Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes
Originally a chapter in the "Handbook of Political Science," this analysis develops the fundamental destinction between totalitarian and authoritarian systems. It emphasizes the personalistic, lawless, non-ideological type of authoritarian rule the author calls the "sultanistic regime."
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active allow analysis appeal army attempt authoritarian regimes authority basis become bureaucratic central certainly character characteristics characterized citizens civil commitment communist comparative competitive complex concept considered contrast contributed countries created crisis cultural decisions democracy democratic described distinctive dominant economic effort elections elements elite emergence emphasis established Europe example fact fascist forces forms formulated function Germany greater groups historical ideas ideological important initial institutions intellectual interests Italy lead leaders leadership less liberal limited Marxism mass military mobilization movement Nazi nondemocratic noted officers opposition organizations participation particularly party pluralism policies political systems population position possible Press problems question represent result role rule rulers sectors single party social society Soviet Union stability structure success term terror tion totalitarian systems traditional transition ultimately University variety