 17, were ap full reliance on the assurances in the prentices to Mr. Long. On Friday they prospectus of the new stove' as to the complained of the coldness of their bedroom,

innocuous nature of the prepared fuel,' which was situated over a bakehouse, and for the purpose of airing it, Mr. Long allowed

would not the patentees have been inthem the use of a small self-smoke con

dictable for manslaughter at the least" suming stove, in which the PATENT CHARCOAL

How the jury could conscientiously was burnt, with a strict injunction to re

reconcile their verdict of “accidental move it after the process of airing. This death,” under the foregoing circumwas done; but the poor fellows, anxious to stances, with the evidence submitted to impart warmth to their bedroom, and igno- them, I know not—unless it was, that rant of the effect consequent on inhaling from the manner in which Mr. Long during sleep the noxious effluvia emitted became possessed of the deadly instrufrom this charcoal, disregarded their em ment, he did not receive with it any ployer's orders, and, in his absence, conveyed “prospectus" or “ directions for use,' the stove into the room, and kindled a strong and could not therefore be said to have fire. They also, to make doubly sure their been misled by them. work of unpremeditated self-destruction, Had there not been an implied reliance, closed every aperture and crevice in the

however, upon the superior safety of the room, and, after making fast the door, retired to sleep-alas ! to wake no more. Sur

prepared charcoal,” Mr. Long would prised at their non-appearance on Saturdaycity for it, when plenty of common char.

scarcely have sent from Hackney to the morning, Mr. Long knocked at the bedroom door, and eventually, after many fruitless

coal could be had at his own door. attempts to arouse them, forced his way into Singularly enough, the very same the room, and found them, to his surprise paper from which the foregoing meand grief, in an apparently lifeless state. lancholy narrative is taken, contains in Mr. Garrod, surgeon, was promptly in at juxta-position to it, an advertisement of tendance, and pronounced Hersant to have Joyce's stoves, in which they are debeen dead some hours. The other youth, scribed as such “excellent, useful, and Long, gave faint signs of animation, though

convenient stoves, as no house should be little hope was entertained of his recovery.

without !” “ Excellent" — for suicidal Mr. Garrod and the Messrs. Toulmin, sur

purposes ; "useful"—for killing vermin; geons, were unremitting in their attentions to him, but all that medical skill could de.

convenient"-for disposing of burthenvise proved unavailing. The unfortunate

some relatives ! youth lingered until twelve o'clock at night

The most remarkable feature of the (Saturday), when he expired. Monday an

advertisement, however, is that no alluinquest was held at the Lion, Hackney, be

sion whatever is made to the “prepared fore Mr. Baker, on the bodies, and the

fuel;" which is fairly thrown overboard, above circumstances having been corrobo. by the following concluding notice :rated, a verdict of "Accidental death' was Improvements have been made by the returned."

addition of pipes or chimneys suitable for The “infernal machine” which was offices, shops, warehouses, &c., for the moving to this catastrophe, was a Harper purpose of burning coke !” and Joyce's stove of the smallest size,

In this form it ceases to be Joyce's which Mr. Long had purchased at a sale, patent stove, and becomes an Arnott's where, with other rubbish, it had been stove of the very worst description ; the brought “ to the hammer."'* The fuel

that " nearly three hundred" of these stoves are • By placards posted about town, I perceive Thursday the 3rd of February, and following day!

doomed to a similar fate at the Auction Mart on


101 worst as regards economy of fuel and machines ; while there are innumerable production of heat, and also as regards chimneys to which the former is wholly its liability to those accidents for which inapplicable, that may, nevertheless, be this kind of stove has obtained an unen very effectually cleansed by Glass's maviable notoriety.

chine; among the other advantages of I am, Sir, yours respectfully,

which must be enumerated, that of not WM. BADDELEY. requiring any previous provisions of pulLondon, January 27, 1842.

leys or fue doors, except in the case of flues that are perfectly horizontal and quite beyond the powers of the weighted


The pneumatic chimney-sweeping apSir,- It is with considerable reluct

paratus of Mr. Emslie is really beneath ance that I venture to express an opinion criticism; and his proposition to insert a upon the communication of Mr. J. A. damper in the upper part of the chimney, Emslie in your last number, on the sub so as to close it in case of fire, is calcujeet of mechanical chimney sweeping- lated to cause the very injury it is prodictated, as that paper seems to be, solely posed to obviate. This highly misby motives of humanity.

chievous plan is sometimes resorted to, As the whole tenor of Mr. Emslie's by covering the chimney pot with wet remarks, however, are calculated to opc- sacks, blankets, &c., and when effectually rate most prejudicially upon “ the good done invariably produces disastrous recause" which he evidently has at heart, sults. I have seen elegant rooms with I must beg leave to place the subject in every article of furniture contained therea inore correct position before your in very seriously damaged in this manner. readers.

Stopping the draft of air at the lower Mr. Emslie sets out by supposing that part of the flue, and thereby checking at present we are wholly unprovided with combustion, is highly beneficial; but closany mechanical chimney, sweeping ap ing the upper orifice and driving all the paratus of a satisfactory character; he heated air, smoke, and other products of then goes on to enumerate defects (or combustion down into the apartment, is supposed defects) of the apparatus here. productive of serious mi nief. tofore einployed for this purpose, and I am, Sir, yours respectfully, then suggests some machinery which he

WM. BADDELEY. considers adapted to produce the object London, January 31, 1842. in view –a clean chimney.

But, that Mr. Emslie names Glass's machine, I should have supposed him as

PILBROW's CONDENSING CYLINDER ENignorant of its existence, as he evidently is of its superior capabilities. The fact MR. CHEVERTON, MR. RADLEY, AND is, that to this simple, but highly efficacious machine, we may with strict justice Şir,— With your permission I will apply Mr. Emslie's own words, and say,

make a remark in answer to Mr. Chethat “a more simple, safe, and effica verton's letter, (p. 439, in your vol. cious plan for effecting the object in Xxxv.,) which long since should have view, it will be difficult to find.". been done, had I been less engaged.

In the economy of its first cost, * facility I think that Mr. Cheverton should not in use, and universality of application, as have made me “the occasion," if not well as in the cleanliness and efficiency “the subject,” of that long communicaof its operation, it leaves the suggested tion, when he admits, in the first paraplans of Mr. Emslie immeasurably be graph thereof, that “ denies it not, hind.

speaking and quoting my remarks. We There is no chimney in existence ca then both agree; and I must inform Mr. pable of being swept by the weighted Cheverton, that I have ever given a brush, that could not be swept far better, maximum of my attention and dependand with less injury, by one of Glass's ance to practice rather than to theoretical

deductions; and that when I made those • The cost of one of Glass's machines complete, 30 feet in length, is only 21. 138.; 40 feet 3i. 28.;

remarks, I merely considered that the and 50 feet, 31. llo.

data for a calculation were the subject of




N. N. L.

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philosophy, and that if these were sound, had the action of these engines laid beThe mathematics would not err in its con fore them. Mr. Radley should not theoclusions—of course, meaning, that if the rize upon the speed of the piston alone, whole of nature's laws, that were brought in reference to me and mine, but with it into action in any particular case, were

consider the steam's action and nature not considered, or any made to act a part under the piston in each engine at those that did not do so in practice, that this points. was a philosopher's error, and one that

I am, Sir, could not be attached to the mathema.

Yours respectfully, tician ; therefore that the errors, multi

JAMES PILBROW. tudinous as they are that have almost

The Green, Tottenham, choked our history of science and theory, January 24, 1842. all originated in the data or false philo P.S.--As I was going to post the above, sophy, and not in the mathematical pro I saw in your last, (No. 963,) a paper from cess. Mr. Cheverton “ denies this not;" Mr. Cheverton and N. N. L., which, with we both are, then, of the same senti your permission, I will briefly notice. ments, and as there has been enough In the passage directly referring to me, said about this matter without my assist

Mr. Cheverton uses these sentences : “Mr. ane, I shall only now thank Mr. Che

Pilbrow's entire faith in it," &c.; “the sanverton for his attention to me and mine.

guine, but deceptive expectations,” &c.; But before closing I would observe, in

not being himself, perhaps, a mathemareference to Mr. Radley's paper, that his

tician ;' blind indiscriminating admira

tion," &c. &c. &c. These various expres. opinions and his testimony are a proof of

sions are certainly not very complimentary the correctness of my theory and calcu

to me or my abilities; and as Mr. C. knows, lations, rather than, as Mr. Radley sup evidently, but little how far such are justly poses, a contradiction. I did not rest my bestowed, he should not be so free in his al. argument upon the speed of the piston lusions. Nowhere, I believe, in my papers when actually descending, but I pointedly or writings can be found any thing like “ enexpressed the fact of the pause-a pause tire faith” in the hyperbolic curve, for I that the crank engine can never partake have merely considered that my engine of. the advantages of—a pause of one or two fered the advantages of expanding the steam seconds after the eduction valve is opened

as low as should be found in practice econoto permit the steam to pass into the con

mical — not further--though that was not denser, and be condensed before the steam

said to be my object in the invention, but valve is opened. This I know to be the

merely named as a minor advantage attendfact, from accurate observation, and from

ing it.

" sanguine, but deceptive the written communication of Mr. West,

expectations,” Mr. C. should first ascertain

how sanguine I am, and next prove, or wait the engineer of Fowey Consols, which is printed in the pamphlet on my engine.

to see, how deceptive my expectations are,

before he writes so positively, for in the “ The cause, nature, and real mode of

whole of his voluminous observations, he has operation of the pause," in the best Cor not in the slightest degree affected my ennish engines, seem to me not to be very gine. The next quotation, perhaps, is a lucidly or accurately described by Mr. matter of opinion or comparison, and there. Radley, for upon the indoor stroke being fore not likely to be decided to the satisfac. completed, the equilibrium valve is tion of all parties, nor usefully to any one, opened by the termination of the action, except to myself, who am satisfied upon the and the piston immediately returns; by matter, for I find I am mathematician its approach to the top, the equilibrium

enough for all my purposes, which partake valve is shut and the eduction valve

of as much practice as theory. As to “blind opened, then one, two, or more seconds

indiscriminating admiration," I can but feel transpire, (according to the quantity of

obliged to Mr. Cheverton for such a compliwater necessary to be pumped,) before

ment to my discretion and discernment, the cataract or time-divider releases the

though I did not know that I had, in my

late observations upon the subject which steam valve, and thus permits its opening, when the vacuum is already formed

gave rise to such discussion, so shown my

inability and ignorance. as I have stated.

How Mr. Radley can In answer to N. N. L.'s lst point, I beg doubt the utility of the pause, or even to say that it is so, or we should alter the suppose it an evil, I must leave your power of an engine by altering the stroke, readers to judge, who so frequently have though the consumption of the steam and all

As to my

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